Browsing by Subject "sitoutuneisuus"

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  • Vierikko, Annika (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    The aim of the study: The preschool education of mathematics has been studied fairly little. However, the earlier studies have showed that mathematical education in preschool has failed to compensate the differences in mathematical skills of the pre-schoolers. The aim of this study was to find out how the Varga Neményi teaching method effects in the Finnish preschool education and especially for children with problems in their learning or development. The effectiveness of the teaching method was studied from the view of children's mathematical abilities and their involvement to activity. Also children's opinions of mathematics and themselves as learners of mathematic were studied. Research method: Multiple research methods have been used in this study. The study has features of the action research. The intervention of mathematic, based on Varga Neményi-teaching method, was carried out in preschool group with children of special needs. All ten pre-schoolers participated in the research. Some of the children had need for intensified or special support. Children's skills in mathematics were studied using MAVALKA 1 – survey in the beginning and in the end of the intervention. Children's involvement to activity was observed and assessed using LIS-YC Scale also in the beginning and in the end of intervention. Children's opinions of mathematics and themselves as learners of mathematics were studied with interviews and drawings. Findings and conclusions: The engagement of children was statistically significantly higher during the mathematic lessons based on Varga Neményi- method than during the other type of preschool action. The engagement of children strengthened during the intervention both in mathematics and in other preschool activities. Children's skills in mathematics improved during the intervention. The skills in mathematics of the children with lower performance in the beginning of the intervention improved the most. The children experienced mathematics to be something functional, interactive and mainly pleasant. In the light of these findings, the Varga Neményi teaching method seems to suit well to the Finnish pre-school education, and for children with special needs.
  • Jukkala, Silja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Aims The purpose of this study is to describe the interaction between a special education teacher and a child with a developmental disability in special needs groups. The aim of the study is to find out how the teacher engages interaction with the child in different situations, and how the reciprocal interaction manifests. The study is based on theories of social interaction. Methods The ethnological approach was chosen, as the aim of the study was to describe the interaction between the teacher and child in everyday situations. The data was collected from three special needs groups in early childhood education, in the Helsinki metropolitan area. The data included 351 video recordings, about 4 hours in total. The analysis was limited to 2 hours 42 minutes of video. Data was analyzed in two steps. First the teachers´ engagement to interaction with the child was analyzed using the Suhonen's (2009) form, which is based on the AES (adult engagement scale) developed by Pascall (1995). Then the 17 video literates were analyzed with conversational analysis. The analysis focused on the elements of social interaction, teacher-child interaction initiatives, responding to initiatives and the formation of reciprocal interaction. Findings and conclusions Teachers’ engagement to interaction with the child varied according to situation. Engagement was strongest in teaching activities and weakest in care situations. Successful interaction was formed when the teachers were able to throw themselves in, enable the child's natural initiatives and succeed in recognizing and responding to them. The use of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) strengthened the interaction. Most genuine connection was formed in idle moments, when spontaneous plays formed between teacher and child. Interaction between a teacher and a child with developmental disabilities is built on the pedagogical activities of the more skilled interaction partner, the teacher. Forming a connection takes time and sensitivity in recognizing the natural interaction methods of the child.
  • Tuominen, Tea (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Objectives. The objective of the study is to find out the quality of the involvement of children with special needs in inclusive day-care group activities. The realization of participation is examined from the perspective of involvement, because by measuring involvement, information of a child’s needs and the quality of early childhood education can be obtained. Involvement is examined to obtain information of the factors that raise or lower the involvement of a child with special needs and also to find out what factors of the instructing adult’s activities affect the involvement to group activities. The hypothesis of the study is that the participation of children with special needs appears differently when early childhood special education teacher is not present in the group. Methods. The data was collected by videotaping three children with special needs in two different inclusive day-care groups in Helsinki. The whole recorded data was approximately 2 hours. The video material was observed, and the involvement of children was measured by using LIS-YC measuring scale specially designed to observe involvement. The study was conducted with qualitative and quantitative principles. The analysis method used was theory-based content analysis. Results. The results of the study show that the involvement of children with special needs who require support was highest when early childhood special education teacher lead the group activi-ties. During the leading of an early childhood education teacher, the involvement was slightly lower, but still almost as high as with the leading of an early childhood special education teacher. Only during leading of a childminder, the involvement to group activities was significantly lower. A clear connection between the activities of the adults to the involvement to group activities was recognised. Sensitive encounter, activities that actively participate the child and activities happen-ing in the zone of proximal development raised the involvement to group activities the most. Correspondingly, not responding to child’s initiatives, activities that participate the child too little, as well as too hard or too easy activities compared to the child’s skill level lowered the involve-ment. As a conclusion, the engagement of children with special needs is very dependent on the adult’s way of acting and the content of activities. The realisation of participation seems to also be connected to the adult’s educational background.
  • Mutala, Merikerttu (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Pro gradu -tutkielmassani tutkitaan Kulttuuriyhdistämö Interkult Kassandran lasten ja nuorten teatterityöpajojen ideologian ja käytännön kohtaamista. Olen pyrkinyt selvittämään, toteutuvatko interkulttuuriset tavoitteet kenttätyössä 2010-luvulla. Tutkimusmenetelminä on käytetty havainnoivaa etnografiaa ja haastattelututkimusta, jotka yhdessä selittävät toistensa aineistoja. Teoreettisessa viitekehyksessä havainnoin työpajojen toteuttamista teatterimuotojen TIE (Theatre in Education) ja DIE (Drama in Education) kautta, sekä käsittelen aineistoani interkulttuuristen teatteriteoreetikoiden näkemysten valossa. Käsittelen lisäksi monikulttuurisen nuorisoryhmän kokoamisen haasteita alan kotimaista teoriakirjallisuutta vasten. Tutkimukseni perusteella voin todeta, että interkulttuurinen ideologia toteutuu yhdistyksen toiminnassa vaihtelevasti ryhmästä riippuen. Päättelen, että interkulttuurisen teatterin onnistuminen liittyy vahvasti siihen, kuinka monikulttuurinen teatterityöpajan toimintapaikan asuinympäristö on, sillä se vaikuttaa osallistujien ryhmän koostumukseen. Jos ryhmässä ei ole monien kulttuurien edustajia, interkulttuurista teatteria ei pääse syntymään ja päinvastoin. Tutkittujen ryhmien (A, B ja C) kulttuuriset koostumukset ovat sekä homo- että heterogeenisia. Ryhmä C on ollut pilottimainen kokeilu, josta olisi tulevaisuudessa mahdollista kehittyä teatteriteoreetikkojen toivoma “kolmannen” muodon hybridiryhmä, missä osallistujien erilaisia kulttuuritaustoja tutkitaan ja sulautetaan yhteen. Interkult Kassandra haluaa kuitenkin erota tästä näkemyksestä korostamalla samanlaisuuksia ja “neutraalin tilan” tärkeyttä, missä osallistujat voivat turvallisesti käsitellä itse valitsemiaan aiheita. Turvapaikanhakijoiden lisääntyessä Suomessa teatteri voisi toimia hyvänä kohtaamispaikkana kantasuomalaisille ja uusille maahanmuuttajille. Interkult Kassandran suurin haaste on osallistujien sitouttaminen, mikä on vahvasti sidoksissa onnistuneeseen vanhempaintyöhön, jota yhdistys edistää vanhempien kohtaamisten avulla. Tärkein Interkult Kassandran teatterityöpajatoiminnan tavoite on auttaa nuoria rakentamaan tervettä identiteettiä ja positiivista minäkuvaa.
  • Vaalasranta, Merja (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Involvement measures the quality of activity. By evaluating a child's involvement in an activity, we can gain information about how the child experiences the activity. According to previous research, children who are involved in an activity are working at the limits of their abilities. The purpose of this study is to establish how preschoolers are involved and perform in cognitive tasks and furthermore, whether involvement in a task is related to task performance. This research was conducted as a case study. The research material consists of video footage and documents gathered 2008 in Vantaa as part of Laulua arjessa, a project by the University of Helsinki on promoting children's emotional well-being in daycare centers. The subjects of the study are three preschool girls from the same daycare preschool group. The video material consists of the girls performing cognitive tasks. These tasks were selected from NEPSY ll, a neuropsychological test for children ages 3-16. The documents consist of the girls' task papers, ten from each girl. The video material was analyzed using the Leuven Involvement Scale for Young Children (LIS-YC). The cognitive tasks were scored in accordance with NEPSY ll guidelines. The present study found variation in involvement between the preschool girls. The involvement of the first girl included a multitude of intense periods and occasional persistent periods. The second girl managed periods of intense involvement in one task, but was only involved to some extent in the others. The third girl's involvement was somewhat divided between periods of sustained and intense involvement, with emphasis on intense and even persistent periods. The overall performance of one of the girls was mostly good. The other two girls performed relatively poorly in two of the four tasks. One of the girls displayed a relation between involvement and performance in all of the tasks and one task in particular, while another girl showed no such relation, but performed mostly well. And in one girl's case, the relation between involvement and performance was evident in one task. With preschoolers, the quality of the task is relevant to task involvement.
  • Salmivaara, Laura (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Sitoutuneisuus on yksi keskeisistä kuluttajan valintoja selittävistä käsitteistä. Sen nähdään heijastavan yksilön tuntemaa kiinnostuksen määrää kohteeseen (Mitchell 1979). Tämän pro gradu -tutkielman tavoitteena oli tuottaa luomumarkkinoiden toimijoille tietoa kuluttajien sitoutuneisuudesta luomuun. Tutkimuksen pääongelmia olivat: (1) Minkälaisia eri kuluttajaryhmiä ostokäyttäytymisen perusteella voidaan löytää? (2) Miten sitoutuneisuuden ulottuvuudet painottuvat kuluttajaryhmien sitoutuneisuusprofiileissa? Kuluttajien sitoutuneisuutta tarkasteltiin Kapferer ja Laurent (1985a) sitoutuneisuusmallin viiden ulottuvuuden kautta. Ulottuvuuksia ovat kiinnostus/merkitys, nautinto, symboliarvo, riskin (virheellisen oston) tärkeys sekä riskin toteutumisen todennäköisyys. Tässä tutkielmassa käytetty aineisto kuuluu laajempaan luomusitoutuneisuutta ja luomutietoisuutta koskevaan, vuonna 2011 alkaneeseen tutkimukseen. Taloustutkimus Oy toteutti kyselyn kesäkuussa 2012 sähköisenä kyselynä. Aineiston analyysimenetelminä käytettiin suoria jakaumia, ristiintaulukointia, varianssianalyysiä ja monimuuttujamenetelmiä (faktorianalyysiä ja ryhmittelyanalyysiä). Ryhmittelyanalyysiä käyttäen vastaajista tunnistettiin luomutuotteiden käytön perusteella viisi erilaista käyttäjäryhmää. Jotta näiden ryhmien luomusitoutuneisuusprofiilit saatiin näkyviin, tehtiin faktorianalyysi sekä toinen ryhmittelyanalyysi. Näissä hyödynnettiin sitoutuneisuutta mittaavia muuttujia (lomakkeen 15 luomun sitoutuneisuusväitettä). Tuloksena saadut kuluttajaryhmät ja näiden luomusitoutuneisuusprofiilit olivat seuraavanlaiset: Ensimmäisessä ryhmässä olivat kuluttajat, jotka käyttävät luomutuotteita jokaisesta tuoteryhmästä (N=37). Heillä painottuivat luomusitoutuneisuusprofiilissa kiinnostus/nautinto ja symboliarvo. Toisen ryhmän kuluttajat käyttivät luomutuotteita laajalti, lukuun ottamatta prosessoituja tuotteita (N=31). Heidän luomusitoutuneisuusprofiilissaan painottui kiinnostus/nautinto. Kolmannen ryhmän kuluttajat käyttivät prosessoimattomia ja vain vähän prosessoituja tuotteita (N=60). Näillä kuluttajilla sitoutuneisuusprofiilissa painottuivat kiinnostus ja riski. Neljännen ryhmän kuluttajat käyttivät vain prosessoimattomia luomutuotteita (N=94). Tähän ryhmään kuuluvilla painottuivat luomusitoutuneisuudessa riskin tärkeys ja riskin toteutumisen todennäköisyys. Viidennen ryhmän kuluttajat käyttivät luomutuotteita harvoin ja jos käyttivät, niin prosessoimattomia luomutuotteita (N=85). Näillä kuluttajilla luomusitoutuneisuudessa painottuivat välinpitämättömyys sekä riskin olemattomuus.
  • Malmström, Sanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    Children's involvement is a key quality factor in Early Years Education. As a process variable it concentrates on children's actions and experiences. The involved children are operating in their zone of proximal development. The aim of this study was to find out how the children involved themselves in the Finnish day care centres. The problems of the study were: (1) how the children are involved in different situations between the hours 8.00 and 12.00, (2) how do the skills of children whose involvement level is high differ from the skills of children whose involvement level is low and (3) how do the learning environments of the children whose involvement level is high differ from the learning environments of the children whose involvement level is low? The research method was observation and children's involvement levels were assessed using LIS-YC Scale. In addition, the kindergarten teachers evaluated the children's skills and the team workers did the evaluations of the educational settings. The data used in this study was a part of the 'Orientaation lähteillä' research. The 802 children, who took part in the study, were from 48 different groups of eight different municipalities in Central Uusimaa. There were 18358 observations of children's involvement and the quantitative data was analyzed using correlation, cross tabulation and t-test. Children's involvement was an average at a moderate level. The involvement levels were the highest during playing time and adult guided tasks and lowest during eating and basic care situations. The level of involvement was higher if the children were adaptable, proactive, self-motivated and good players. The involvement lever was lower if the children needed some special care. The children's involvement is supported if the educators had at least once a week a meeting and if children's confidence and identity construction was frequently considered in educational discussions. Furthermore, the appreciation of the ethical issues and positive atmosphere appeared to confirm the involvement. The children's involvement is decreased if the educators had been perpetually short of time or resources or there has been lack of joy and humour in the group.
  • Hietanen, Jenny (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The Act on Early Childhood Education and care, 540/2018, obliges that early childhood education is systematic, target-oriented and pedagogically focused. The updated law determines for the first time of the principles regarding the organizing of the round-the-clock kindergartens. Previous studies show that it is necessary to study nonstandard childcare both nationally and internationally. During this study, data is collected for the first time, by using the Progressive Feedback-tool in an observation study carried out in the evening hours. Objectives. In Finland, 7% of all children participating in early childhood education are placed in round-the-clock kindergartens. The aim of this study is to find out what happens in the round-the-clock kindergartens during the day. The second aim of the study is to find out how much and what kind of activities are carried out in the round-the clock kindergartens at evenings. The third aim is to find out how it would be possible to increase children's commitment to activities in the round-the-clock kindergartens at evenings. Methods. The dissertation was conducted as a part of the Progressive Feedback-method. The data were collected in five round-the clock kindergartens in Kouvola, during the autumn of year 2019. The data collection method was observation. Five trained observers participated in the data collection. 1146 observational data were collected. The data were analyzed with statistical methods by using the SPSS 25 for MacOS software. Outcomes and conclusions. The study indicated that in the evenings, the children mainly play with different items and they are committed to these activities. The proportion of target-oriented activities in the round-the-clock kindergartens was small (5,8%) in the evening and the adults functioned mainly neutrally. Commitment to various tasks in the evening was intensive, but there were only few tasks occurring in the evenings. Children engage in activities more intensively when also adults participate in them. In learning´s perspective the most valuable activity in the kindergarten appears to be playing that is supported by an adult. Evening activities differ from the activities carried out in the mornings.
  • Nikkola, Teemu (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    It has been found usually to talk in the early childhood education in connection with the creativity about arts and skills and about play. In this treatise, the creativity is approached besides play but also from the point of view of the creativity of the everyday. The starting point for the study is the view according to which the creativity is complex interaction between a creative person and an environment. The theoretical body of the study is the Componential theory of creativity of Amabile (1996). The process which is open and product which is new and suitable or acceptable were defined creative. In the opinion of many researchers, the creativity is a phenomenon that has determined in a certain time and place so the creativity is examined from the point of view of the social constructionism. As creative processes in the day nursery it has been defined pretend play, child's involvement and children's agentive perception which is based on the Children's agentive perception theory of Reunamo (2007). The purpose of the study is to clarify how the child's personal factors and the social environment affect the creative processes of children in the day nursery. This Master's thesis is based on the Children's agentive perception uncovered study led by Jyrki Reunamo (2010) which was carried out in the spring of 2010 in Keski-Uusimaa and in Hämeenlinna and Taiwan. From the study, a name has also been used "on the sources of Orientation", a research project and development project. The study includes the children's evaluation sector, the observation sector, the children's interview sector and the evaluation sector of the pedagogic environment. 891 Children 1-7 year-old by age participated in the study. All the sectors which belong to the study of Reunamo were utilized in this treatise and the Finnish day nurseries or preschool groups which had participated in the study were marked off as the target group. The main component analysis, sum variables, the correlation coefficients, Mann-Whitney's U-test and Kruskall-Wallas test were used for the statistical examination of the quantitative material. In this treatise it was noticed, both the personal properties of the child and a social environment, that they affected all the examined creative processes which also had a significant connection with each other statistically. The definition of creativity was filled best by the participative answers. However, the number of the participative answers was only 8% in the questions concerning adults. That raised the question whether an attempt should be made to have effect so that the children's better participation also in the interaction with the adults would be possible in the educational culture of the day nursery. In the further study, the conscious building of the social environment which supports the creativity from a social constructionism point of view could indeed be an interesting task. The treatise is suitable for an examination of the interaction between the child's person and a social environment especially from the point of view of the creativity.