Browsing by Subject "smoking"

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  • Thorgeirsson, T. E.; Gudbjartsson, D. F.; Sulem, P.; Besenbacher, S.; Styrkarsdottir, U.; Thorleifsson, G.; Walters, G. B.; Furberg, H.; Sullivan, P. F.; Marchini, J.; McCarthy, M. I.; Steinthorsdottir, V.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Stefansson, K.; TAG Consortium; Oxford-GSK Consortium; ENGAGE Consortium; Kaprio, Jaakko; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Shen, Huei-Yi (2013)
  • Klebe, Sonja; Leigh, James; Henderson, Douglas W.; Nurminen, Markku (2020)
    This review updates the scientific literature concerning asbestos and lung cancer, emphasizing cumulative exposure and synergism between asbestos exposure and tobacco smoke, and proposes an evidence-based and equitable approach to compensation for asbestos-related lung cancer cases. This update is based on several earlier reviews written by the second and third authors on asbestos and lung cancer since 1995. We reevaluated the peer-reviewed epidemiologic studies. In addition, selected in vivo and in vitro animal studies and molecular and cellular studies in humans were included. We conclude that the mechanism of lung cancer causation induced by the interdependent coaction of asbestos fibers and tobacco smoke at a biological level is a multistage stochastic process with both agents acting conjointly at all times. The new knowledge gained through this review provides the evidence for synergism between asbestos exposure and tobacco smoke in lung cancer causation at a biological level. The evaluated statistical data conform best to a multiplicative model for the interaction effects of asbestos and smoking on the lung cancer risk, with no requirement for asbestosis. Any asbestos exposure, even in a heavy smoker, contributes to causation. Based on this information, we propose criteria for the attribution of lung cancer to asbestos in smokers and non-smokers.
  • Shiri, Rahman; Heliovaara, Markku; Moilanen, Leena; Viikari, Jorma; Liira, Helena Johanna; Viikari-Juntura, Eira (2011)
  • Broms, Ulla; Koskenvuo, Karoliina; Sillanmaki, Lauri H.; Mattila, Kari J.; Koskenvuo, Markku (2012)
  • Rovio, Suvi P.; Pahkala, Katja; Nevalainen, Jaakko; Juonala, Markus; Salo, Pia; Kahonen, Mika; Hutri-Kahonen, Nina; Lehtimaki, Terho; Jokinen, Eero; Laitinen, Tomi; Taittonen, Leena; Tossavainen, Paivi; Viikari, Jorma S. A.; Rinne, Juha O.; Raitakari, Olli T. (2017)
    BACKGROUND In adults, high blood pressure (BP), adverse serum lipids, and smoking associate with cognitive deficits. The effects of these risk factors from childhood on midlife cognitive performance are unknown. OBJECTIVES This study sought to investigate the associations between childhood/adolescence cardiovascular risk factors and midlife cognitive performance. METHODS From 1980, a population-based cohort of 3,596 children (baseline age: 3 to 18 years) have been followed for 31 years in 3- to 9-year intervals. BP, serum lipids, body mass index, and smoking were assessed in all follow-ups. Cumulative exposure as the area under the curve for each risk factor was determined in childhood (6 to 12 years), adolescence (12 to 18 years), and young adulthood (18 to 24 years). In 2011, cognitive testing was performed in 2,026 participants aged 34 to 49 years. RESULTS High systolic BP, elevated serum total-cholesterol, and smoking from childhood were independently associated with worse midlife cognitive performance, especially memory and learning. The number of early life risk factors, including high levels (extreme 75th percentile for cumulative risk exposure between ages 6 and 24 years) of systolic BP, total-cholesterol, and smoking associated inversely with midlife visual and episodic memory and visuospatial associative learning (-0.140 standard deviations per risk factor, p <0.0001) and remained significant after adjustment for contemporaneous risk factors. Individuals with all risk factors within recommended levels between ages 6 and 24 years performed 0.29 standard deviations better (p = 0.006) on this cognitive domain than those exceeding all risk factor guidelines at least twice. This difference corresponds to the effect of 6 years aging on this cognitive domain. CONCLUSIONS Cumulative burden of cardiovascular risk factors from childhood/adolescence associate with worse midlife cognitive performance independent of adulthood exposure. (C) 2017 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.
  • Pulakka, Anna; Halonen, Jaana I.; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Stenholm, Sari (2019)
    Aims: We examined the effect of retirement transition on changes in smoking, identified trajectories of smoking around the retirement transition, and investigated factors predicting the membership in the trajectories. Methods: This longitudinal cohort study included 1,432 current or former smokers who entered into statutory retirement in 2000-2011 and who filled out two to four questionnaires sent at four-year intervals. Effect of retirement on smoking was analysed as a non-randomized pseudo-trial in which we compared the likelihood of quitting and relapsing smoking between two subsequent survey waves among those who retired and did not retire. We used latent class analysis to identify trajectories of smoking status and smoking intensity (low: 10 cigarettes/day), and multinomial logistic regression models to assess pre-retirement factors associated with smoking trajectories. Results: Retirement transition was associated with 1.7-fold odds of quitting smoking (95% confidence intervals 1.3-2.2) compared with no retirement transition. We identified three smoking status trajectories: 'sustained non-smoking' (61% of the participants), 'sustained smoking' (23%) and 'decreasing smoking' (16%). For 489 baseline smokers, we identified three smoking intensity trajectories: 'sustained high intensity smoking' (32% of the participants), 'sustained low intensity smoking' (32%) and 'decreasing high intensity smoking' (35%). Living outside an inner urban area predicted membership in the 'decreasing smoking' versus 'sustained smoking' trajectory. Conclusions: Smokers are more likely to quit smoking during transition to retirement than before or after it. Characteristics of the smoking environment may affect smoking behaviour around retirement.
  • Hukkinen, Maria (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    Tupakointitutkimukset keskittyvät perinteisesti säännöllisesti tai runsaasti tupakoiviin. Koska ei ole osoitettu mitään terveyden kannalta haitattoman tupakoinnin rajaa, määrältään vähäisenkin tupakoinnin tutkiminen on tärkeää. Tutkielman tavoitteina oli analysoida päivittäin 1-4 savuketta polttavien ominaispiirteitä, tupakointitottumusten pysyvyyttä sekä tupakointitavan muutosta ennustavia tekijöitä. Tutkimuksessa käytettiin vuosina 1975, 1981 ja 1990 kerätyn suomalaisen kaksoskohorttitutkimuksen kyselyaineistoa. Vuoden 1975 aineistossa oli 9 940 päivittäistupakoitsijaa, joista 8% poltti alle 5 ja 20% vähintään 20 savuketta päivässä. Tutkimuksessa verrattiin päivittäin vähän ja paljon polttavien ominaispiirteitä. Vähän tupakoivat olivat todennäköisemmin naisia, yksin eläviä, liikunnallisia, korkeammin koulutettuja, elämäänsä tyytyväisiä ja vähemmän stressaantuneita kuin runsaasti polttavat. Pienempi osuus vähemmän tupakoivista käytti runsaasti kahvia ja alkoholia tai tupakoidessaan hengitti savua keuhkoihin. Pitkittäistarkastelussa ikä, koulutusaste, siviilisäädyn muutos ja alkoholin käyttö ennustivat tupakointitapojen muuttumista. Yksilötasolla vähäinen tupakointi oli usein väliaikaista: seuranta-aikana valtaosa lopetti tupakoinnin tai lisäsi savukemäärää. Väestötasolla vähän tupakoivien osuus pysytteli samana: tupakoinnin aloittajia, vähentäjiä sekä aiemmin lopettaneita mutta uudelleen aloittaneita siirtyi tähän ryhmään.
  • Hirvonen, Eveliina; Stepanov, Mikhael; Kilpeläinen, Maritta; Lindqvist, Ari; Laitinen, Tarja (2019)
    Introduction: Smoking has a significant impact on the development and progression of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Self-reported questionnaires and structured interviews are usually the only way to study patients' smoking history. In this study, we aim to examine the consistency of the responses of asthma and COPD patients to repeated standardised questions on their smoking habits over the period of 10 years. Methods: The study population consisted of 1329 asthma and 959 COPD patients, who enrolled in the study during years 2005-2007. A follow-up questionnaire was mailed to the participants 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 years after the recruitment. Results: Among the participants who returned three or more questionnaires (N = 1454), 78.5 % of the patients reported unchanged smoking status (never smoker, ex-smoker or current smoker) across the time. In 4.5% of the answers, the reported smoking statuses were considered unreliable/conflicting (first never smoker and, later, smoker or ex-smoker). The remainder of the patients changed their status from current smoker to ex-smoker and vice versa at least once, most likely due to struggling with quitting. COPD patients were more frequently heavy ex- or current smokers compared to the asthma group. The intraclass coefficient correlations between self-reported starting (0.85) and stopping (0.94) years as well as the consumption of cigarettes (0.74) over time showed good reliability among both asthma and COPD patients. Conclusion: Self-reported smoking data among elderly asthma and COPD patients over a 10-year follow-up is reliable. Pack years can be considered a rough estimate for their comprehensive consumption of tobacco products over time. We also observed that the questionnaire we used was not designed for dynamic changes in smoking which are rather common among heavy smokers especially when the follow-up time is several years, as in our study.
  • Andersen, Heidi; Ilmarinen, Pinja; Honkamäki, Jasmin; Tuomisto, Leena E.; Piirilä, Päivi; Hisinger-Mölkänen, Hanna; Sovijärvi, Anssi; Backman, Helena; Lundback, Bo; Rönmark, Eva; Lehtimäki, Lauri; Kankaanranta, Hannu (2021)
    Background Difference in dyspnea mMRC >= 2 between Finnish speaking and Swedish-speaking populations in Finland has not been previously studied. Methods In February 2016, a respiratory questionnaire was sent to 8000 randomly selected subjects aged 20-69 years in western Finland with a response rate of 52.3%. The registered native language of each subject determined whether questionnaire in Finnish or Swedish was applied. Multiple logistic regression was performed to calculate Odds Ratios (OR) with 95% CI for the simultaneous effects of independent variables on dyspnea mMRC >= 2. Results Of all participants, 2780 (71.9%) were Finnish speakers and 1084 (28.1%) were Swedish speakers. Finnish speakers had a higher prevalence of dyspnea mMRC >= 2 (11.1% vs 6.5% p <0.001) when compared to Swedish speakers. Finnish speakers smoked more often, had higher BMI, spent less time moving during the day, had more often occupational exposure to vapours, gases, dusts or fumes (VGDF), and had lower socioeconomic status based on occupation. Significant risk factors for dyspnea mMRC >= 2 were COPD (OR = 10.94), BMI >35 (OR = 9.74), asthma (OR = 4.78), female gender (OR = 2.38), older age (OR = 2.20), current smoking (OR = 1.59), and occupational exposure to VGDF (OR = 1.47). Conclusions Swedish speakers had less dyspnea mMRC >= 2 which is explained by a healthier lifestyle. Smoking, obesity, and occupational exposures should be in focus to improve respiratory health.
  • Vähäaho, Niina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Background and objectives: Currently in Finland, there are over 66 000 women living with breast cancer. The five-year survival rate is 90.6 %. Breast cancer and its treatments are known to impair patients’ health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The current study is a part of an open prospective randomized Breast cancer and exercise (BREX) -study in Finland conducted to investigate whether supervised exercise training shortly after the adjuvant treatments of breast cancer patients could prevent osteoporosis and improve patient’s quality of life. This master thesis examines cross-sectional and prospective associations between the sense of coherence (SOC) and the HRQoL of breast cancer survivors. Methods: 537 long-term breast cancer survivors and controls who participated in a prospective randomized physical exercise intervention with twelve months of supervised exercise training were followed up five years. 406 participants who finished the 5-year follow-up and filled the SOC questionnaire were included in the final analyzes. The SOC was measured by 13-item Finnish and Swedish short forms of Orientation to life Questionnaire (SOC-13) at 3 years. Cancer-specific HRQoL was measured by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) version 3 and general HRQoL by the 15D. Associations between the SOC and the HRQoL were studied by logistic regression analyze. Results and conclusion: The SOC was associated with the cancer-specific and the general HRQoL at the 3-year (p < .001) and at the 5-year follow-up (p < .001). The relationship was the most significant for the general HRQoL, global health / quality of life and emotional and cognitive functions. Weak SOC increases the risk of low cancer-specific and low general HRQoL after the adjuvant treatments of breast cancer. Strong SOC as an inner resource may serve as a protective psychological factor in the adaptation process of breast cancer survivors. The SOC-13 questionnaire might be useful in targeting patients vulnerable to decrease in the HRQoL and in planning psychosocial interventions.
  • Aschard, Hugues; Tobin, Martin D.; Hancock, Dana B.; Skurnik, David; Sood, Akshay; James, Alan; Smith, Albert Vernon; Manichaikul, Aniw; Campbell, Archie; Prins, Bram P.; Hayward, Caroline; Loth, Daanw; Porteous, David J.; Strachan, David P.; Zeggini, Eleftheria; O'Connor, George T.; Brusselle, Guy G.; Boezen, H. Marike; Schulz, Holger; Deary, Ian J.; Hall, Ian P.; Rudan, Igor; Kaprio, Jaakko; Wilson, James F.; Wilk, Jemma B.; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Zhao, Jing Hua; de Jong, Kim; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Wain, Louise V.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kahonen, Mika; Fornage, Myriam; Polasek, Ozren; Cassano, Patricia A.; Barr, R. Graham; Rawal, Rajesh; Harris, Sarah E.; Gharib, Sina A.; Enroth, Stefan; Heckbert, Susan R.; Lehtimaki, Terho; Gyllensten, Ulf; Jackson, Victoria E.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Tang, Wenbo; Dupuis, Josee; Artigas, Maria Soler; Joshi, Amit D.; London, Stephanie J.; Understanding Soc Sci Grp (2017)
    Background: Smoking is the strongest environmental risk factor for reduced pulmonary function. The genetic component of various pulmonary traits has also been demonstrated, and at least 26 loci have been reproducibly associated with either FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 second) or FEV1/FVC (FEV1/forced vital capacity). Although the main effects of smoking and genetic loci are well established, the question of potential gene-by-smoking interaction effect remains unanswered. The aim of the present study was to assess, using a genetic risk score approach, whether the effect of these 26 loci on pulmonary function is influenced by smoking. Methods: We evaluated the interaction between smoking exposure, considered as either ever vs never or pack-years, and a 26-single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genetic risk score in relation to FEV1 or FEV1/FVC in 50 047 participants of European ancestry from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) and SpiroMeta consortia. Results: We identified an interaction (beta(int) = -0.036, 95% confidence interval, -0.040 to -0.032, P = 0.00057) between an unweighted 26 SNP genetic risk score and smoking status (ever/never) on the FEV1/FVC ratio. In interpreting this interaction, we showed that the genetic risk of falling below the FEV1/FVC threshold used to diagnose chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is higher among ever smokers than among never smokers. A replication analysis in two independent datasets, although not statistically significant, showed a similar trend in the interaction effect. Conclusions: This study highlights the benefit of using genetic risk scores for identifying interactions missed when studying individual SNPs and shows, for the first time, that persons with the highest genetic risk for low FEV1/FVC may be more susceptible to the deleterious effects of smoking.
  • Junna, Liina M.; Tarkiainen, Lasse; Östergren, Olof; Jasilionis, Domantas; Martikainen, Pekka (2021)
    Aims: Tobacco smoking and alcohol use contribute to differences in life expectancy between individuals with primary, secondary and tertiary education. Less is known about the contribution of these risk factors to differences at higher levels of education. We estimate the contribution of smoking and alcohol use to the life-expectancy differences between the doctorates and the other tertiary-educated groups in Finland and in Sweden. Methods: We used total population data from Finland and Sweden from 2011 to 2015 to calculate period life expectancies at 40 years of age. We present the results by sex and educational attainment, the latter categorised as doctorate or licentiate degrees, or other tertiary. We also present an age and cause of death decomposition to assess the contribution of deaths related to smoking and alcohol. Results: In Finland, deaths related to smoking and alcohol constituted 48.6% of the 2.1-year difference in life expectancy between men with doctorate degrees and the other tertiary-educated men, and 22.9% of the 2.1-year difference between women, respectively. In Sweden, these causes account for 22.2% of the 1.9-year difference among men, and 55.7% of the 1.6-year difference among women, which in the latter case is mainly due to smoking. Conclusions: Individuals with doctorates tend to live longer than other tertiary-educated individuals. This difference can be partly attributed to alcohol consumption and smoking.
  • Lamminen, Markku (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Formation of second skin under artificial casing is essential when manufacturing of skinless frankfurters. The aim of this study was to study how manufacture skinless frankfurters that have a good and firm bite. In literature part the aim was to study factors what affect the formation of the second skin. Skinless frankfurters were manufactured with 4 different artificial cellulose casing: 23 mm non-CMC (carboxymethylcellulose) casing, 23mm Rapid Peel®-casing, 21 mm Rapid Peel®-casing, 17 mm Rapid Peel®-casing. Frankfurters were prepared with 2 different recipes and thermal treated with 3 different smoking-cooking programs. Commercial and pilot plant prepared natural casing frankfurters were used as a reference. Properties of frankfurters were tested with sensory analysis by making sensory profile of each product (Colour intensity, Flexibility/bendability of skin, Snappiness of the skin (voice), Snappy bite, Gumminess of the skin and Texture of frankfurter). Physical test methods to measure frankfurters were: cooking loss; colour measurements (Minolta); shear force and maximum load of skin with Allo-Kramer device and peak force needed when skin breaks with Texture Analyser. Physical test showed that all product types need to have their own tailored smoking and cooking program to reach the wanted result. Texture analyser and Allo-Kramer-device did not give any logical results so these methods needs more testing for useful results. Sensory evaluation indicated that the properties of a natural casing frankfurter is hard to achieve by manufacturing skinless frankfurter. The differences between artificial casing samples were low in all experiments. But when comparing these results to natural casing had significantly (p<0.05) lower bendability of skin, snappiness and gumminess of the skin was higher as well as the overall texture of frankfurter was harder than skinless frankfurters. In conclusion, skinless frankfurters made with artificial casings could not compete with properties of natural casings. Maybe it is possible to get very close with the right recipe, additives, casing and thermal treatment. But at the moment the natural casing is unbeaten.
  • Li, Xinjun; Koskinen, Anni I.; Hemminki, Otto; Försti, Asta; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina; Hemminki, Kari (2021)
    Simple Summary Head and neck cancers are cancers that arise between the mouth and larynx. Risk factors for these include smoking, alcohol, human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and family history. Because families can be identified for the whole Swedish population, we wanted to analyzed familial risks for HNC with same and different cancers among first-degree relatives. When a parent or sibling was diagnosed with HNC, other family members had a two-fold risk of being diagnosed with HNC, but the risk was higher when specific types of HNC, such as oral or nasopharyngeal cancers, were analyzed. Husbands of wives with cervical cancer had an increased risk of oropharyngeal cancer which may be related to shared HPV infection. In the Swedish population with low smoking levels, HPV is becoming a dominant risk factor, emphasizing the need for sexual hygiene and HPV vaccination. Background: Head and neck cancers (HNCs) encompass a heterogeneous group of cancers between the mouth and larynx. Familial clustering in HNCs has been described, but how it influences individual sites and to which extent known risk factors, such as human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, may contribute is not well established. Patients/methods: We employed standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) to estimate familial risks for HNC with same (concordant) and different (discordant) cancers among first-degree relatives using data from the Swedish Cancer Registry from 1958 to 2018. Results: Incidence for male and female oropharyngeal cancer increased close to four-fold in the past 39 years. Familial HNC was found in 3.4% of the study population, with an overall familial SIR of 1.78. Patients with concordant nasopharyngeal cancer showed a high risk of 23.97, followed by hypopharyngeal cancer (5.43). The husbands of wives with cervical cancer had an increased risk of oropharyngeal cancer. Discussion/Conclusion: Nasopharyngeal cancers lacked associations with lifestyle or HPV associated cancers, suggesting a role for germline genetics, which was also true for the high-risk families of three HNC patients. In the Swedish population with low smoking levels, HPV is becoming a dominant risk factor, emphasizing the need for sexual hygiene and HPV vaccination.
  • Östergen, Olof; Korhonen, Kaarina; Gustafsson, Nina-Katri; Martikainen, Pekka (2021)
    Background Most first-generation migrants have lower mortality compared to the native population. Finnish-born migrants in Sweden instead have higher mortality; possibly because of health behaviours established before migration. To increase our understanding of this excess mortality, we compared the cause-specific mortality of Finnish migrants in Sweden to both the native population of Sweden and the native Finnish population residing in Finland. Methods We used Swedish and Finnish register data, applying propensity score matching techniques to account for differences in sociodemographic characteristics between the migrants, Swedes and Finns. The index population were Finnish migrants aged 40–60, residing in Sweden in 1995. We compared patterns of all-cause, alcohol- and smoking-related, and cardiovascular disease mortality across the groups in the period 1996–2007. Results Finnish migrant men in Sweden had lower all-cause mortality compared to Finnish men but higher mortality compared to the Swedish men. The same patterns were observed for alcohol-related, smoking-related and cardiovascular disease mortality. Among women, all three groups had similar levels of all-cause mortality. However, Finnish migrant women had higher alcohol-related mortality than Swedish women, similar to Finnish women. Conversely, migrant women had similar levels of smoking-related mortality to Swedish women, lower than Finnish women. Conclusions Finnish-born migrants residing in Sweden have mortality patterns that are typically in between the mortality patterns of the native populations in their country of origin and destination. Both the country of origin and destination need to be considered in order to better understand migrant health.
  • Masalin, Senja; Kautiainen, Hannu; Gissler, Mika; Pennanen, Pirjo; Eriksson, Johan G.; Laine, Merja K. (2020)
    Introduction Smoking has been shown to affect glucose homeostasis and increase the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Further, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and smoking are known to influence offspring birthweight. The effect of smoking on glucose homeostasis in pregnancy is less studied and the findings are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of smoking on risk for GDM and to evaluate the impact of smoking and GDM on offspring birthweight. Material and methods This is an observational cohort study encompassing 4111 Finnish primiparous women from the city of Vantaa, Finland, who delivered a singleton child between 2009 and 2015. Data were obtained from Finnish national registers. Study participants had complete oral glucose tolerance test results and were divided into three groups according to smoking status: non-smokers (I), smokers who quit during first trimester (II), and smokers who continued after first trimester (III). Results Prevalence of GDM was 19.8%, 24.3%, and 26.6% in non-smokers, those who quit, and those who continued after the first trimester, respectively (P = .004 for differences between groups). The odds ratio for GDM in smokers who continued after the first trimester compared with non-smokers was 1.65 (95% CI 1.09-2.57) after adjustments for age, prepregnancy body mass index, education, and cohabitation. In women without GDM, offspring birthweight was lowest in those who continued smoking after the first trimester (P = .010 for differences between groups). In women with GDM, smoking status did not influence offspring birthweight. Conclusions Smoking during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk for GDM. Offspring birthweight is lowest in women who continue smoking after the first trimester. If pregnancy is complicated by GDM, offspring birthweight is not influenced by smoking.
  • Pena, Sebastian; Mäkelä, Pia; Laatikainen, Tiina; Härkänen, Tommi; Männistö, Satu; Heliövaara, Markku; Koskinen, Seppo (2021)
    Background and aims Lower socio-economic status (SES) is associated with higher alcohol-related harm despite lower levels of alcohol use. Differential vulnerability due to joint effects of behavioural risk factors is one potential explanation for this 'alcohol harm paradox'. We analysed to what extent socio-economic inequalities in alcohol-mortality are mediated by alcohol, smoking and body mass index (BMI), and their joint effects with each other and with SES. DesignCohort study of eight health examination surveys (1978-2007) linked to mortality data. Setting Finland.ParticipantsA total of 53 632 Finnish residents aged 25+ years.MeasurementsThe primary outcome was alcohol-attributable mortality. We used income as an indicator of SES. We assessed the joint effects between income and mediators (alcohol use, smoking and BMI) and between the mediators, adjusting for socio-demographic indicators. We used causal mediation analysis to calculate the total, direct, indirect and mediated interactive effects using Aalen's additive hazards models. Findings During 1 085 839 person-years of follow-up, we identified 865 alcohol-attributable deaths. We found joint effects for income and alcohol use and income and smoking, resulting in 46.8 and 11.4 extra deaths due to the interaction per 10 000 person-years. No interactions were observed for income and BMI or between alcohol and other mediators. The lowest compared with the highest income quintile was associated with 5.5 additional alcohol deaths per 10 000 person-years (95% confidence interval = 3.7, 7.3) after adjusting for confounders. The proportion mediated by alcohol use was negative (-69.3%), consistent with the alcohol harm paradox. The proportion mediated by smoking and BMI and their additive interactions with income explained 18.1% of the total effect of income on alcohol-attributable mortality. Conclusions People of lower socio-economic status appear to be more vulnerable to the effects of alcohol use and smoking on alcohol-attributable mortality. Behavioural risk factors and their joint effects with income may explain part of the alcohol harm paradox.
  • Saleheen, Danish; Zhao, Wei; Young, Robin; Nelson, Christopher P.; Ho, WeangKee; Ferguson, Jane F.; Rasheed, Asif; Ou, Kristy; Nurnberg, Sylvia T.; Bauer, Robert C.; Goel, Anuj; Do, Ron; Stewart, Alexandre F. R.; Hartiala, Jaana; Zhang, Weihua; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Sinisalo, Juha; Kanoni, Stavroula; Sedaghat, Sanaz; Marouli, Eirini; Kristiansson, Kati; Zhao, Jing Hua; Scott, Robert; Gauguier, Dominique; Shah, Svati H.; Smith, Albert Vernon; van Zuydam, Natalie; Cox, Amanda J.; Willenborg, Christina; Kessler, Thorsten; Zeng, Lingyao; Province, Michael A.; Ganna, Andrea; Lind, Lars; Pedersen, Nancy L.; White, Charles C.; Joensuu, Anni; Kleber, Marcus Edi; Hall, Alistair S.; Maerz, Winfried; Salomaa, Veikko; O'Donnell, Christopher; Ingelsson, Erik; Feitosa, Mary F.; Erdmann, Jeanette; Bowden, Donald W.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Perola, Markus; PROMIS; Cardiogramplusc4D (2017)
    BACKGROUND: Common diseases such as coronary heart disease (CHD) are complex in etiology. The interaction of genetic susceptibility with lifestyle factors may play a prominent role. However, gene-lifestyle interactions for CHD have been difficult to identify. Here, we investigate interaction of smoking behavior, a potent lifestyle factor, with genotypes that have been shown to associate with CHD risk. METHODS: We analyzed data on 60 919 CHD cases and 80 243 controls from 29 studies for gene-smoking interactions for genetic variants at 45 loci previously reported to be associated with CHD risk. We also studied 5 loci associated with smoking behavior. Study-specific gene-smoking interaction effects were calculated and pooled using fixed-effects meta-analyses. Interaction analyses were declared to be significant at a P value of <1.0x10(-3) (Bonferroni correction for 50 tests). RESULTS: We identified novel gene-smoking interaction for a variant upstream of the ADAMTS7 gene. Every T allele of rs7178051 was associated with lower CHD risk by 12% in never-smokers (P= 1.3x10(-16)) in comparison with 5% in ever-smokers (P= 2.5x10(-4)), translating to a 60% loss of CHD protection conferred by this allelic variation in people who smoked tobacco (interaction P value= 8.7x10(-5)). The protective T allele at rs7178051 was also associated with reduced ADAMTS7 expression in human aortic endothelial cells and lymphoblastoid cell lines. Exposure of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells to cigarette smoke extract led to induction of ADAMTS7. CONCLUSIONS: Allelic variation at rs7178051 that associates with reduced ADAMTS7 expression confers stronger CHD protection in never-smokers than in ever-smokers. Increased vascular ADAMTS7 expression may contribute to the loss of CHD protection in smokers.
  • Kaajakari, Emma (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Large part of world’s meat products are smoked to achieve desired sensory properties, typical to these products. Many attributes affect the color formation of sausage surface perceived after smoking. Surface color is a substantial part of the quality criteria of the smoked sausage. The aim of this study was to see if fat and frozen meat content of the sausage has effects on the surface color after smoking assessed by sensory evaluation. Assumption was that fat percentage, and the frozen meat content would both affect the color formation and the achieved surface color. The sensory evaluation method that could be applied to production environment was also developed and studied. Sensory study was conducted in three parts with three different semi-trained panels (n=21, n=13 n=13). In the study the color evaluation of sausages was made by using the 6-point color scale and ranking test. The sample sausages had three different frozen meat levels (20 %, 50 % ja 60 %) and four different fat levels (19 %, 21 %, 24 % ja 26 %). The protein, moisture and fat contents and cooking loss of the product were instrumentally measured. Also, the temperature during the cooking was recoded. Sausages with higher fat content were evaluated as lighter than the lower fat level sausages both with the color scale and by the ranking test. The frozen meat content didn’t affect the perceived color of the smoked sausages. The fat content or the frozen meat content did not have an effect to cooking loss. The method of the color evaluation could be used in the production as the result of color evaluation made with the scale gave good results. However, the use of color scale needs to be instructed to all employees doing the color evaluation in the production before using it and is still quite subjective. The main use of the method would have in the reject-accept evaluation to help in t the decision making.