Browsing by Subject "sleep disorders"

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  • FinnGen; Broberg, Martin; Karjalainen, Juha; Ollila, Hanna M. (2021)
    Study Objective: Insomnia has been linked to acute and chronic pain conditions; however, it is unclear whether such relationships are causal. Recently, a large number of genetic variants have been discovered for both insomnia and pain through genome-wide association studies (GWASs) providing a unique opportunity to examine the evidence for causal relationships through the use of the Mendelian randomization paradigm. Methods: To elucidate the causality between insomnia and pain, we performed bidirectional Mendelian randomization analysis in FinnGen, where clinically diagnosed ICD-10 categories of pain had been evaluated. In addition, we used measures of self-reported insomnia symptoms. We used endpoints for pain in the FinnGen Release 5 (R5) (N = 218,379), and a non-overlapping sample for insomnia (UK Biobank (UKBB) and 23andMe, N = 1,331,010 or UKBB alone N = 453,379). We assessed the robustness of results through conventional Mendelian randomization sensitivity analyses. Results: Genetic liability to insomnia symptoms increased the odds of reporting pain (odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] = 1.47 [1.38-1.58], p = 4.12 x 10(-28)). Manifested pain had a small effect on increased risk for insomnia (OR [95% CI] = 1.04 [1.01-1.07], p < 0.05). Results were consistent in sensitivity analyses. Conclusions: Our findings support a bidirectional causal relationship between insomnia and pain. These data support a further clinical investigation into the utility of insomnia treatment as a strategy for pain management and vice versa.
  • Paunio, Tiina; Korhonen, Tellervo; Hublin, Christer; Partinen, Markku; Harkonmäki, Karoliina; Koskenvuo, Markku; Kaprio, Jaakko (2014)
    BACKGROUND: Disturbed sleep is associated with mood disorders. Both depression and insomnia may increase the risk of disability retirement. The longitudinal links among insomnia, depression and work incapacity are poorly known. METHODS: We examined association of self-reported sleep quality with incident symptoms of depression and disability retirement due to depressive disorders in a longitudinal population-based sample of twins (n=12,063 individuals). These adults were categorized by their sleep quality in 1975 and 1981, excluding individuals with depressed mood in 1975/1981. The outcomes were the Beck Depression Inventory (BDItot) and its subscale Negative Attitudes Towards Self (BDINATS) in 1990 as dichotomized measures, and the incidence of disability retirement due to depressive disorder during 1991-2004. RESULTS: Onset of poor sleep between 1975 and 1981 predicted incident depression (BDItot OR=4.5, 95% CI: 2.7-7.4, BDINATS OR=2.0, 95% CI: 1.4-2.7), while persistent poor sleep showed somewhat weaker effects (BDItot; OR=2.5, 95% CI: 1.0-6.0, BDINATS OR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.1-3.3). Among those with few recent stressful life events, onset of poor sleep predicted strongly depression (BDINATS OR=9.5, 95% CI: 3.7-24.2). Likewise onset of poor sleep by 1981 increased the risk of disability retirement due to depression (OR=2.9, 95% CI: 1.8-4.9) with a similar risk among those with persistent poor sleep (OR=2.7, 95% CI: 1.3-5.7). LIMITATIONS: Lack of baseline diagnostic interviews; sleep quality based on self-report. CONCLUSIONS: Poor sleep is of importance in etiology of depression and disability retirement due to depression. This emphasizes the importance of early detection and treatment of sleep disturbances.
  • Lindholm, Pauliina; Lamusuo, Salla; Taiminen, Tero; Virtanen, Arja; Pertovaara, Antti; Forssell, Heli; Hagelberg, Nora; Jaaskelainen, Satu (2016)
    Background: Mechanisms underlying alleviation of neuropathic pain by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of primary motor cortex (M1) and right secondary somatosensory cortex (S2) are only partly known. Patients with chronic neuropathic pain often have comorbidities like depression and sleep problems. Through functional connectivity, rTMS of M1 and S2 may activate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the target for treating depression with rTMS. Thus, the analgesic effect of rTMS could be mediated indirectly via improvement of psychiatric comorbidities or sleep. We examined whether rTMS has an independent analgesic effect or whether its clinical benefits depend on effects on mood or sleep. We also evaluated if comorbid psychiatric or sleep disorders predict the treatment outcome. Methods: Sixteen patients with chronic drug-resistant neuropathic orofacial pain participated in this randomized controlled crossover rTMS study. Patients' psychiatric history was evaluated by a specialist in psychiatry. Intensity and interference of pain, mood, and the quality of sleep and life were evaluated at baseline and after 2 active (primary somatosensory cortex [S1]/M1 and S2) and placebo rTMS treatments. A logistic regression analysis was done to investigate predictors of treatment outcome. Results: The analgesic effect of the right S2 stimulation was not associated with improvement of psychiatric conditions or sleep, whereas S1 /M1 stimulation improved sleep without significant analgesic effect (P=0.013-0.0/16 in sleep scores). Psychiatric and sleep disorders were more common in patients than in the general population (P=0.000-0.001 in sleep scores), but these comorbidities did not predict the rTMS treatment outcome. Conclusion: We conclude that rTMS to the right S2 does not exert its beneficial analgesic effects in chronic neuropathic orofacial pain via indirect improvement of comorbid psychiatric or sleep disorders.