Browsing by Subject "skola"

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  • Breitenstein, Selma (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    This Master's thesis is part of a project on marginalisation in school. The main focus of this study is to review how eighth-graders, reflect on and challenge structures of gender, gender roles, sexuality and heteronormativity in school. Although the school as an institution should be safe, inclusive and equal, structures that are problematic exist. The thesis used a feminist poststructuralist approach and gender was an important theme. The theoretical framework of the thesis described gender, sex and sexuality through both a societal perspective and a school perspective. The material for the study was collected from 2013 to 2014. The sample in this thesis consisted of 11 individual interviews and 4 group interviews with students in the eighth grade in a school in the capital area in Finland. The method of analysis was qualitative content analysis. How students challenge gender roles, heteronormativity and sexuality is something that there is not much research about. Hence, it was central to analyse what kind of structures exist in the school. It emerged that the students have to put up with stereotypical gender roles, threats of violence, appearance requirements, offensive name-calling, and a pressure to select a suitable hobby. Boys behave violently towards girls to a greater extent than the other way around. The results also indicate that the school is a very unsafe place for students with a non-heterosexual orientation. In school there is in general very little discussion about heteronormativity and sexuality. There were students in school who challenged the norms. There was a group of girls that explicitly challenged the structures. They questioned girl- and boy colours, and that educational materials, practices and environments in the school were heteronormative and gender-divided. Although there has been a change from previous research in that students are challenging structures, results indicate that gender roles and heteronormative structures still exist in school, which is problematic. Overall the thesis demonstrates that it is very hard to be a student in the eighth grade today. Bullying and excluding structures in school are common. The schools should actively review their own practices. Students who challenge the structures give hope to that despite everything, small changes in the everyday life in school are possible.
  • Wikholm, Pia Karoliina (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    Besides the knowledge-based learning, the school plays a central role in students' identity formation. The study aims to analyze girls' appearance and style related options in the ninth grade in a Swedish-speaking high school, and to examine how this is connected with identity formation. The research questions are: How do girls use clothing and style related choices in shaping their own identity? What aspects of appearance do the girls perceive as important in school? What affects one's own style? The study was ethnographic, the collection of data began in the autumn of 2010 and lasted until spring 2011. The core of the material for this study consists of a diary project conducted with 12 girls in grade nine. Semi-structured interviews were carried out based on the diaries. A thirteenth girl further contributed in an interview, though lacking the diary. The material has been analyzed with the use of thematic analysis, as well as content analysis regarding the images in the diaries, and partly also discourse analysis. The theoretical perspectives set out for the study examines issues concerning the perception of girls' roles, positions and importance in girlhood studies, youth studies and in the public discourse. The issue of different interpretations and definitions of girlhood is also outlined in the study. The matter of status groups' influences in schools in terms of inclusion and exclusion for the yet accurate and vague, but unspoken rules existing within the school creates a framework for this study. This set of codes often takes place beyond the actual teaching. The identity in relation to clothing and style in both the school and the students' private life, is seen as a complex network, where social class, gender, friends, media, popular culture and status group membership, all have an impact on the individual. Identity is created and shaped through interplay with others. When the individuality and uniqueness are compounded with the social mechanisms of fashion, the individual faces a struggle of standing out or fitting in. The classic sociologically orientated ideas of fashion and taste are of great importance in this study, since social class plays a significant role in terms of clothes, style and identity. The result of the study clearly shows that the school has a central role in girls' identity making, where questions about self-identification, group identity and alienation constantly are present. The girls' construction of style took place in an interaction between the school and other elements, such as friends, family, home and spare time activities. One of the key findings in the study is the dualism which prevailed in the matter of the girls balancing between fitting in with the crowd and the urge to be unique, constantly confronted with the peer pressure that was present in school. As their biggest source of inspiration for their own style the girls' mentioned fashion blogs, music, magazines, television shows, friends and oneself. The diaries functioned as a space where the girls could reflect upon different notions about girlhood through literary and visual expression. The diaries conveyed opportunities in showing the contrasts and the complexity in being a girl. Also, the study exhorts for further discussion according to the use of creative and multidisciplinary approaches to the field for educational research. The girls' use of clothing and style as means of expression embodied meanings, dreams, fantasies, and worked as extensions of their identity. This study shows that there is a certain style among the girls that is considered typical for Swedish-speaking Finns. The style has been influenced by upper class style, with roots in the more exclusive sports and recreational activities such as golf and sailing. The style influenced by the upper class, were considered worth striving for. The girls willingly bought certain garments and accessories, which can be seen as a form of symbolic capital. The need for conformity was vital and few students differed radically with regard to their appearances in the school. The study seeks to demonstrate the importance of the identity formation processes taking place in schools. The identity formation processes are essential in the lives of young people. Therefore, it would be important to consider both the problems and opportunities that exist in these identity making processes, and also to include them to a larger extent to the everyday life in schools.
  • Ranki, Marianne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Purpose. When a child in Finland is diagnosed with cancer, and being treated at the hospital, the school education is provided by the hospital school. Later, education is arranged by the child’s own school. The most common arrangement is that one or more of the pupil’s own teachers visits the child at home, because the child cannot attend regular school because of the high infection risk. Earlier studies show that in a situation like this, school becomes an essential element for the child’s quality of life. The aim of this research is to describe, analyze and interpret how teachers have experienced the interactions and eventual tensions between different cooperation partners in a situation when they have a child with cancer in their class. Threory and methods. This research was conducted as a qualitative study with a phenomenographic research approach and is based on six semi-structured interviews of teachers in Finnish and Swedish-speaking primary schools in three municipalities in Finland. The material was analyzed by using thematic analysis and with activity theory as a theoretical framework. Results and conclusions. Teachers showed a genuine interest in helping the pupils and ful-filled their work with much pride and a sense of responsibility. They saw that the overall health of the pupil and keeping up the social contacts with the rest of the class was more im-portant than academic performances. The teachers had very different experiences of how they needed and obtained support from their principal and colleagues. One of the most im-portant resources for the teachers was the pupil’s family, while there was almost no other cooperation with other partners outside the school. The overall experiences of the education with special arrangements were good. The identified tensions between partners occurred mostly because of lack of open communication and knowledge.
  • Petas, Roh (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Utgångspunkten för denna studie är att undersöka hur olika förståelser av jämställdhet skapas inom en skolkontext. Vilka faktorer och teman kopplas till jämställdhet, hur motiveras det och vad innebär det för det praktiska jämställdhetsarbetet i skolan? Forskningen tar sin utgångspunkt i forskning och utredningar av t.ex. Jukka Lehtonen, Sari Manninen och Ritva Jakku-Sihvonen samt Hälsa i skola-enkäter för att förtydliga den finländska skolkontexten ur ett jämställdhetsperspektiv. Som teoretiska begrepp används bland annat Lombardos, Meiers och Verloos termer för hur begreppet jämställdhet fixeras, töjs ut, krymps och böjs för att förklara hur olika förståelser av jämställdhet skapas. Det empiriska materialet utgörs av Jämställdhet i lärande. Ett studiepaket kring könsperspektiv i lärande inom skola och småbarnsfostran, ett materialpaket riktat till skolor för att stödja dem i deras jämställdhetsarbete. Materialet består av texter, videor samt praktiska övningar och hänvisar även till material och forskning som är producerat av andra aktörer. Metoden för denna forskning utgörs av socialsemiotik och specifikt Lubomir Doležels fyra modaliteter och begreppet möjlig värld. Forskningens resultat visar att modaliteterna överlappar varandra i stor grad, vilket synliggör att jämställdhet är en komplicerad och mångfacetterad fråga. Jämställdhet är inte enbart en fråga om attityder och värderingar eftersom välmenade åtgärder kan slå bakut och ha kontraproduktiva följder om det saknas kunskap och medvetenhet om jämställdhet. Detta överlapp bland modaliteterna visar också att materialet argumenterar för jämställdhet genom olika logiker och att jämställdhet därmed även är någonting genomgripande i skolverksamheten. De fyra främsta teman som synliggörs i analysen är 1) skolors behov av mera kunskap om jämställdhet; 2) medvetenhet om ens egen delaktighet i skapandet av o/jämställdhet; och behovet av 3) normkritiska samt 4) intersektionella perspektiv på både jämställdhet och det praktiska jämställdhetsarbetet. Resultaten visar att kompetenshöjande utbildningar behövs i skolan, att flera maktordningar än kön behöver tas i beaktande i skolornas jämställdhetsarbete samt att skolpersonal behöver tillfällen för att reflektera över och diskutera sin inställning till könsnormer och jämställdhet.