Browsing by Subject "sleep"

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  • Dumuid, Dorothea; Stanford, Tyman E.; Pedisic, Zeljko; Maher, Carol; Lewis, Lucy K.; Martin-Fernandez, Josep-Antoni; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Fogelholm, Mikael; Standage, Martyn; Tremblay, Mark S.; Olds, Timothy (2018)
    Background: Daily activity data are by nature compositional data. Accordingly, they occupy a specific geometry with unique properties that is different to standard Euclidean geometry. This study aimed to estimate the difference in adiposity associated with isotemporal reallocation between daily activity behaviours, and to compare the findings from compositional isotemporal subsitution to those obtained from traditional isotemporal substitution. Methods: We estimated the differences in adiposity (body fat%) associated with reallocating fixed durations of time (isotemporal substitution) between accelerometer-measured daily activity behaviours (sleep, sedentary time and light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) among 1728 children aged 9-11 years from Australia, Canada, Finland and the UK (International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment, 2011-2013).We generated estimates from compositional isotemporal substitution models and traditional non-compositional isotemporal substitution models. Results: Both compositional and traditional models estimated a positive (unfavourable) difference in body fat% when time was reallocated from MVPA to any other behaviour. Unlike traditional models, compositional models found the differences in estimated adiposity (1) were not necessarily symmetrical when an activity was being displaced, or displacing another (2) were not linearly related to the durations of time reallocated, and (3) varied depending on the starting composition. Conclusion: The compositional isotemporal model caters for the constrained and therefore relative nature of activity behaviour data and enables all daily behaviours to be included in a single statistical model. The traditional model treats data as real variables, thus the constrained nature of time is not accounted for, nor reflected in the findings. Findings from compositional isotemporal substitution support the importance of MVPA to children's health, and suggest that while interventions to increase MVPA may be of benefit, attention should be directed towards strategies to avoid decline in MVPA levels, particularly among already inactive children. Future applications of the compositional model can extend from pair-wise reallocations to other configurations of time-reallocation, for example, increasing MVPA at the expense of multiple other behaviours.
  • Dumuid, Dorothea; Stanford, Tyman E; Pedišić, Željko; Maher, Carol; Lewis, Lucy K; Martín-Fernández, Josep-Antoni; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Fogelholm, Mikael; Standage, Martyn; Tremblay, Mark S.; Olds, Timothy (BioMed Central, 2018)
    Abstract Background Daily activity data are by nature compositional data. Accordingly, they occupy a specific geometry with unique properties that is different to standard Euclidean geometry. This study aimed to estimate the difference in adiposity associated with isotemporal reallocation between daily activity behaviours, and to compare the findings from compositional isotemporal subsitution to those obtained from traditional isotemporal substitution. Methods We estimated the differences in adiposity (body fat%) associated with reallocating fixed durations of time (isotemporal substitution) between accelerometer-measured daily activity behaviours (sleep, sedentary time and light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) among 1728 children aged 9–11 years from Australia, Canada, Finland and the UK (International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment, 2011–2013). We generated estimates from compositional isotemporal substitution models and traditional non-compositional isotemporal substitution models. Results Both compositional and traditional models estimated a positive (unfavourable) difference in body fat% when time was reallocated from MVPA to any other behaviour. Unlike traditional models, compositional models found the differences in estimated adiposity (1) were not necessarily symmetrical when an activity was being displaced, or displacing another (2) were not linearly related to the durations of time reallocated, and (3) varied depending on the starting composition. Conclusion The compositional isotemporal model caters for the constrained and therefore relative nature of activity behaviour data and enables all daily behaviours to be included in a single statistical model. The traditional model treats data as real variables, thus the constrained nature of time is not accounted for, nor reflected in the findings. Findings from compositional isotemporal substitution support the importance of MVPA to children’s health, and suggest that while interventions to increase MVPA may be of benefit, attention should be directed towards strategies to avoid decline in MVPA levels, particularly among already inactive children. Future applications of the compositional model can extend from pair-wise reallocations to other configurations of time-reallocation, for example, increasing MVPA at the expense of multiple other behaviours.
  • Rozov, Stanislav V.; Zant, Janneke; Gurevicius, Kestutis; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Panula, Pertti (2016)
    Aim: Under natural conditions diurnal rhythms of biological processes of the organism are synchronized with each other and to the environmental changes by means of the circadian system. Disturbances of the latter affect hormonal levels, sleep-wakefulness cycle and cognitive performance. To study mechanisms of such perturbations animal models subjected to artificial photoperiods are often used. The goal of current study was to understand the effects of circadian rhythm disruption, caused by a short light-dark cycle regime, on activity of the cerebral cortex in rodents. Methods: We used electroencephalogram to assess the distribution of vigilance states, perform spectral analysis, and estimate the homeostatic sleep drive. In addition, we analyzed spontaneous locomotion of C57BL/6J mice under symmetric, 22-, 21-, and 20-h-long light-dark cycles using video recording and tracking methods. Results and Conclusions: We found that shortening of photoperiod caused a significant increase of slow wave activity during non-rapid eye movement sleep suggesting an elevation of sleep pressure under such conditions. While the rhythm of spontaneous locomotion was completely entrained by all light-dark cycles tested, periodic changes in the power of the theta- and gamma-frequency ranges during wakefulness gradually disappeared under 22- and 21-h-long light-dark cycles. This was associated with a significant increase in the theta-gamma phase-amplitude coupling during wakefulness. Our results thus provide deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying the impairment of learning and memory retention, which is associated with disturbed circadian regulation.
  • Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Weippert, Madyson; LeBlanc, Allana G.; Hjorth, Mads F.; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Tremblay, Mark S.; Barreira, Tiago V.; Broyles, Stephanie T.; Fogelholm, Mikael; Hu, Gang; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Kurpad, Anura; Lambert, Estelle V.; Maher, Carol; Maia, Jose; Matsudo, Victor; Olds, Timothy; Onywera, Vincent; Sarmiento, Olga L.; Standage, Martyn; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Zhao, Pei; Sjodin, Anders M.; ISCOLE Res Grp (2016)
    In order to verify if the full moon is associated with sleep and activity behaviors, we used a 12-country study providing 33,710 24-h accelerometer recordings of sleep and activity. The present observational, cross-sectional study included 5812 children ages 9-11 years from study sites that represented all inhabited continents and wide ranges of human development (Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Finland, India, Kenya, Portugal, South Africa, United Kingdom, and United States). Three moon phases were used in this analysis: full moon (4 days; reference), half moon (5-9 days), and new moon (+10-14 days) from nearest full moon. Nocturnal sleep duration, moderate -to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light-intensity physical activity (LPA), and total sedentary time (SED) were monitored over seven consecutive days using a waist -worn accelerometer worn 24 h a day. Only sleep duration was found to significantly differ between moon phases (-5 min/night shorter during full moon compared to new moon). Differences in MVPA, LPA, and SED between moon phases were negligible and non-significant (
  • Heikkilä, Anna-Riitta; Lapinleimu, Helena; Virtanen, Irina; Rönnlund, Hanni; Raaska, Hanna; Elovainio, Marko (2022)
    Background Psychosocial risks and environmental changes experienced by internationally adopted children may predict sleep problems, which are incidentally among the main concerns of adoptive parents. Several questionnaire studies have found sleep of internationally adopted children to be problematic, but none of those used an objective measure in a controlled study. Objective To determine whether the objectively recorded sleep of internationally adopted children is worse than their controls who are living with their biological parents. Methods To this case-control part of the Finnish Adoption Study, we recruited children who were adopted internationally to Finland between October 2012 and December 2016. Simultaneously, control children were recruited from 16 daycare centers. To assess sleep in children, actigraphy recordings were made twice, 1 year apart, between December 2013 and April 2018. In the adopted group, the first assessment took place 10 months after they had arrived in their families. The associations between adoption status and sleep parameters were analyzed using linear mixed modeling and adjusted for multiple potential confounders, including child age. Results Seventy-eight internationally adopted children (boys 64%) aged 1-7 years and 99 controls (boys 53%) aged 2-6 years attended the first sleep recording. The recordings showed that the internationally adopted children slept longer (B = 0.48, 95% CI 0.23-0.73, P < 0.001) than the controls. There were no significant differences in sleep fragmentation or sleep efficiency between the groups. During the 1-year follow-up, the sleep patterns of the adopted children approached those of the controls. Conclusions The internationally adopted children spent more time in bed and slept more than their control children in both recordings. However, their sleep patterns were not very different from those of their peers and the differences appeared to vanish during the first years in their new family.
  • Immonen, Katariina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Aims of the study. The aim of this study was to examine normative development of sleep patterns and circadian rhythmicity during adolescence. Previous studies have found that sleep duration shortens across the lifespan, and especially adolescents’ sleep timing shifts later due to physiological and psychological factors. Sleep patterns in adolescence are connected to individual’s endogenous circadian rhythms, usually measured by delayed melatonin secretion in the evening. There is a lack of understanding how sleep patterns are related to circadian body temperature rhythms during adolescence. Methods. This study was part of SleepHelsinki! cohort study of the Sleep & Mind Research Group. Adolescents’ sleep patterns were measured with actigraphies, whereas circadian body temperature was measured from the skin surface. Circadian temperature rhythmicity was inspected by circadian period length, the mesor of skin surface temperature and the amplitude of daily changes within the rhythm. Baseline measurements were measured from 215 (71.6 % girls) adolescents aged 16–18 years. At one-year follow-up, 156 (76.3 % girls) adolescents were measured again. Mixed models for repeated measures were used to examine changes over the year in sleep patterns and endogenous circadian temperature rhythm, separately for both girls and boys. Sex differences were tested with one-way variance analysis. Linear and ordinal regressions were used to predict sleep and circadian rhythm over the year. Results and conclusions. Over the year, adolescents’ sleep duration became longer during the week, while weekend sleep shortened. However, this change was only significant for girls. Sleep schedule became more delayed for both girls and boys during the week, as sleep onset, midpoint and offset occurred at a later time. Circadian rhythm changed for boys, as their average skin surface temperature increased, and their circadian temperature amplitude became smaller. Boys also had significantly lower circadian temperature amplitude than girls at the follow-up. Compared to boys, girls were 5.85 times more likely to have a high circadian temperature amplitude at the follow-up measurement. Changes in sleep length during the week was moderated by temperature amplitude, with higher circadian amplitude predicting sleep duration to become longer. Still, the likelihood to have long sleep duration was affected by past sleep duration.
  • Merikanto, Ilona; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Paunio, Tiina; Partonen, Timo (2022)
    Background: Circadian phenotype has a crucial role in determining wellbeing and health prospective. Evening-types have higher risk for sleep and mental health problems, which is also reflected in work wellbeing. However, there are no population-based studies examining the association of working ability and circadian typology at different working-age-groups. Also, the role of predisposing factors, ie, sleep-related differences between circadian types, has not been studied in relation to working ability among circadian types in a population-based sample. Methods: In this population-based sample of 13,114 working-age Finnish adults from 18 to 64 years of age, we examined the associations between circadian type, exhaustion and working ability and the roles of sleep-wake rhythm misalignment and insufficient sleep on these associations in 10-years-wide age-groups. Circadian type was assessed with the widely-used single item for selfassessed morningness/eveningness from the Horne-Ostberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ). Results: Evening-types, especially definite evening-types, were more exhausted and had poorer working ability than morning-types. Higher exhaustion among evening-types was apparent in all working ages with a peak at ages 45 to 54 years. Poorer working ability in definite evening-types as compared to definite morning-types was found only at ages 35 to 54 years. Evening-types, especially definiteevening-types, had also more social jet lag and they reported more insufficient sleep than definite morning-types. More frequent insufficient sleep associated with poorer working ability and partly mediated the association between circadian type and working ability. Conclusion: Circadian phenotypes were found to differ in risk for exhaustion and in working ability, and this association was partly mediated by insufficient sleep. Our findings emphasize the importance to improve sleep especially among evening-types to ensure better work wellbeing.
  • Tan, Xiao; Alen, Markku; Wang, Kun; Tenhunen, Jarkko; Wiklund, Petri; Partinen, Markku; Cheng, Sulin (2016)
    Growing evidence suggests that diet alteration affects sleep, but this has not yet been studied in adults with insomnia symptoms. We aimed to determine the effect of a six-month diet intervention on sleep among overweight and obese (Body mass index, BMI >= 25 kg/m(2)) men with chronic insomnia symptoms. Forty-nine men aged 30-65 years with chronic insomnia symptoms were randomized into diet (n = 28) or control (n = 21) groups. The diet group underwent a six-month individualized diet intervention with three face-to-face counseling sessions and online supervision 1-3 times per week; 300-500 kcal/day less energy intake and optimized nutrient composition were recommended. Controls were instructed to maintain their habitual lifestyle. Sleep parameters were determined by piezoelectric bed sensors, a sleep diary, and a Basic Nordic sleep questionnaire. Compared to the controls, the diet group had shorter objective sleep onset latency after intervention. Within the diet group, prolonged objective total sleep time, improved objective sleep efficiency, lower depression score, less subjective nocturnal awakenings, and nocturia were found after intervention. In conclusion, modest energy restriction and optimized nutrient composition shorten sleep onset latency in overweight and obese men with insomnia symptoms.
  • Kuula, Liisa; Lipsanen, Jari; Partonen, Timo; Kauramäki, Jaakko; Halonen, Risto; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina (2022)
    Circadian rhythms relate to multiple aspects of health and wellbeing, including physical activity patterns. Susceptible circadian regulation predisposes to circadian misalignment, poor sleep, sleep deprivation, increased sleepiness, and thereby sedentary behavior. Adolescents' circadian regulation is particularly vulnerable, and may lead to sedentary behavior. To investigate which factors associate strongest between physical activity (PA) and circadian behavior, we conducted multimodal circadian rhythm analyses. We investigate how individual characteristics of habitual circadian patterns associate with objectively measured PA. We studied 312 adolescents [70% females) (56% with delayed sleep phase (DSP)], mean age 16.9 years. Circadian period length, temperature mesor (estimated 24 h midline) and amplitude (difference between mesor and peak) were measured using distally attached thermologgers (ibutton 1922L, 3-day-measurement). We additionally utilized algorithm-formed clusters of circadian rhythmicity. Sleep duration, timing, DSP, and PA were measured using actigraphs (GeneActiv Original, 10-day-measurement). We found that continuous circadian period length was not associated with PA, but lower mesor and higher amplitude were consistently associated with higher levels of PA as indicated by mean Metabolic Equivalent (METmean) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), even when controlling for sleep duration. Separate circadian clusters formed by an algorithm also reflected distinct patterns of PA accordingly. Late sleepers and those with DSP were less likely to engage in MVPA compared to non-DSP and had more sedentary behavior. Adolescents who engage in higher levels or high-intensity PA have better circadian regulation, as measured by different objective methods including distal temperature measurements as well as actigraphy-measured sleep-wake behavior.
  • Leijon, Teresa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Introduktion: För kort eller lång sömnduration, dålig sömnkvalitet och för lite motion har i tidigare studier visat sig påverka den psykiska hälsan negativt. En kombination av både bra sömn och tillräckligt med motion har kopplats med bättre psykiskt välbefinnande än enbart antingen bra sömn eller tillräckligt med motion. Psykisk ohälsa är associerat med sänkt livskvalitet, sämre funktionsförmåga, mer sjukledighet, större risk för förtidspension och ökad risk för vissa somatiska sjukdomar. Målsättning: Målet med denna undersökning är att få mer information om hur sömnduration, sömnkvalitet och motion är associerade med nedsatt psykiskt välbefinnande hos 18–39-åringar med en stor del av arbetslivet framför sig. Metoder: Undersökningsmaterialet (n = 4912) samlades in i Young Helsinki Health Study år 2017. Deltagarna var 18–39-åriga anställda vid Helsingfors stad (80% kvinnor, 20% män). Associationerna mellan sömnduration, sömnkvalitet, motion och nedsatt psykiskt välbefinnande granskades först var för sig. Efter detta granskades sömndurationens och sömnkvalitetens association med nedsatt psykiskt välbefinnande i olika fysiskt aktiva grupper. Analyserna anpassades för sociodemografiska faktorer, socioekonomiska faktorer, levnadsvanor och smärta. Resultat och slutsatser: En kort <6 timmars sömnduration var associerad med en ökad sannolikhet för nedsatt psykiskt välbefinnande. En sömnduration på ≥8 till <9 timmar var associerad med en mindre sannolikhet för nedsatt psykiskt välbefinnande. En lång sömnduration på ≥9 timmar var inte statistiskt signifikant associerad med en ökad sannolikhet för nedsatt psykiskt välbefinnande. Fysisk inaktivitet var inte statistiskt signifikant associerat med nedsatt psykiskt välbefinnande. Detta kan innebära att en större mängd motion krävs för att motionen ska ha en psykisk hälsoeffekt. Dålig sömnkvalitet var associerat med nedsatt psykiskt välbefinnande oberoende av fysiska aktivitetsnivån. En sömnduration på ≥8 till <9 timmar och bra sömnkvalitet var mest förmånliga för det psykiska välbefinnandet.
  • Holzinger, Brigitte; Nierwetberg, Franziska; Chung, Frances; Bolstad, Courtney J.; Bjorvatn, Bjorn; Chan, Ngan Yin; Dauvilliers, Yves; Espie, Colin A.; Han, Fang; Inoue, Yuichi; Leger, Damien; Macedo, Taina; Matsui, Kentaro; Merikanto, Ilona; Morin, Charles M.; Mota-Rolim, Sergio A.; Partinen, Markku; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Penzel, Thomas; Sieminski, Mariusz; Wing, Yun Kwok; Scarpelli, Serena; Nadorff, Michael R.; De Gennaro, Luigi (2022)
    Purpose: The COVID-19 pandemic affects mental health and sleep, resulting in frequent nightmares. Therefore, identifying factors associated with nightmare frequency is important, as it can indicate mental health issues. The study aimed to investigate increases in nightmare frequency comparing the pre-pandemic and pandemic period, and identify its risk factors. Further, the mediating role of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms between the pandemic and nightmares is explored. Patients and Methods: For this cross-sectional survey data were obtained via self-rating online survey (ICOSS: details in Partinen et al, 2021), which was open to anyone older than 18 years. The final volunteer sample consisted of 15,292 participants, divided according to their nightmare frequency (high: >= 1-2 nights/week; low:
  • Elovainio, Marko; Lipsanen, Jari; Halonen, Risto; Kuula, Liisa; Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina (2021)
    Background Depression even at the subclinical level is often accompanied by sleep disturbances, but little is known about the dynamics of the sleep stages in relation to depressive symptoms. We examined whether the amount, associations, and transition probabilities of various sleep stages were associated with depressive symptoms in a community sample of adolescents. Methods The participants (N = 172, 59% girls, mean age 16.9 years) underwent overnight polysomnography and provided data on depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory II). The association between depression status and total duration of each stage type was analyzed using ANOVA and survival analyses. The associations between the number of different sleep stage types were analyzed using graphical Gaussian models, mixed graphical models, and relative importance networks. A Markov chain algorithm was used to estimate the transition probabilities between each state and these probabilities were further compared between depression status groups. Results The associations between N1 and N3 were significantly stronger in both directions of the association (p-values for interactions 0.012 and 0.006) in those with more depressive symptoms. Similarly, a stronger association was observed from N1 to wake stage in those with more depressive symptoms (p-value for interaction 0.002). In those with more depressive symptoms, it was more likely to transition from N2 to N3 and from REM to N2 compared to others. Conclusions These findings indicate that changes in sleep architecture are not limited to clinical depression and that the transitional dynamics of sleep stages are an important marker of subclinical depression.
  • Hietaoja, Juha (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    The heart rate of an individual varies all the time. This phenomenon is called heart rate variability. Both respiration and physical activity induce variations in heart rate. Heart rate variability can be assessed by studying electrical changes in the heart cycle. Electrical changes can be monitored by measuring ECG (electrocardiography). The main target of this study was to find out cow’s normal heart rate variability while they were awake, ruminating or sleeping. For this study, the heart rate of nine cows was recorded as well as their behavior during that time. Cows were monitored while they were sleeping, ruminating, standing or lying down. Four of the cows were from Finland and five of them from Sweden. From those nine cows, 543 one minute samples were obtained. This was the first time that cow’s heart rate was studied during their sleep cycle. The cows were not stressed in any way and their autonomic nervous system was not affected by drugs. One minute samples were analyzed. Samples were gathered by using a Matlab-based computer program, CowSS. All samples were checked visually, and all errors, for instance missing S-peaks or the errors caused by timing, were corrected. Statistical analysis was made by using a linear mixed effects model. According to the analysis, the best way to represent a cow’s heart rate variability is to use RMSSD-value. RMSSD-value describes the variations of adjacent intervals in different recordings. The result of this study show that during sleep the heart rate and the heart variability of cows are different from humans´. Cows´ sleep periods (NREM- and REM-sleep) are shorter and during REM-sleep the parasympathetic toning is stronger in cows. Cow is herbivore and prey for many predators, which may well explain the dominance of the parasympathetic system. Parasympathetic toning works faster than sympathetic toning, and this may give the cow a better chance to escape.
  • Kataja, Mikko (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Tutkielmassa on tarkoitus selvittää, minkälainen yhteys on liikunnan ja unen määrällä sekä näiden yhteisvaikutuksella viskeraalisen, ihonalaisen ja maksan rasvan määrään. Viskeraalisella rasvakudoksella tarkoitetaan vatsaontelon sisälle sisäelinten ympärille kerääntyvää rasvakudosta, jolla nykykäsityksen mukaan on aktiivinen osuus adipokiineja erittävänä kudoksena. Viskeraalisella rasvakudoksella tiedetään olevan selvä yhteys moniin sairauksiin, kuten tyypin 2 diabetekseen. Tämän tutkielman aineisto koostuu 12 monotsygoottisen kaksosparin otoksesta. Parit ovat painonsa suhteen diskordantteja eli heillä on painoeroa yli 3 BMI-yksikköä. Tutkielmassa pyritään huomioimaan sukupuolen tuoma vaikutus viskeraalisen rasvakudoksen kertymiseen. Unen ja liikunnan määrä sekä laatu on mitattu objektiivisesti aktiivisuusmittareiden avulla sekä käyttämällä tutkittavien henkilöiden käyttämiä päiväkirjoja. Viskeraalisen rasvakudoksen määrä on selvitetty magneettikuvauksilla. Tutkielman tulokset kertovat, että vähäinen liikunnan ja unen määrä lisäävät eri rasvakudostyyppien määrää. Työn kliininen merkitys on mahdollisesti jatkossa merkittävä, sillä tutkielmassa on viitteitä siitä, että korkean intensiteetin liikunta saattaa vähentää viskeraalisen rasvan määrää enemmän kuin kevyempi liikunta. Kevyt liikunta puolestaan vaikuttaa mahdollisesti enemmän ihonalaisen rasvakudoksen määrään.
  • Timonen, Veera (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Masennus on yleinen sairaus väestötasolla ja kansantaloudellisesti hyvin merkittävä, sillä masennus on merkittävä syy työkyvyttömyyseläkkeelle siirtymiseen. Unettomuus on yleinen oire masennuksen yhteydessä, mutta sen on havaittu olevan myös itsenäinen riskitekijä masennuksen puhkeamiselle. Unettomuus ei myöskään ole pelkkä oire, vaan usein itsenäinen liitännäissairaus masennuksen rinnalla. Masennuksen ja unettomuuden välillä on havaittu useita yhteisiä tekijöitä, vaikka nämä kaksi sairautta yhdistävää tarkkaa mekanismia ei vielä tiedetä. Tutkielman tarkoituksena on selvittää FinTerveys 2017 -tutkimuksen pohjalta masennuksen ja unettomuuden yleisyyttä suomalaisväestössä sekä selvittää regressiomallilla, assosioituvatko unettomuuteen liittyvät oireet masennukseen ja psyykkiseen oireiluun. Aineistosta havaitaan, että lääkärin toteamaa masennusta on 6,5 prosentilla ja usein koettua unettomuusoireilua 10 prosentilla. Usein koettu unettomuusoireilu on 5,47-kertaisesti (95 % CI = 4,05–7,40) yleisempää ihmisillä, joilla on lääkärin toteama masennus kuin ihmisillä, joilla masennusta ei ole. Lisäksi havaitaan, että kaikki huonosta unesta kielivät oireet (unettomuus, päiväväsymys, mielipide riittämättömästä unesta ja unilääkkeiden käyttö) näyttäisivät lisäävän riskiä masennukselle ja päiväväsymys assosioituu vahvimmin masennukseen. Tulokset vahvistavat unettomuuden yhteyttä masennukseen ja sen tärkeyttä, että unettomuuden taustalta on hyvä tunnistaa mahdolliset muut sairaudet, ja toisinpäin sitä, että masennuksen yhteydessä olevaa unettomuutta pitää tarkastella omana merkittävänä kokonaisuutenaan.
  • Acosta Leinonen, Johanna Natalia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Sleep is one of the most vital functions of newborns and infants, and it is essential for neuronal network development. Therefore, long-term sleep disturbances have been associated with growth delays and behavioral disorders. Commonly reported infant sleep disturbances, such as night awakenings and difficulties falling asleep, cause distress to parents. Yet, the development of infant sleep in the home environment has not been fully elucidated due to lack of objective measurement parameters. In the current study, we assessed the feasibility of a motion sensor, attached to wearable pants, and ECG textile electrodes to monitor sleep-related respiration and heart rate of newborns and infants. First, we compared signals recorded by the motion sensor’s measurement channels to the standard respiratory piezo effort belt’s signal during daytime EEG recordings. According to our results, the motion sensor’s gyroscope proved to measure respiratory rate most accurately, while the ECG signal transmitted by the sensor was reliable in interpretable sections. We then provided wearable garments and smartphones to families with infants to assess overnight home-use. Our results indicate that different sleep states could likely be identified based on respiration fluctuation visible in the gyroscope’s signals. Moreover, the wearable system was considered practical and easy to use by the parents. Future studies should focus on validating the sensor with clinically approved measures, in order to train the algorithms to automatically identify different sleep-wake states. By doing so, the wearable sensor could provide information on natural infant sleep structure development over long time periods. Additionally, clinical validation of the sensor may result in the development of a companion diagnostic tool for infant cardiorespiratory and movement disorders.
  • Välimaa, Neena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Background Myoclonic twitches are bursts of jerky movements of the distal limbs that occur during REM-sleep (1). An earlier study conducted by Sokoloff et al. in 2020 hypothesized that myoclonic twitches could offer a crucial insight into the developmental status of a human infant’s nervous system (1). They assessed the patterning and the rate of twitching in 16 in term infants. Our study aimed to test whether the earlier conducted study and its findings could be repeated on a bigger scale. Materials & Methods The data for this study was collected from HUS (Helsinki University Hospital) Children’s Hospital’s Video-EEGs by collecting the data of all under one-year-old children that had been referred to video-EEG examinations between 9th May, 2019 - 20th May, 2020 and had their limbs visible whilst sleeping (133 sessions from 92 infants). The data was collected with the help of an EEG reader program named NicOne Reader by one annotator over the summer of 2020. The annotations were done with the accuracy of left foot, left hand, right foot, right hand and head. The median recording duration was 19.0 min (IQR: 13.58 to 27.24 min)(Range: from 1.5 to 210.5 min) and the average recording duration was 25.5 min. Results Our results showed that both the twitch frequency and the proportion of hand and feet clusters from all clusters grew in relation to age. In addition, twitching in the hands and the feet occurred much more often than twitching of the head or the face. Conclusions Like in Blomberg’s group’s study (1) our findings give promise that myoclonic twitching can be used to evaluate sensorimotor development in the future. Further studies are needed in order to form a universal database regarding myoclonic twitching and its relation to typical and atypical sensorimotor development.
  • Partanen, Juha; Achim, Kaia (2022)
    The Substantia Nigra pars reticulata (SNpr) is the major information output site of the basal ganglia network and instrumental for the activation and adjustment of movement, regulation of the behavioral state and response to reward. Due to both overlapping and unique input and output connections, the SNpr might also have signal integration capacity and contribute to action selection. How the SNpr regulates these multiple functions remains incompletely understood. The SNpr is located in the ventral midbrain and is composed primarily of inhibitory GABAergic projection neurons that are heterogeneous in their properties. In addition, the SNpr contains smaller populations of other neurons, including glutamatergic neurons. Here, we discuss regionalization of the SNpr, in particular the division of the SNpr neurons to anterior (aSNpr) and posterior (pSNpr) subtypes, which display differences in many of their features. We hypothesize that unique developmental and molecular characteristics of the SNpr neuron subtypes correlate with both region-specific connections and notable functional specializations of the SNpr. Variation in both the genetic control of the SNpr neuron development as well as signals regulating cell migration and axon guidance may contribute to the functional diversity of the SNpr neurons. Therefore, insights into the various aspects of differentiation of the SNpr neurons can increase our understanding of fundamental brain functions and their defects in neurological and psychiatric disorders, including movement and mood disorders, as well as epilepsy.
  • Mäkelä, Tiina E.; Peltola, Mikko J.; Nieminen, Pirkko; Paavonen, E. Juulia; Saarenpää-Heikkilä, Outi; Paunio, Tiina; Kylliäinen, Anneli (2018)
    Fragmented sleep is common in infancy. Although night awakening is known to decrease with age, in some infants night awakening is more persistent and continues into older ages. However, the influence of fragmented sleep on development is poorly known. In the present study, the longitudinal relationship between fragmented sleep and psychomotor development (Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development [Bayley-III]; Bayley, 2009) was investigated in infants with (>= 3 night awakenings, n = 81) and without fragmented sleep (