Browsing by Subject "social exclusion"

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  • Biggs, Simon; Carr, Ashley; Haapala, Irja (2019)
    Objective To explore perceptions of the impacts of dementia on people living with the condition and those close to them and examine the relationship between dementia, disadvantage and social exclusion. Methods Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 111 participants: people with dementia (n = 19), carers (n = 28), health-care professionals (n = 21), social workers (n = 23) and service professionals (n = 20). NVivo 11 was used to code descriptions and identify impact areas. Results Participants described social, psychological, carer, material, service-based and disparity impacts associated with the experience of dementia. Some of these impacts correspond to social exclusion associated with age, but some are distinctive to dementia. Discussion It is argued that dementia generates its own forms of social disadvantage and exclusion. This is in addition to being subject to structural risk factors. The implications of the active effects of dementia as a social phenomenon should give rise to new policy and practice priorities.
  • Ciesla, Robert (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Streaming, also referred to as vlogging, is the act of providing real-time video content over the internet. This activity encompasses numerous sub-genres such as video gaming and irl (”in real life”). Degenerate streaming is a new sub-genre often consisting of belligerent public behavior and drug abuse. Streamers sometimes receive monetary donations for their efforts from their audience. The actors taking part in this variety of streaming can be said to embody features of an antihero, a concept appearing in literature since antiquity. An antihero is a central character in a work of fiction who often lacks moral fortitude, resorting to dubious behavioral patterns in order to reach their goals. A dark triad personality is used in scientific literature to describe individuals with a history of psychopathic, opportunistic (i.e. Machiavellian), and narcissistic characteristics. This study frames the public personas of Finnish degenerate streamers as antiheroes in the context of the dark triad personality; their public communications are also analyzed within this framework. The topic is approached using a qualitative data-analysis of a total of 24 hours of degenerate streaming as well as with character typologies. The data-set consists of material created by five individual streamers. The main themes found in this material are identified and further categorized into sub-themes. In the analysis section of this study the life histories and potential root causes of degenerate streamers are discussed; a poor economical standing and mental health issues were identified as contributing factors. Some correlations with Finnish public political discourse are also suggested. This thesis contains descriptions of potentially upsetting events, such as domestic violence.
  • Blomgren, Jenni (2005)
    The study looked at the prevalence and area differences in social exclusion in Finnish urban regions and aimed to find out whether characteristics of these regions had an effect on working-age individuals' risks of social exclusion in the end of the 1990's. The aims of the study where 1) to assess the prevalence of several indicators of social exclusion during the 1990's, 2) to look at regional differences and to find out whether these differences could be explained with different regional socio-demographic population structures, 3) to find out how some characteristics of regions were associated with risks of exclusion and 4) to find out whether these associations were different among those who suffered from long-term unemployment during the economic recession of the 1990's than among others. Data were individual level register data, representative of the Finnish population (11% sample), linked to information on urban regions. Measures of social exclusion included long-term unemployment, living without a family, separating from the partner, low income, changing the housing tenure from owning to renting, dying, and measures combining some of the aforementioned variables. Statistical multilevel methods were used. Those suffering from long-term unemployment during the recession were in a higher risk of social exclusion later on compared to others, and this difference was not explained by their more disadvantaged socio-economic background. Different socioeconomic population structures explained a part of the observed area differences in some outcomes while in other outcomes the area differences became more pronounced after adjusting for the population structure. The area differences thus seemed to be connected with regional characteristics other than population structures. Measures of social environment included unemployment level, level of urbanization, voting turnout and family cohesion. Low regional level of unemployment, high level of urbanization and low levels of voting turnout and family cohesion were associated with higher risk of social exclusion in most measures. The effects of these regional social characteristics were larger on those long-term unemployed during the recession than on others. The results contribute to the knowledge on the area effects of urban regions and especially on the effects of social environments on individual well-being.
  • Takkunen, Laura; Uusitalo-Malmivaara, Lotta (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Social withdrawal is a comprehensive phenomenon previously studied mainly in Japan as 'hikikomori'. It has been connected to social as well as psychological and societal factors. The aim of this study was to examine the appearance of social withdrawal in Finland. Social withdrawal was investigated from the social exclusion perspective. The study aspired to describe the ordinary life of socially withdrawn young and to seek answers to the question of what kind of people they are. The study also endeavored to detect the factors that might be associated with the onset and continuation of the process of social withdrawal. The methods of the study included structural interview and the analysis of a message board used by socially withdrawn people. The interviewees were two men who were withdrawn, and the interviews were implemented via e-mail. The message board data, including 32 conversations, was collected from Hikikomero, a section of internet forum site Ylilauta. The analysis of the data was carried out by using content analysis. The results of the study implement that social withdrawal is a self-feeding phenomenon largely affecting lives of the people who are withdrawn. The study supports the assessment of social withdrawal as a male-dominating phenomenon. From the factors appearing in relation to the onset of the withdrawal, experiences of inability to fulfill the cultural expectations imposed for men and social disappointments were detected. From the background of social withdrawal it was possible to detect experiences of peer victimization and mental illnesses. From the factors appearing in relation to the continuation of social withdrawal the most salient ones were social phobia, depression and the inability to create and maintain relationships. The reaching of the withdrawn trough a message board creates hope to tackle the solitude developing adversely.
  • Haapola, Ilkka (2004)
    The main purpose of this panel study was to investigate the benefit careers and life courses of the new recipients of social assistance from the first claim until 1998. In addition, the period prevalence of receiving social assistance over the years 1991-1996 and the role of social assistance in the social security system were studied. Analysis was based on two random samples: a sample of new recipients of social assistance (10 088 persons) from the years 1990-1992, and a representative population sample (30 184 persons, over the age of 14) from the same period. Data was assembled from register files by Statistics Finland, and it contains information on e.g. work history, family situation, and incomes over the years 1987-1998. The study shows that dynamic longitudinal approach disproves the popular stereotypes of social assistance. Period prevalence of receiving the benefit was higher than previously expected. Every fifth adult received social assistance at least once over the six-year period 1991-1996. In the youngest group, who was 21-24 years old at the end of the period, the prevalence was over fifty percent. Long-term and continuous dependence on social assistance was more unusual than expected as well. As regards the cumulative number of months (net duration) recipients claimed the benefit, median value was only seven months during a seven-year period. However, the average time between the first and last claim (gross duration) was four years. By means of these indicators it was possible to classify four types of recipients: one-time visitors (15 %), other short-term (20 %), recurrent (50 %), and permanent long-term recipients (15 %). A significant proportion of the recipients suffered many years from low incomes. Only some of them gained from the recovery in employment. At the end of follow-up period 15 percent of recipients suffered still from the accumulative social disadvantage of labour market exclusion, weak social integration and poverty. Divergent life-courses were closely linked to the age, education and area of residence of the recipients.
  • Kemppainen, Teemu (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    This study seeks to comparatively analyse how well-being is distributed across the social structure in European welfare regimes. Welfare regime refers to a group of countries having a relatively similar orientation and culture regarding social policy. Well-being is interpreted and operationalised as a multidimensional concept. More concretely, well-being is approached in terms of the traditional core areas of welfare and social policy (indicators: economic hardship, sickness) but a special emphasis is piaced upon social aspects of life (indicators: social relations, social contribution, local ties, recognition and societal pessimism). The perspective of vulnerable social positions (unemployment, poverty, immigration background etc.) is chosen in all the analyses. The data set of the European Social Survey (round 3, 2006/2007) is used in the study since it includes an extensive module on well-being, which enables convenient and fruitful analytical paths. Multilevel analysis is chosen as the key method for the study due to its ability to handle data that involve grouped observations (e.g. individuals in countries) and research questions that are of multilevel nature themselves. The overall methodological idea is to start from general and broad descriptions and move towards a narrower and more specific focus. Four indicators are chosen for the in-depth analysis: economic hardship, sickness, societal pessimism and recognition. The results mostly corroborate the view that well-being is to a significant extent conditioned by the position one occupies in the social structure and also by the welfare regime one lives in. How life chances are distributed across the social structure varies between the country groups due to their different approaches to welfare policy. The Eastern European country group is generally characterised by relatively frequent ill-being — lack of well-being — on almost all dimensions included in the analysis. Economic hardship is conspicuousiy prevalent in these nations, especially among the unemployed. In fact, unemployment is a major risk factor for economic hardship in all regimes. The Nordic regime is distinguished by low rates of ill-being in virtually all dimensions, but the relatively high sickness rate is an exception: poverty in particular exposes to sickness in the Nordic world of welfare. The link between vulnerability and societal pessimism is rather typical for both the Eastern European and Continental European regimes. Poverty makes future views bleaker in almost ali country groups, whereas immigrants are generally less pessimistic. However, in the Nordic regime immigration background seems to be an adverse factor with respect to well-being. Poverty, unemployment and oneliness are associated to low recognition, whereas old age seems to be related to more respectful treatment. Living in the liberal welfare regime and being poor or unemployed is the combination that most severely exposes its occupant to the demoralising expetiences of low recognition. In other words, the moral flavour of everyday life in a vulnerable social position differs by country groups. Welfare regimes are more than just systems of benefit allocation and service production - also culture matters.
  • Harju, Elina (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Street children´s life situations have received a lot of attention both in the media and in research in the recent years. In the literature street children are often defined as being under the age of 18. In this thesis, the focus group is the street youth, meaning the adolescents and young adults who either live full-time in the streets or are otherwise strongly connected with the street life. The research interest was to study how poverty is present in the lives of the street youth, and how their experiences of poverty in the streets and their own agency change when they grow older. A further interest was to find out how street life enables transition into adult roles in the society. The theoretical background of the thesis consists of introducing the discussion of structure and agency in social sciences as a way to understand the social life, then introducing the relevant concepts of poverty and social exclusion. Poverty in this thesis is understood in its widest sense, as Amartya Sen has defined it: deprivations of basic capacities that a person has to live the kind of life he or she has a reason to value. Also, the contemporary research on street children is introduced, where the agency perspective has gained space. The thesis also takes a look at some situational factors of the case study country Zambia, which affect the lives of the country’s vulnerable children and youth. This thesis is an ethnographic research consisting of two field work periods in Zambia’s capital city Lusaka. These field work periods took place in July-August 2011 and 2012 in an organization working with street children and youth. The informants were a heterogeneous group of street youth, aged between 14 and 28 and connected to the street life from different positions. The data consists of field notes and 33 recorded interviews with the informants. The results show that most of the street youth expressed reluctance towards their current life in the streets with little prospects for change. Income-wise their poverty seemed to vary, but the money was spent to meet one’s instant needs. Poverty was further expressed in terms of experienced public disrespect and vulnerability to violence and abuse by other street youth as well as police authorities. It also meant remoteness and mistrust in one’s social relationships. Poverty in the streets caused dependency of substances leading to decreased ability to take care of oneself as well as violent behavior. Growing older in the streets seemed to bring increased feelings of wasted years and frustration in one’s life situation, which was in contrast to adult roles in the society. Prolonged street life brought a risk of adopting illegal means and violent and harmful conduct. However, this was not necessarily so, and some of the youth had taken distance to the street life abandoned many of their earlier street behaviors. As chances for employment were small, they were, however, still stuck in the streets to earn living.
  • Johansson, Juhani (2011)
    This study investigates what and how Keski-Uusimaa newspaper wrote about young people's risk of exclusion, in particular criminality. The data for the study comprised articles of children and young people's risk of exclusion published in Keski-Uusimaa newspaper in 2006. The constructionist theory was used and the data were analysed using the analytical discursive method. The data were divided into three different discourses making it possible to observe the discussion of social exclusion from three different viewpoints: the discourse of being involved in a criminal incident, the discourse of threat to safety and the discourse of being relieved from responsibility. In the discourse of being involved in a criminal incident, neither the young people nor adults commented on the crime itself. Even reported incidents in the media were tolerable as long as they did not disturb the day-to-day work at school. Ignoring crimes may partly be explained by the general decrease of commentary on moral issues. Public humiliation or mocking in the media is not a random phenomenon. Researchers are worried that the lack of comments may turn into admiration. In particular, hard crimes can cultivate myths of eternity and admiration, expanding to different hate communities on the Internet. In the discourse of threat to safety, children and young people were described by rhetorical means, to be dangerous for themselves or others. On the one hand, the context of serious crimes described children and young people as murderers and killers. On the other hand, they were presented as threats to those using public facilities. By presenting single cases, children and young people were described as general dominant threats to society and also the inclusion of information on the nationwide crime defence programme suggested that children and young people should always be under the surveillance of some public authority. The aim of this surveillance seems not to be inclusion but exclusion, thus increasing the risk of crimes. The child held in the custody of child welfare after committing a serious crime, such as manslaughter, was reflected in the discourse of being relieved from responsibility. Despite this turmoil continued. The media missed the information about the crisis and speakers' categories. It seems to be difficult to protect the criminal. Furthermore, the social media passed on the material not published in the media. This type of situation made it possible for school mass murderers to publish and rehearse their self-made videos among other media material. The incomprehension of children and young people was exploited financially in the discourse of being relieved from responsibility. They were expected to know how to take a quick loan by phone, illicitly without their parents knowing, but not to count the real interest rate for twelve months. In this discourse, children were lured to have cash easily. The discourse of being relieved from responsibility also included discarding a sense of shame regarding crimes. Moreover, taboos surrounding the role of victims of sexual abuse require open discussion. ne of the main principles of social work is normality. According to it, society takes a risk of stigma when reacting to children and young people's minor offences. Stigmatisation may be attached to assuming a deviant identity. There should be nationwide norms for children and young people's minor offences because of the significant decrease of social tolerance in local projects concerning them. Social workers should be more involved in discussions concerning children and young people both in the real world and virtually. Instead of making children and young people harmless, we could bring into focus the voice and position of the socially excluded so that they could be seen as subjects of their lives and responsible citizens.