Browsing by Subject "skills"

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  • Koota, Elina; Kääriäinen, Maria; Kyngäs, Helvi; Lääperi, Mitja; Melender, Hanna-Leena (2021)
    Background Emergency care clinicians are expected to use the latest research evidence in practice. However, emergency nurses do not always consistently implement evidence-based practice (EBP). An educational intervention on EBP was implemented to promote emergency nurses' use of EBP, and the effectiveness of it was evaluated. Aims This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an EBP educational intervention on emergency nurses' EBP attitudes, knowledge, self-efficacy, skills, and behavior. The study also examined learners' satisfaction with the EBP educational intervention. Methods A randomized controlled trial with parallel groups with evaluations before the education, immediately after it, and 6 and 12 months after the education was conducted at four emergency departments in two university hospitals. The experimental group (N = 40) received EBP education while the control group (N = 40) completed self-directed EBP education. The primary outcomes were emergency nurses' EBP attitudes, knowledge, self-efficacy, skills, and behavior, while the secondary outcome was satisfaction with the EBP education. Results Thirty-five participants of an experimental and 29 participants of a control group completed the study. There were no statistically significant (p <.05) improvements and differences between groups in EBP attitude, self-efficacy, or behavior immediately after the EBP education. At the 6-month measurement point, the experimental group showed significantly better EBP attitudes, behavior, knowledge, and self-efficacy than the control group. At the 12-month measurement point, the improvements began to decrease. The groups also differed significantly in terms of participant satisfaction with how the teacher encouraged learners to ask clinical questions. Linking Evidence to Action The EBP educational intervention implemented in this study had a positive effect on emergency nurses' EBP attitudes, knowledge, self-efficacy, skills, and behavior. The effects of the education appeared the best 6 months after the education. After this point, the results began to decrease and approached baseline levels. EBP educational interventions designed for emergency nurses should apply various teaching strategies to improve their EBP attitude, knowledge, self-efficacy, skills, behavior, and satisfaction with the education.
  • Virtanen, Hennariikka (Helsingfors universitet, 2006)
    The aim of this work was to study what kind of working grips people use to knit in Finland and decide if one grip is superior to others. I investigated how knitters have adopted their grips and how they experience their knitting. I also explored whether it is possible to change one's grip. To provide a theoretical basis for the research I observed knitting in terms of culture, skill and ergonomics. The first part of the study material comprised video recordings of the grips of 95 knitters together with background information collected via a questionnaire during the education of craft teachers at the University of Helsinki in spring 2004, 2005 and 2006. Using the data obtained I focused on three knitters, whose grip of the knitting needles clearly differed from the ergonomically good grip. In addition to them I interviewed one student, who had changed over to more ergonomic way of knitting after participating in the first part of this study. In this respect my study is a several events' case study. In order to analyse my data I used both qualitative and quantitative content analysis methods to complement each other. Most of my research participants had learned to knit in first years of elementary school or comprehensive school. Almost everyone had adopted the basics of knitting by imitating, and many of them had corrected "incorrect" positions from verbal instructions. Through practice the imitated position had gradually become the style unique to each knitter. The findings showed that students' background in knitting is quite varied due to the diverse level of craft teaching. This is reflected in their knitting grips and their interest in knitting. Students do not think that there is one right working grip. The most important thing is that working seems as fluent and relaxed as possible, at which point knitting is easy and flows freely. They often consider their own style so pleasing and well-functioning that they do not think there could be any room for improvement. This study pointed out that, while it is possible to change a knitter's working grip, there is a bigger challenge in acknowledging weaknesses in one's know how. According to the results of my research, the most common working grip among Finnish knitters' corresponds with the grip that has been described as ergonomically good. Over one third of all participants knitted this way. Hands keep the knitting firmly but without tension. The forefinger that guides the yarn from the ball rests gently against the knitting needle, and the yarn goes in front of the first joint of the forefinger. The position of the hands and loops is the same as in the ergonomically good grip, i.e. the fingertips of both hands and the loops are near the tips of the knitting needles, so that the fingers only have to move small distances. When knitters purl and plain, they commonly pick up the yarn from the back of the knitting needle in the same way as when knitting. While researching the common features of working grips I have learned what abnormal grips are like. Although I recognized many different ways to knit, all the peculiar grips were modifications of the continental way of knitting. The results of this study give a clear picture of those points knitters should focus their attention on in order to gain a good hold of the needles.
  • Savela-Huovinen, Ulriikka; Toom, Auli; Knaapila, Antti; Muukkonen, Hanni (2021)
    The increase in digitalization, software applications, and computing power has widened the variety of tools with which to collect and analyze sensory data. As these changes continue to take place, examining new skills required among sensory professionals is needed. The aim with this study was to answer the following questions: (a) How did sensory professionals perceive the opportunities to utilize facial expression analysis in sensory evaluation work? (b) What skills did the sensory professionals describe they needed when utilizing facial expression analysis? Twenty-two sensory professionals from various food companies and universities were interviewed by using semistructural thematic interviews to map development intentions from facial expression recognition data as well as to describe the established skills that were needed. Participants' facial expressions were first elicited by an odor sample during a sensory evaluation task. The evaluation was video recorded to characterize a facial expression software response (FaceReader (TM)). The participants were interviewed regarding their opinions of the data analysis the software produced. The study findings demonstrate how using facial expression analysis contains personal and field-specific perspectives. Recognizability, associativity, reflectivity, reliability, and suitability were perceived as a personal perspective. From the field-specific perspective, professionals considered the received data valuable only if they had skills to interpret and utilize it. There is a need for an increase in training not only in IT, mathematics, statistics, and problem-solving, but also in skills related to self-management and ethical responsibility.
  • Ala-Poikela, Päivi (Helsingfors universitet, 1999)
    Tutkimuksessa selvitettiin teemahaastatteluiden avulla Suomen Matemaatikko- ja Fyysikkoliiton (SMFL) jäsenten käsityksiä työstä ja heidän työssä tarvitsemista kvalifikaatioista. Kvalifikaatiolla tai pätevyydellä tarkoitettiin työssä tarvittavia tietoja ja taitoja. Työllä tarkoitettiin asiantuntijoiden työtehtäviä, jonka lisäksi työtä tarkasteltiin toimintajärjestelmän käsitteen avulla huomioiden työvälineet, työn kohde sekä työhön liittyvä yhteistyö ja työnjako. Lisäksi kartoitettiin käsityksiä työssä tapahtuvista muutoksista sekä niistä seuraavista kvalifikaatiovaatimuksista. Tutkimuksen näkökulmana oli kontekstuaalisuus, mikä ilmeni tutkimuksessa mm. siten, että kvalifikaatioita ja kvalifikaatiovaatimuksia tarkasteltiin suhteessa laajempaan yhteyteen. Tutkimuksessa pyrittiin vastaamaan seuraaviin tutkimusongelmiin: 1. Mikä on jäsenten käsitys nykyisestä työstään? 1.1. Mitkä ovat jäsenten päätehtävät työssään? 1.2. Millaisia kvalifikaatioita työtehtävissä tarvitaan? 2. Millainen käsitys jäsenillä on työn muutoksesta? 2.1. Millaisia muutoksia työssä tapahtuu tulevaisuudessa? 2.2. Miten muutokset heijastuvat jäsenten kvalifikaatiovaatimuksiin? Tutkimuksessa haastateltiin 12 SMFL:n jäsentä. Tutkimusmenetelmänä oli sisällönerittely. Haastateltujen käsitykset työtehtävistään jaoteltiin kuuteen ryhmään. Työtehtävissä korostuivat mm. ennakointi, tutkimus- ja kehitystyö, atk-suunnittelu sekä esimies- ja koulutustehtävät. Haastateltujen työssä tarvitsemat kvalifikaatiot liittyivät tekniikkaan ja työvälineisiin sekä asiakkaiden ja työtovereiden kanssa toimimiseen. Lisäksi he tarvitsivat työssään ongelmanratkaisutaitoja, loogista ajattelukykyä ja tietojen soveltamistaitoa. Jäsenten käsityksissä työstä ja kvalifikaatioista heijastui asiantuntijuuden arvostaminen sekä halu toimia haastavissa ja vaihtelevissa tehtävissä. Työssä tapahtuvia muutoksia on paljon, joista selkeimmät liittyivät tekniseen muutokseen. Kaikki muutokset eivät kuitenkaan vaikuta työhön tai siinä tarvittaviin tietoihin ja taitoihin. Kvalifikaatiovaatimuksiin liittyen korostettiin erityisesti osaamisten monipuolistamista ja laajentamista ja toisaalta tietojen erikoistamista. Tiedot ja taidot vanhenevat nopeasti, minkä vuoksi jatkuva ja elinikäinen opiskelu on tärkeää.
  • Vanhala, Juuso (2001)
    This study analyses the relationship of technical progress and unemployment when technological acceleration increases capital productivity but reduces the transferability of skills between jobs. The model combines the vintage capital framework (Aghion and Howitt 1994, Mortensen and Pissarides 1998) with skill dynamics (Violante 2001), producing a framework where both physical and human capital have the vintage property, whereas previous studies consider only vintage physical capital. We investigate the effects of technical progress and skill dynamics on wage growth, job creation and destruction and equilibrium unemployment for workers with vintage specific skills and for workers with general skills. The model considers capital productivity increasing with technical progress and two dimensional skills (Violante 2001). A workers productivity in the current job increases by learning by doing, but upon changing jobs her productivity is reduced because only a fraction of skills are transferable to a job of a more recent vintage. Transferability depends on the technological distance between jobs. Acceleration in technical progress increases capital productivity in competing jobs at the technological frontier but decreases the transferability of skills to these jobs, implying an ambiguous effect on the outside option and wage growth of workers. Specificity of skills determines the effect of technical progress on wage growth, job creation and destruction and equilibrium unemployment. For workers with specific skills technical progress causes an adverse effect on the outside option and wage growth as the increase in capital productivity is offset by loss of skills upon changing jobs. When match technology is fixed and skills are specific slower wage growth implies higher profitability of jobs, longer job duration and lower equilibrium unemployment. In jobs for which updating of technology is feasible, the need to update becomes less frequent as the profitability of jobs increases. These results are the opposite to those obtained in earlier studies (Mortensen and Pissarides 1998, Pissarides 2000). When renovation is feasible, the effect of technical progress on equilibrium unemployment depends on whether only capital or both capital and workers' skills are updated. Equilibrium unemployment increases in the former case and decreases in the latter case.
  • Vähävihu, Elina (Helsingfors universitet, 2008)
    In this study the researcher wanted to show the observed connection of mathematics and textile work. To carry this out the researcher designed a textbook by herself for the upper secondary school in Tietoteollisuuden Naiset - TiNA project at Helsinki University of Technology (URL: The assignments were designed as additional teaching material to enhance and reinforce female students confidence in mathematics and in the management of their textile work. The research strategy applied action research, out of which two cycles two have been carried out. The first cycle consists of establishing the textbook and in the second cycle its usability is investigated. The third cycle is not included in this report. In the second cycle of the action research the data was collected from 15 teachers, five textile teachers, four mathematics teachers and six teachers of both subjects. They all got familiar with the textbook assignments and answered a questionnaire on the basis of their own teaching experience. The questionnaire was established by applying the theories of usability and teaching material assessment study. The data consisted of qualitative and quantitative information, which was analysed by content analysis with computer assisted table program to either qualitative or statistical description. According to the research results, the textbook assignments seamed to be applied better to mathematics lessons than textile work. The assignments pointed out, however, the clear interconnectedness of textile work and mathematics. Most of the assignments could be applied as such or as applications in the upper secondary school textile work and mathematics lessons. The textbook assignments were also applicable in different stages of the teaching process, e.g. as introduction, repetition or to support individual work or as group projects. In principle the textbook assignments were in well placed and designed in the correct level of difficulty. Negative findings concerned some too difficult assignments, lack of pupil motivation and unfamiliar form of task for the teacher. More clarity for some assignments was wished for and there was especially expressed a need for easy tasks and assignments in geometry. Assignments leading to the independent thinking of the pupil were additionally asked for. Two important improvements concerning the textbook attainability would be to get the assignments in html format over the Internet and to add a handicraft reference book.