Browsing by Subject "sleep"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 30
  • Dumuid, Dorothea; Stanford, Tyman E.; Pedisic, Zeljko; Maher, Carol; Lewis, Lucy K.; Martin-Fernandez, Josep-Antoni; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Fogelholm, Mikael; Standage, Martyn; Tremblay, Mark S.; Olds, Timothy (2018)
    Background: Daily activity data are by nature compositional data. Accordingly, they occupy a specific geometry with unique properties that is different to standard Euclidean geometry. This study aimed to estimate the difference in adiposity associated with isotemporal reallocation between daily activity behaviours, and to compare the findings from compositional isotemporal subsitution to those obtained from traditional isotemporal substitution. Methods: We estimated the differences in adiposity (body fat%) associated with reallocating fixed durations of time (isotemporal substitution) between accelerometer-measured daily activity behaviours (sleep, sedentary time and light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) among 1728 children aged 9-11 years from Australia, Canada, Finland and the UK (International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment, 2011-2013).We generated estimates from compositional isotemporal substitution models and traditional non-compositional isotemporal substitution models. Results: Both compositional and traditional models estimated a positive (unfavourable) difference in body fat% when time was reallocated from MVPA to any other behaviour. Unlike traditional models, compositional models found the differences in estimated adiposity (1) were not necessarily symmetrical when an activity was being displaced, or displacing another (2) were not linearly related to the durations of time reallocated, and (3) varied depending on the starting composition. Conclusion: The compositional isotemporal model caters for the constrained and therefore relative nature of activity behaviour data and enables all daily behaviours to be included in a single statistical model. The traditional model treats data as real variables, thus the constrained nature of time is not accounted for, nor reflected in the findings. Findings from compositional isotemporal substitution support the importance of MVPA to children's health, and suggest that while interventions to increase MVPA may be of benefit, attention should be directed towards strategies to avoid decline in MVPA levels, particularly among already inactive children. Future applications of the compositional model can extend from pair-wise reallocations to other configurations of time-reallocation, for example, increasing MVPA at the expense of multiple other behaviours.
  • Dumuid, Dorothea; Stanford, Tyman E; Pedišić, Željko; Maher, Carol; Lewis, Lucy K; Martín-Fernández, Josep-Antoni; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Fogelholm, Mikael; Standage, Martyn; Tremblay, Mark S; Olds, Timothy (BioMed Central, 2018)
    Abstract Background Daily activity data are by nature compositional data. Accordingly, they occupy a specific geometry with unique properties that is different to standard Euclidean geometry. This study aimed to estimate the difference in adiposity associated with isotemporal reallocation between daily activity behaviours, and to compare the findings from compositional isotemporal subsitution to those obtained from traditional isotemporal substitution. Methods We estimated the differences in adiposity (body fat%) associated with reallocating fixed durations of time (isotemporal substitution) between accelerometer-measured daily activity behaviours (sleep, sedentary time and light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) among 1728 children aged 9–11 years from Australia, Canada, Finland and the UK (International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment, 2011–2013). We generated estimates from compositional isotemporal substitution models and traditional non-compositional isotemporal substitution models. Results Both compositional and traditional models estimated a positive (unfavourable) difference in body fat% when time was reallocated from MVPA to any other behaviour. Unlike traditional models, compositional models found the differences in estimated adiposity (1) were not necessarily symmetrical when an activity was being displaced, or displacing another (2) were not linearly related to the durations of time reallocated, and (3) varied depending on the starting composition. Conclusion The compositional isotemporal model caters for the constrained and therefore relative nature of activity behaviour data and enables all daily behaviours to be included in a single statistical model. The traditional model treats data as real variables, thus the constrained nature of time is not accounted for, nor reflected in the findings. Findings from compositional isotemporal substitution support the importance of MVPA to children’s health, and suggest that while interventions to increase MVPA may be of benefit, attention should be directed towards strategies to avoid decline in MVPA levels, particularly among already inactive children. Future applications of the compositional model can extend from pair-wise reallocations to other configurations of time-reallocation, for example, increasing MVPA at the expense of multiple other behaviours.
  • Rozov, Stanislav V.; Zant, Janneke; Gurevicius, Kestutis; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Panula, Pertti (2016)
    Aim: Under natural conditions diurnal rhythms of biological processes of the organism are synchronized with each other and to the environmental changes by means of the circadian system. Disturbances of the latter affect hormonal levels, sleep-wakefulness cycle and cognitive performance. To study mechanisms of such perturbations animal models subjected to artificial photoperiods are often used. The goal of current study was to understand the effects of circadian rhythm disruption, caused by a short light-dark cycle regime, on activity of the cerebral cortex in rodents. Methods: We used electroencephalogram to assess the distribution of vigilance states, perform spectral analysis, and estimate the homeostatic sleep drive. In addition, we analyzed spontaneous locomotion of C57BL/6J mice under symmetric, 22-, 21-, and 20-h-long light-dark cycles using video recording and tracking methods. Results and Conclusions: We found that shortening of photoperiod caused a significant increase of slow wave activity during non-rapid eye movement sleep suggesting an elevation of sleep pressure under such conditions. While the rhythm of spontaneous locomotion was completely entrained by all light-dark cycles tested, periodic changes in the power of the theta- and gamma-frequency ranges during wakefulness gradually disappeared under 22- and 21-h-long light-dark cycles. This was associated with a significant increase in the theta-gamma phase-amplitude coupling during wakefulness. Our results thus provide deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying the impairment of learning and memory retention, which is associated with disturbed circadian regulation.
  • Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Weippert, Madyson; LeBlanc, Allana G.; Hjorth, Mads F.; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Tremblay, Mark S.; Barreira, Tiago V.; Broyles, Stephanie T.; Fogelholm, Mikael; Hu, Gang; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Kurpad, Anura; Lambert, Estelle V.; Maher, Carol; Maia, Jose; Matsudo, Victor; Olds, Timothy; Onywera, Vincent; Sarmiento, Olga L.; Standage, Martyn; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Zhao, Pei; Sjodin, Anders M.; ISCOLE Res Grp (2016)
    In order to verify if the full moon is associated with sleep and activity behaviors, we used a 12-country study providing 33,710 24-h accelerometer recordings of sleep and activity. The present observational, cross-sectional study included 5812 children ages 9-11 years from study sites that represented all inhabited continents and wide ranges of human development (Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Finland, India, Kenya, Portugal, South Africa, United Kingdom, and United States). Three moon phases were used in this analysis: full moon (4 days; reference), half moon (5-9 days), and new moon (+10-14 days) from nearest full moon. Nocturnal sleep duration, moderate -to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light-intensity physical activity (LPA), and total sedentary time (SED) were monitored over seven consecutive days using a waist -worn accelerometer worn 24 h a day. Only sleep duration was found to significantly differ between moon phases (-5 min/night shorter during full moon compared to new moon). Differences in MVPA, LPA, and SED between moon phases were negligible and non-significant (
  • Tan, Xiao; Alen, Markku; Wang, Kun; Tenhunen, Jarkko; Wiklund, Petri; Partinen, Markku; Cheng, Sulin (2016)
    Growing evidence suggests that diet alteration affects sleep, but this has not yet been studied in adults with insomnia symptoms. We aimed to determine the effect of a six-month diet intervention on sleep among overweight and obese (Body mass index, BMI >= 25 kg/m(2)) men with chronic insomnia symptoms. Forty-nine men aged 30-65 years with chronic insomnia symptoms were randomized into diet (n = 28) or control (n = 21) groups. The diet group underwent a six-month individualized diet intervention with three face-to-face counseling sessions and online supervision 1-3 times per week; 300-500 kcal/day less energy intake and optimized nutrient composition were recommended. Controls were instructed to maintain their habitual lifestyle. Sleep parameters were determined by piezoelectric bed sensors, a sleep diary, and a Basic Nordic sleep questionnaire. Compared to the controls, the diet group had shorter objective sleep onset latency after intervention. Within the diet group, prolonged objective total sleep time, improved objective sleep efficiency, lower depression score, less subjective nocturnal awakenings, and nocturia were found after intervention. In conclusion, modest energy restriction and optimized nutrient composition shorten sleep onset latency in overweight and obese men with insomnia symptoms.
  • Hietaoja, Juha (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    The heart rate of an individual varies all the time. This phenomenon is called heart rate variability. Both respiration and physical activity induce variations in heart rate. Heart rate variability can be assessed by studying electrical changes in the heart cycle. Electrical changes can be monitored by measuring ECG (electrocardiography). The main target of this study was to find out cow’s normal heart rate variability while they were awake, ruminating or sleeping. For this study, the heart rate of nine cows was recorded as well as their behavior during that time. Cows were monitored while they were sleeping, ruminating, standing or lying down. Four of the cows were from Finland and five of them from Sweden. From those nine cows, 543 one minute samples were obtained. This was the first time that cow’s heart rate was studied during their sleep cycle. The cows were not stressed in any way and their autonomic nervous system was not affected by drugs. One minute samples were analyzed. Samples were gathered by using a Matlab-based computer program, CowSS. All samples were checked visually, and all errors, for instance missing S-peaks or the errors caused by timing, were corrected. Statistical analysis was made by using a linear mixed effects model. According to the analysis, the best way to represent a cow’s heart rate variability is to use RMSSD-value. RMSSD-value describes the variations of adjacent intervals in different recordings. The result of this study show that during sleep the heart rate and the heart variability of cows are different from humans´. Cows´ sleep periods (NREM- and REM-sleep) are shorter and during REM-sleep the parasympathetic toning is stronger in cows. Cow is herbivore and prey for many predators, which may well explain the dominance of the parasympathetic system. Parasympathetic toning works faster than sympathetic toning, and this may give the cow a better chance to escape.
  • Kataja, Mikko (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Tutkielmassa on tarkoitus selvittää, minkälainen yhteys on liikunnan ja unen määrällä sekä näiden yhteisvaikutuksella viskeraalisen, ihonalaisen ja maksan rasvan määrään. Viskeraalisella rasvakudoksella tarkoitetaan vatsaontelon sisälle sisäelinten ympärille kerääntyvää rasvakudosta, jolla nykykäsityksen mukaan on aktiivinen osuus adipokiineja erittävänä kudoksena. Viskeraalisella rasvakudoksella tiedetään olevan selvä yhteys moniin sairauksiin, kuten tyypin 2 diabetekseen. Tämän tutkielman aineisto koostuu 12 monotsygoottisen kaksosparin otoksesta. Parit ovat painonsa suhteen diskordantteja eli heillä on painoeroa yli 3 BMI-yksikköä. Tutkielmassa pyritään huomioimaan sukupuolen tuoma vaikutus viskeraalisen rasvakudoksen kertymiseen. Unen ja liikunnan määrä sekä laatu on mitattu objektiivisesti aktiivisuusmittareiden avulla sekä käyttämällä tutkittavien henkilöiden käyttämiä päiväkirjoja. Viskeraalisen rasvakudoksen määrä on selvitetty magneettikuvauksilla. Tutkielman tulokset kertovat, että vähäinen liikunnan ja unen määrä lisäävät eri rasvakudostyyppien määrää. Työn kliininen merkitys on mahdollisesti jatkossa merkittävä, sillä tutkielmassa on viitteitä siitä, että korkean intensiteetin liikunta saattaa vähentää viskeraalisen rasvan määrää enemmän kuin kevyempi liikunta. Kevyt liikunta puolestaan vaikuttaa mahdollisesti enemmän ihonalaisen rasvakudoksen määrään.
  • Timonen, Veera (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Masennus on yleinen sairaus väestötasolla ja kansantaloudellisesti hyvin merkittävä, sillä masennus on merkittävä syy työkyvyttömyyseläkkeelle siirtymiseen. Unettomuus on yleinen oire masennuksen yhteydessä, mutta sen on havaittu olevan myös itsenäinen riskitekijä masennuksen puhkeamiselle. Unettomuus ei myöskään ole pelkkä oire, vaan usein itsenäinen liitännäissairaus masennuksen rinnalla. Masennuksen ja unettomuuden välillä on havaittu useita yhteisiä tekijöitä, vaikka nämä kaksi sairautta yhdistävää tarkkaa mekanismia ei vielä tiedetä. Tutkielman tarkoituksena on selvittää FinTerveys 2017 -tutkimuksen pohjalta masennuksen ja unettomuuden yleisyyttä suomalaisväestössä sekä selvittää regressiomallilla, assosioituvatko unettomuuteen liittyvät oireet masennukseen ja psyykkiseen oireiluun. Aineistosta havaitaan, että lääkärin toteamaa masennusta on 6,5 prosentilla ja usein koettua unettomuusoireilua 10 prosentilla. Usein koettu unettomuusoireilu on 5,47-kertaisesti (95 % CI = 4,05–7,40) yleisempää ihmisillä, joilla on lääkärin toteama masennus kuin ihmisillä, joilla masennusta ei ole. Lisäksi havaitaan, että kaikki huonosta unesta kielivät oireet (unettomuus, päiväväsymys, mielipide riittämättömästä unesta ja unilääkkeiden käyttö) näyttäisivät lisäävän riskiä masennukselle ja päiväväsymys assosioituu vahvimmin masennukseen. Tulokset vahvistavat unettomuuden yhteyttä masennukseen ja sen tärkeyttä, että unettomuuden taustalta on hyvä tunnistaa mahdolliset muut sairaudet, ja toisinpäin sitä, että masennuksen yhteydessä olevaa unettomuutta pitää tarkastella omana merkittävänä kokonaisuutenaan.
  • Acosta Leinonen, Johanna Natalia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Sleep is one of the most vital functions of newborns and infants, and it is essential for neuronal network development. Therefore, long-term sleep disturbances have been associated with growth delays and behavioral disorders. Commonly reported infant sleep disturbances, such as night awakenings and difficulties falling asleep, cause distress to parents. Yet, the development of infant sleep in the home environment has not been fully elucidated due to lack of objective measurement parameters. In the current study, we assessed the feasibility of a motion sensor, attached to wearable pants, and ECG textile electrodes to monitor sleep-related respiration and heart rate of newborns and infants. First, we compared signals recorded by the motion sensor’s measurement channels to the standard respiratory piezo effort belt’s signal during daytime EEG recordings. According to our results, the motion sensor’s gyroscope proved to measure respiratory rate most accurately, while the ECG signal transmitted by the sensor was reliable in interpretable sections. We then provided wearable garments and smartphones to families with infants to assess overnight home-use. Our results indicate that different sleep states could likely be identified based on respiration fluctuation visible in the gyroscope’s signals. Moreover, the wearable system was considered practical and easy to use by the parents. Future studies should focus on validating the sensor with clinically approved measures, in order to train the algorithms to automatically identify different sleep-wake states. By doing so, the wearable sensor could provide information on natural infant sleep structure development over long time periods. Additionally, clinical validation of the sensor may result in the development of a companion diagnostic tool for infant cardiorespiratory and movement disorders.
  • Mäkelä, Tiina E.; Peltola, Mikko J.; Nieminen, Pirkko; Paavonen, E. Juulia; Saarenpää-Heikkilä, Outi; Paunio, Tiina; Kylliäinen, Anneli (2018)
    Fragmented sleep is common in infancy. Although night awakening is known to decrease with age, in some infants night awakening is more persistent and continues into older ages. However, the influence of fragmented sleep on development is poorly known. In the present study, the longitudinal relationship between fragmented sleep and psychomotor development (Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development [Bayley-III]; Bayley, 2009) was investigated in infants with (>= 3 night awakenings, n = 81) and without fragmented sleep (
  • Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Lipsanen, Jari; Halonen, Risto; Elovainio, Marko; Sandman, Nils; Makelä, Juha-Matti; Antila, Minea; Bechard, Deni; Ollila, Hanna M.; Kuula, Liisa (2020)
    We used crowdsourcing (CS) to examine how COVID-19 lockdown affects the content of dreams and nightmares. The CS took place on the sixth week of the lockdown. Over the course of 1 week, 4,275 respondents (mean age 43, SD = 14 years) assessed their sleep, and 811 reported their dream content. Overall, respondents slept substantially more (54.2%) but reported an average increase of awakenings (28.6%) and nightmares (26%) from the pre-pandemic situation. We transcribed the content of the dreams into word lists and performed unsupervised computational network and cluster analysis of word associations, which suggested 33 dream clusters including 20 bad dream clusters, of which 55% were pandemic-specific (e.g., Disease Management, Disregard of Distancing, Elderly in Trouble). The dream-association networks were more accentuated for those who reported an increase in perceived stress. This CS survey on dream-association networks and pandemic stress introduces novel, collectively shared COVID-19 bad dream contents
  • Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Merikanto, Ilona; Halonen, Risto; Ujma, Peter; Makkonen, Tommi; Räikkönen, Katri; Lahti, Jari; Kuula, Liisa (2020)
    Sleep spindles are thalamocortical oscillations that contribute to sleep maintenanceand sleep-related brain plasticity. The current study is an explorative study of the cir-cadian dynamics of sleep spindles in relation to a polygenic score (PGS) for circadianpreference towards morningness. The participants represent the 17-year follow-upof a birth cohort having both genome-wide data and an ambulatory sleep electroen-cephalography measurement available (N= 154, Mean age = 16.9, SD = 0.1 years,57% girls). Based on a recent genome-wide association study, we calculated a PGSfor circadian preference towards morningness across the whole genome, including354 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Stage 2 slow (9-12.5 Hz,N= 186 739) andfast (12.5-16 Hz,N= 135 504) sleep spindles were detected using an automatedalgorithm with individual time tags and amplitudes for each spindle. There was a sig-nificant interaction of PGS for morningness and timing of sleep spindles across thenight. These growth curve models showed a curvilinear trajectory of spindle ampli-tudes: those with a higher PGS for morningness showed higher slow spindle ampli-tudes in frontal derivations, and a faster dissipation of spindle amplitude in centralderivations. Overall, the findings provide new evidence on how individual sleep spin-dle trajectories are influenced by genetic factors associated with circadian type. Thefinding may lead to new hypotheses on the associations previously observedbetween circadian types, psychiatric problems and spindle activity.
  • Paunio, Tiina; Korhonen, Tellervo; Hublin, Christer; Partinen, Markku; Harkonmäki, Karoliina; Koskenvuo, Markku; Kaprio, Jaakko (2014)
    BACKGROUND: Disturbed sleep is associated with mood disorders. Both depression and insomnia may increase the risk of disability retirement. The longitudinal links among insomnia, depression and work incapacity are poorly known. METHODS: We examined association of self-reported sleep quality with incident symptoms of depression and disability retirement due to depressive disorders in a longitudinal population-based sample of twins (n=12,063 individuals). These adults were categorized by their sleep quality in 1975 and 1981, excluding individuals with depressed mood in 1975/1981. The outcomes were the Beck Depression Inventory (BDItot) and its subscale Negative Attitudes Towards Self (BDINATS) in 1990 as dichotomized measures, and the incidence of disability retirement due to depressive disorder during 1991-2004. RESULTS: Onset of poor sleep between 1975 and 1981 predicted incident depression (BDItot OR=4.5, 95% CI: 2.7-7.4, BDINATS OR=2.0, 95% CI: 1.4-2.7), while persistent poor sleep showed somewhat weaker effects (BDItot; OR=2.5, 95% CI: 1.0-6.0, BDINATS OR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.1-3.3). Among those with few recent stressful life events, onset of poor sleep predicted strongly depression (BDINATS OR=9.5, 95% CI: 3.7-24.2). Likewise onset of poor sleep by 1981 increased the risk of disability retirement due to depression (OR=2.9, 95% CI: 1.8-4.9) with a similar risk among those with persistent poor sleep (OR=2.7, 95% CI: 1.3-5.7). LIMITATIONS: Lack of baseline diagnostic interviews; sleep quality based on self-report. CONCLUSIONS: Poor sleep is of importance in etiology of depression and disability retirement due to depression. This emphasizes the importance of early detection and treatment of sleep disturbances.
  • Uusitalo, Karoliina; Haataja, Leena; Nyman, Anna; Ripatti, Liisi; Huhtala, Mira; Rautava, Päivi; Lehtonen, Liisa; Parkkola, Riitta; Lahti, Katri; Koivisto, Mari; Setänen, Sirkku (2020)
    Objective To evaluate the rate of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and its correlation to cognition and self-experienced health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children born very preterm. Design Prospective follow-up study. Setting Regional population of children born very preterm in Turku University Hospital, Finland, in 2001-2006. Patients A total of 170 children born very preterm were followed up until 11 years of age. Main outcome measures Motor and cognitive outcomes were evaluated using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children -Second Edition (Movement ABC-2) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children -Fourth Edition, respectively, and HRQoL using the 17-Dimensional Illustrated Questionnaire (17D). The Touwen neurological examination was performed to exclude other neurological conditions affecting the motor outcome. Results Eighteen children born very preterm (17 boys) (11.3%) had DCD, defined as Movement ABC-2 total test score ≤5th percentile. A positive correlation between motor and cognitive outcome (r=0.22, p=0.006) was found. Children born very preterm with DCD had lower cognitive scores than those without DCD (Full-Scale IQ mean 76.8 vs 91.6, p=0.001). Moreover, children born very preterm with DCD reported lower HRQoL than children born very preterm without motor impairment (17D mean 0.93 vs 0.96, p=0.03). However, HRQoL was higher in this group of children born very preterm compared with population-based normative test results (p
  • Kohtala, Samuel; Rantamäki, Tomi (2021)
    Increased glutamatergic neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity in the prefrontal cortex have been associated with the rapid antidepressant effects of ketamine. Activation of BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) receptor TrkB is considered a key molecular event for antidepressant-induced functional and structural synaptic plasticity. Several mechanisms have been proposed to underlie ketamine's effects on TrkB, but much remains unclear. Notably, preliminary studies suggest that besides ketamine, nitrous oxide (N2O) can rapidly alleviate depressive symptoms. We have shown nitrous oxide to evoke TrkB signalling preferentially after the acute pharmacological effects have dissipated (ie after receptor disengagement), when slow delta frequency electroencephalogram (EEG) activity is up-regulated. Our findings also demonstrate that various anaesthetics and sedatives activate TrkB signalling, further highlighting the complex mechanisms underlying TrkB activation. We hypothesize that rapid-acting antidepressants share the ability to regulate TrkB signalling during homeostatically evoked slow-wave activity and that this mechanism is important for sustained antidepressant effects. Our observations urge the examination of rapid and sustained antidepressant effects beyond conventional receptor pharmacology by focusing on brain physiology and temporally distributed signalling patterns spanning both wake and sleep. Potential implications of this approach for the improvement of current therapies and discovery of novel antidepressants are discussed.
  • Nadjar, Agnes; Wigren, Henna-Kaisa M.; Tremblay, Marie-Eve (2017)
    Sleep serves crucial learning and memory functions in both nervous and immune systems. Microglia are brain immune cells that actively maintain health through their crucial physiological roles exerted across the lifespan, including phagocytosis of cellular debris and orchestration of neuroinflammation. The past decade has witnessed an explosive growth of microglial research. Considering the recent developments in the field of microglia and sleep, we examine their possible impact on various pathological conditions associated with a gain, disruption, or loss of sleep in this focused mini-review. While there are extensive studies of microglial implication in a variety of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases, less is known regarding their roles in sleep disorders. It is timely to stimulate new research in this emergent and rapidly growing field of investigation.
  • Ding, Tapio (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Objectives: Adolescence is a crucial time of change on many fronts: sleep is observed to be one that is affected heavily. Sleep is found to change during adolescence, by circadian rhythm shifting to later, homeostatic sleep pressure dispersing more quickly, and adolescents becoming more tolerant to it. Also, other factors related to more independence and rapid growth affect the dynamics of sleep. During this time also the usage of screenbased devices increases. It is proposed that these devices might affect the adolescents’ sleep detrimentally due to cognitive arousal, time displacement, or short-wavelength blue light. Thus, further investigation of the associations between sleep and screen time is needed. Methods: 318 (ages: 16–17 years old, 30% boys) adolescents participated in the study. Their sleep was monitored with actigraph for 7-10 consecutive days. Based on actigraphy data, sleep efficiency, duration, and latency were deduced. In addition, the screen time of the adolescents was followed up with a daily diary where usage of screen-based devices four hours before sleep was inquired. The association between sleep and screen time was studied by using mixed regression model, where screen time was placed as predictor and sleep dependent variable. For each respective sleep metric, a linear model was computed, thus, altogether three models were found. Results: Larger amounts of screen time was found to be negatively associated with sleep efficiency and positively associated with sleep onset latency. No evidence for the relationship between screen time and sleep duration was found. It was specifically found that lack of usage of screen-based devices before sleep was associated with higher sleep efficiency and longer latency. In terms of type of media, social media was found to have adverse effects on sleep efficiency and latency, whereas gaming predicted only worse sleep efficiency. An interaction effect of gaming and sex was found, suggesting that the gaming’s adverse effects are pronounced with boys. Conclusions: Although no relationship between sleep duration and screen time was found, screen time can be seen to affect the quality of sleep and other factors like sleep onset latency. To ensure the adequate levels of sleep during this crucial time of development, monitoring the amount of screen time is important to limit any adverse effects it may cause.
  • Ritmala-Castren, M; Salantera, S; Holm, A; Heino, M; Lundgren-Laine, H; Koivunen, M (2021)
    Aim and objective The aim of the study was to investigate how the sleep improvement interventions developed for the wards were associated with patients' sleep. The objective was to promote patients' sleep. Background The quality of sleep is vital for patients' health and recovery from illness. However, patients generally sleep poorly during hospitalisation. Sleep-disturbing factors are connected to the hospital environment, patients' physical illness, emotional state and the activities of the staff. Many sleep-disturbing factors can be influenced by appropriate nursing interventions. Design A two-group intervention study including the development of nursing interventions aimed at supporting patients' sleep. One group received a sleep promotion intervention and the other received standard care. Both groups evaluated their sleep in the morning. Methods A survey of participants' sleep evaluations was collected with the five-item Richards-Campbell Sleep Questionnaire. The data were analysed statistically. The STROBE checklist was used to report the study. Results From the participants' perspective, sleep was better in the intervention group, even though statistically significantly only among men. The pain intensity correlated with sleep quality. The number of patients in the room or whether participants had had an operation had no effect on their sleep evaluations. Conclusions Interventions targeted at supporting and promoting the sleep quality of hospital inpatients may be effective. They should be developed in collaboration with patients and nurses. Several nursing interventions can be proposed to promote better sleep among patients; however, more research is needed to confirm the results. Sleep promotion should include both standardised protocols and individualised sleep support. Relevance to clinical practice Investing in nursing interventions to promote patients' sleep is important. Patients' individual sleep-related needs should be part of their care plan. Training programmes that support nurses' knowledge and skills of patients' sleep promotion should be part of nursing education in healthcare organisations.
  • Sipilä, Reetta M.; Kalso, Eija A. (2021)
    Sleep disturbance, pain, and having a surgical procedure of some kind are all very likely to occur during the average lifespan. Postoperative pain continues to be a prevalent problem and growing evidence supports the association between pain and sleep disturbances. The bidirectional nature of sleep and pain is widely acknowledged. A decline in sleep quality adds a risk for the onset of pain and also exacerbates existing pain. The risk factors for developing insomnia and experiencing severe pain after surgery are quite similar. The main aim of this narrative review is to discuss why it is important to be aware of sleep disturbances both before and after surgery, to know how sleep disturbances should be assessed and monitored, and to understand how better sleep can be supported by both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions.