Browsing by Subject "social media"

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  • Dara, Dahat (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    COVID-19-pandemian myötä vuotta 2020 on varjostanut epävarmuus ja pelko, mikä on havaittavissa sekä perinteisessä että sosiaalisessa mediassa käytävässä keskustelussa. Sosiaalisen median käytössä korostuu eri kanavien rooli sekä tiedon lähteenä että käyttäjien omien näkemysten ilmaisemisen välineenä. Lisäksi sosiaalisessa mediassa korostuu käyttäjien välinen vuorovaikutus. Sosiaalisen median käyttäminen terveyteen liittyvän tiedon lähteenä voi kuitenkin olla ongelmallista, erityisesti jos tieto erkaantuu tieteellisesti todistetusta faktasta. Sosiaalisessa mediassa esiintyvän diskurssin tarkasteleminen voi kuitenkin laajentaa ymmärrystämme käyttäjien suhtautumisesta ja asenteista uhkaavien infektiosairauksien vaaroihin sekä leviämisen estämiseen liittyviin toimenpiteisiin. Tämän tutkimuksen osalta COVID-19-pandemiaa lähestytään kasvomaskien käyttöön liittyvän diskurssin tarkastelulla suhtautumisen näkökulmasta. Analyysissa sovelletaan Martinin ja Whiten suhtautumisen teoriaa (Appraisal theory), jonka avulla voidaan havainnoida puhujien asennoitumista kasvomaskien käyttöön tarkastelemalla kielessä ilmenevää evaluaatiota. Teorian viitekehys koostuu kolmesta järjestelmästä: asennoituminen (attitude), sitoutuminen (engagement) ja asteittaisuus (graduation). Tämä tutkimus on rajattu asennoitumisen järjestelmään, joka jakautuu edelleen kolmeen alajärjestelmään: tunteiden ilmaisuun (affect), toiminnan arvosteluun (judgement) sekä esineiden ja asioiden arvottamiseen (appreciation). Suhtautumisen teoriassa kieli mielletään systeemis-funktionaalisesta kieliteoriasta lainaten merkitysten viestittämisen järjestelmänä, jossa evaluaatio toteutuu puhujan valitessa lukuisien mahdollisten merkitysten välillä. Tutkimuksen aineistona käytetään yhdysvaltalaisessa Washington Post -lehdessä julkaistua kasvomaskien oikeaoppiseen käyttöön ohjeistavan uutisartikkelin kommenttiosiota. Kommenttiosio koostuu yhteensä 137 kommentista, joista 114 sisältää kasvomaskien käyttöön liittyvää asennoitumista. Näissä 114 kommentissa ilmenee asennoitumista yhteensä 147 kertaa. Kommenttien analysoinnissa sovelletaan kvalitatiivista analyysia, jonka avulla kommenteista ensin täsmennetään asennoitumisen esiintymät. Tämän jälkeen analyysissa määritellään tarkemmin mitä kasvomaskeihin liittyvää aspektia arvioidaan, mikä on asennoitumisen polariteetti ja mihin arviointi sijoittuu asennoitumisen alajärjestelmissä. Tulokset osoittavat, että kasvomaskeihin liittyvässä diskurssissa korostuu ihmistoiminnan arvostelu, mikä ilmenee kasvomaskien käyttämättä jättämisen kielteisenä arvosteluna. Myös kasvomaskien sääntöihin sekä sääntöjen toteutumiseen ja valvontaan liittyvät epäjohdonmukaisuudet saavat osakseen kielteistä arvottamista. Tuloksissa ilmenee myös negatiivista asennoitumista poliittisia johtajia ja instituutioita kohtaan sekä näkyvää poliittista vastakkainasettelua, jossa kasvomaskien käyttämättömyys mielletään oikeistolaisen ideologian seuraukseksi. Tulokset viittaavat siihen, että kasvomaskeihin suhtaudutaan myönteisesti ja niiden tärkeys sairauden leviämisen estämiseksi tiedostetaan.
  • Fagerlund, Siiri Eveliina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The #MeToo campaign started on social media in 2017, empowering women who had experienced sexual harassment and- violence. From the start the campaign was criticized for the lack of intersectionality in representation. In the autumn of 2018, the leading figure of the campaign, Asia Argento, was accused of having sexual relations with 17-year-old Jimmy Bennet. The new story presented a differing narrative from the main storyline of #metoo, that eventually resulted in heated online debates where gender, power relations and sexual violence were present and debated. The campaign has inevitably shaped society, and the way we talk about sexual violence in an online setting. This thesis focuses on the narrative of Asia Argento on social media; how she is narrated in relation to her gender and categories of #metoo and sexual harassment. Thus, the purpose of this thesis is to analyze how women are viewed on social media in the post #metoo context. The theoretical framework of this thesis builds on existing literature on feminism, gender as a cultural construct, sexual violence and power relations as part of gender and feminism, social media, hate speech and how these subjects are discussed on social media in the #metoo context in which its own communicative practices apply. The main source material is provided by Rossi (2015), Daniels (2016), Kantola (2015), Kitzinger & Thomas (1995) and Meikle (2016). The qualitative study applies feminist epistemology to analyze 75 comments collected from 5 news outlets: CNN International, the New York Times, CBS News, Fox News and ABC News. The data was collected with random sampling to enable a broad demographic of commentators, that were later fully anonymized apart from their gender. The analysis was conducted using categorical-content analysis. Argento is analyzed through three themes: women, #metoo and sexual violence. The findings indicate that white women are fair game on social media, as their appearance, merits and femininity is denied. The loss of credibility of #MeToo movement is highlighted through Asia Argento, whereas the women supporting her are processed similarly as Argento. The latest case further impacts the narrative of the victims, as the status of the victim is negotiated. The findings indicate that the power relation between genders strongly impacts how the society treats women. Victim blaming, and mob-shaming are apparent, as the social media has enabled freedom of speech. The findings further indicate that social media is a patriarchal environment, that nurtures misogyny. Hence, hostility, stereotypes and generalizations are apparent, resulting in an environment where the weak are silenced and dominant voices are being emphasized. This does not only apply to women, but to men as well, as they too are being faced with belittling and emasculation. The thesis analyzes the narrative of a woman in the era in which gender and gender roles are still being defined. It takes a closer look at social media, and how women are perceived on social media in the post #metoo context.
  • Katila, Anni-Sofia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Meat consumption in the world is increasing, which has significant negative effects on the ongoing climate change. There is a need to make people change their diets towards more plant-based. One of the problems is that there is a negative atmosphere around veganism and vegans that prevents the change. In order to get people more plant-based, that negative atmosphere around veganism and vegans should be reduced. The aim of this study is to find out what kind of arguments are used against veganism and vegans, and what rhetorical strategies are used in these arguments. Previous studies have shown that there is still a strong belief that meat is a necessary part of the diet to keep one healthy. Studies also show, that the reason people do not change their diets can be attitudinal, for example that people think they are meant to eat meat, or practical, for example that there is not enough information available. The material for this study is from the Finnish online discussion forum Suomi24 and consists of messages that are against veganism and vegans. The Suomi24 data was retrieved from the KORP interface, where it was possible to search messages related to veganism. There is no information about the people behind the messages, because they are anonymous on the forum. The material was analysed with content analysis and strengthened with rhetorical analysis. Categorization was part of the analysis and categories were coded to the material in the Atlas.ti program. As a result, there were seven main categories and 28 sub-categories under two parent categories. The most common arguments against veganism and vegans were related to health, vegans as individuals and how vegans act. The most commonly used rhetorical strategies were factual argumentation, categorization, extreme expression and taking distance from one’s own interests. As a conclusion, to be able to increase plant-based food in people’s diets, more available information is needed, and positive encouragement without incrimination to build up an attractive atmosphere around veganism and vegans.
  • Heinonen, Outi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Advertising has been an area of interest in linguistic research for the past decades due to its pervasiveness and role in shaping our notions and values in society. This study sets out to examine the socio-cultural practices in a specific field of advertising discourse, influencer marketing on social media. Influencer marketing is a recent branch of marketing, brought forth by the popularity of social media. In Influencer marketing, the products are marketed by individual influencers instead of corporations or companies. Brands turn to social media influencers in order to reach a wider audience and to utilize the influencers’ social media presence and their ability to influence their audience to promote their products and to turn this social power into capital. The hypothesis is that this key difference between traditional marketing and influencer marketing. The aim of this study is to present a critical discourse analysis to examine the social context and relationship between the influencer and the reader. The methodologic approach applied to the analysis of the data is critical discourse analysis, more specifically Norman Fairclough’s three-dimensional model. Critical discourse analysis and Fairclough’s model allow focus on the linguistic properties in addition to the production and reception processes of discourse and the socio-cultural practices within discourse. The data and its analysis deemed that influencer marketing reveals consumerist ideologies that promote purchasing of goods as a means to reach happiness and well-being, as presented by the social media influencers.
  • Cámara Castillo, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The interactive features of social media platforms facilitate communication between political institutions and citizens and are said to enhance democracy by strengthening the public sphere. On the other hand, the commercialization of social networks and fragmentation of the public, together with the current mediatization of political communication, undermine the democratic possibilities of online platforms. Nowadays, the main social media platforms are owned by large US-based corporations with economic interests that often come into conflict with the public values promoted by EU institutions. Moreover, European institutions have the challenge of being often portrayed as non-transparent and remaining underrepresented in mass media. For that matter, analyzing how EU institutions present themselves on social media is relevant to understand which values they intend to promote and how do they interact with citizens, especially young people. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze how the European Parliament and the European Commission use visual communication on Instagram to portray themselves and in which ways they use the interactive possibilities available in the Stories feature to communicate with citizens. In particular, this case study focuses on Instagram because it is a visually-centered social media platform, which allows analyzing the visual aspects of political communication fairly easily. Based on Habermas’ concept of public sphere, the analysis also considers whether democratic deliberation is part of the communication strategy of European institutions. Qualitative content analysis and thematic analysis have been used as methods to assess the images and videos published on the Instagram accounts of the European Parliament and the European Commission during a period of 30 days, between January and February 2019. The clusters of analysis presented by Russmann and Svensson (2016), including perception, image management, integration and interactivity, have been selected as the main variables to analyze the content. The results of the analysis suggest that the communication strategy of the European institutions on Instagram is rather based on one-directional and top-down communication, accordingly with the findings of previous research. The European Parliament and the European Commission mostly use Instagram to inform citizens about their policy and to promote European values, instead of engaging in democratic deliberation and strengthening political participation. Furthermore, the building of the European identity appears to be a central aspect of the communication strategy of the analyzed institutions, often together with personalization and explicit reference to users.
  • Joyee, Nabila Jahan (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This master’s thesis aims to provide a broader and deeper knowledge within the areas of migration and integration. The study tasks are how the diaspora community is involved in the overall migration and integration process in a host state and what role social networks play in different phases of migration. There are four essential conceptual features of the migration phenomenon are identified in the study: migration, integration, diaspora community, and social networks. These concepts are analysed focusing on the factors of migration, integration process, how diaspora community and social networks work. The analysis is done using a comprehensive case study on the Bangladeshi diaspora community in Finland. The study material is collected through semi-structured interviews with 10 Bangladeshi student migrants living in Finland. As a potential migrant group as well as an underexamined study group, student migrants are chosen the study participants. A thematic analysis of the data is carried out to unveil the underlying meanings of how student migrants narrate their experiences as an immigrant. The themes identified are used to critically reflect on and explore the aspects and dynamics of the nexus between diasporas and social networks in migration and integration. This study outcomes identify education as the major pull factor for the student migrants considering Finnish high quality of research facilities, education environment, and the fee-free study system. It also marks that both personal and social networks have a strong role in migrant’s decision of choosing Finland as their destination. The role of technology becomes prominent in the current age in terms of gathering information, admission procedure, and visa processing. This is even more realised due to the absence of the Embassy operation and other official communication channels. The study finds the diaspora community’s role is increasingly becoming significant in the present context, they provide migrants with access to information, job conditions as well as settling them with finding accommodation, education places, emotional support, and comfort of belonging in a host country. Within this journey of a migrant, social media platform has appeared as a crucial part of social networks and diasporas in terms of communication. Facebook groups have become a major communication channel. Additionally, the Corona situation has made online engagement among people more visible. Nonetheless, this diaspora-social network-migration-integration nexus can play both a supportive as well as a critical role for migrants as the experience varies.
  • Granholm, Camilla (2016)
    This article presents a qualitative study of ICT use among Finnish young people attending training programmes for youth outside employment and education. The data come from six focus group interviews and three individual interviews, as well as a single focus group interview with involved supervisors. The data was analyzed using McQuail's (1983) theory regarding the motives for individual media use. The results show that the young people use ICT primarily for entertainment, but their use is diverse. Young people choose the tools and dimensions for interaction that best fulfill their needs, blending together ingredients from both online and offline sources. Unlike previous research, young people in this study stated that they prefer talking to someone face-to-face about severe (health-related or emotional) problems. If social and youth services want to meet young people on their own terms, both online and offline services are needed.
  • Jääskeläinen, Jannica (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The pressure toward companies to tackle the challenges of our societies has grown higher. Consumers are expecting companies not only to consider their impact on the society in form of corporate social responsibility (CSR), but to explicitly express their stances on socio-political issues. Also, while the concept of CSR is currently being reshaped, the ways in which CSR is communicated are changing. Thus, the purpose of this thesis is to deepen the understanding of how CSR is communicated in the context of social media from the perspective of new CSR. The theoretical framework of this thesis builds on literature about CSR, social movements, and CSR communication on social media. The literature review constructs a framework of new CSR, which in this study means extended responsibilities that derive from the concepts of political CSR, corporate advocacy and activism. Some of the main source materials are provided by Aronczyk (2013), Baur and Wettstein (2016), London (2010) and Schrerer and Palazzo (2011). The study approach is qualitative, and the data consists of the Finnish textile company Finlayson’s Facebook posts from 2016 to 2017. The analysis is data-driven but guided by the theoretical framework. The analysis methods used are qualitative theme analysis and frame analysis. The findings of this study indicate that Finlayson’s CSR communication is a hybrid mix of traditional and new CSR. The study finds that the main CSR-related themes Finlayson communicates are environmental protection and political grievances. The first is an indication of a traditional CSR theme, and the study implies that these kinds of traditional CSR topics have now found their way into new platforms such as social media. However, political grievances imply an orientation toward newer CSR. The company addresses controversial socio-political issues and takes stances, for instance, on LGBT rights, racism and equal pay. When it comes to the ways in which Finlayson communicates CSR, this study identifies three responsibility communication frames: the credibility frame, the captaincy frame, and the cooperation frame. The credibility frame emphasizes past CSR initiatives and communication is informative and one-way by nature. The captaincy frame emphasizes the company’s future aspirations, and responsibility is personified to the CEO of the company, thus indicating forms of CEO activism. The cooperation frame emphasizes collaboration and establishing a mutual understanding between the company and its stakeholders. Furthermore, the cooperation frame mobilizes the company’s stakeholders to take action. Thus, the results imply that new CSR should be understood as an integral part of CSR studies and that the relationship between activism and CSR has become increasingly fluid.
  • Ehnström, Emil Mattias (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The number of people belonging to a language minority in Finland is increasing and people are becoming more and more spatially mobile. This has also led to an increase in transnationals and higher rates of cross-border mobility. With new methods involving social media big data, we can map spatial mobility patterns in new ways and deepen the understanding of how people relate to space. Differences in spatial mobility can for example give us an indication of the rate of integration into society. Some claim that a more spatially mobile life is a sign of success, but can we see differences in spatial mobility between people in Finland? The three language minorities considered in this thesis are Swedish, Russian, and Estonian. The history and culture of these groups are different as well as their status in Finnish society. Swedish speakers, with a national language status, have a different role in society, but do this well integrated minority differ from the other ones spatially? By using Twitter data and looking at the spatial mobility within Finland, we see where differences occur between language groups. To understand how strong ties the language groups have with neighbouring countries, we look at cross-border mobility to Estonia, Russia, and Sweden. The results show that there are differences in the spatial mobility of language minorities in Finland. Estonian speakers most frequently visit Estonia, while at the same time they are less mobile within Finland. The variation was large for Russian speakers, with some visiting Russia often and others almost never. Swedish speakers seem to have relatively weak ties to Sweden, compared to the other language groups and have very similar spatial mobility to the majority Finnish speaking population.
  • Sipilä, Arlinda (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Corporate communications and management have had for a long time the conviction that they could project a specific brand identity by communicating a strong vision. Today this view is being challenged, especially with the rise of social media, which has brought more visibility to customer communities and has enabled better tools for customers to communicate with each other instantly, anywhere in the world. People interacting with each other in their communities give an identity to the brands, a collective identity that can be different from the one that corporate communications try to project. It is, therefore, necessary for the brands to understand how customers collectively impact brand identity. The concepts of top-down brand identity models do not work very well in today’s interconnected world. With that in mind, this thesis looks at a bottom-up approach to the brand identity model. It aims to bring further attention to the impact that brand communities have on brand identity. Through a model for collective brand identity, the objective is to make it easier for brands to see their brand identity from a customers’ perspective and enable them to envision their future collective identities. This thesis is conducted as qualitative research including a model, case studies and interviews looking into the brand identity as a collective construction. It initially looks into existing research on collective identity in general as well as in brands. Then, it discusses existing models for brand identity and social movements. Based on the insight from the literature, this study attempts to formulate a model for collective brand identity. It uses the case studies as illustrations and proof of concept for the model. Lastly, four in-depth interviews are conducted to explore further how the model can be applied in real-life in order to study and categorise brands based on their collective identity. This research identifies four main types of collective identity in brands based on the community characteristics and personal sense of belonging, which is, how individual identities relate to that of the brand. These brand types are Influencer, Collaborative, Collective and Outlier. In general, the more collective the brand communities are, the more substantial impact they have on the band’s identity and the higher the sense of belonging to their communities, the more loyal customers they are.
  • Du, Mian; Kangasharju, Jussi; Karkulahti, Ossi; Pivovarova, Lidia; Yangarber, Roman (2013)
    While it is widely recognized that streams of social media messages contain valuable information, such as important trends in the users’ interest in consumer products and markets, uncovering such trends is problematic, due to the extreme volumes of messages in such media. In the case Twitter messages, following the interest in relation to all known products all the time is technically infeasible. IE narrows topics to search. In this paper, we present experiments on using deeper NLP-based processing of product-related events mentioned in news streams to restrict the volume of tweets that need to be considered, to make the problem more tractable. Our goal is to analyze whether such a combined approach can help reveal correlations and how they may be captured.
  • Lehtisaari, Katja Marleena; Villi, Mikko; Grönlund, Mikko; Linden, Tommy Carl-Gustav; Mierzejewska, Bozena; Picard, Robert; Röpnack, Axel (2018)
    The article focuses on innovation and social media strategies in newspaper companies in the US and three Scandinavian countries (Sweden, Norway and Denmark). Many previous studies have focused on the state of journalism and media industry in single countries, although media have distinct features in different countries. Through the comparative setting, it is possible to examine the differences in media innovation strategies and study what factors affect innovation in media production, business models, sources of funding, and social media strategies. The qualitative part of the paper consists of semi-structured in-depth interviews (N = 65) with media managers and experts, which were carried out in Scandinavia in 2016 and in the US in 2017. The quantitative market data covers the years 2006–2016; this timespan corresponds well with the accelerating digital transition in the newspaper business. According to the results, new business models are mostly new combinations of existing revenue streams, while adaptation of new technology is slow, with few exceptions.
  • Amadae, S. M. (Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Helsinki, 2020)
    Computational Transformation of the Public Sphere is the organic product of what turned out to be an effective collaboration between MA students and their professor in the Global Politics and Communication program in the Faculty of Social Sciences at the University of Helsinki, in the Fall of 2019. The course, Philosophy of Politics and Communication, is a gateway course into this MA program. As I had been eager to conduct research on the impact of new digital technologies and artificial intelligence (AI) on democratic governance, I saw this course as an opportunity to not only share, but also further develop my knowledge of this topic.
  • Lillqvist, Ella; Moisander, Johanna K.; Firat, A. Fuat (2018)
    Previous research has shown that consumers increasingly challenge the legitimacy of marketers and unsolicited marketing communication in online contexts. Based on a qualitative study, this article examines how and for what reasons consumers challenge marketer legitimacy—the perceived appropriateness of marketers and their activities—in the empirical context of Reddit, a popular social news and community website. The study suggests that consumers challenge or accept marketer legitimacy in online communities based on particular, community and situation specific, legitimacy criteria that reflect and reproduce the values and norms of the community. In doing so, it is argued, consumers play a role as legitimating agents—consumer-citizens that have the power to confer or deny legitimacy in the context of business-society relations. Overall, the study advances knowledge in the field of consumer studies in two ways. First, it builds a symbolic interactionist perspective on consumer-citizens as legitimating agents who enact their active citizenship role in the marketplace by assessing and constructing marketer legitimacy in online communities. Second, it offers an empirically grounded account of how and for what reasons consumer-citizens challenge or accept the legitimacy of marketers and unsolicited marketing communication in online communities.
  • Palmén, Fredrik (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Syftet med avhandlingen är att undersöka hur rederierna Viking Line och Tallink Siljas reaktioner på coronaviruspandemin tog sig i uttryck på Facebook på våren 2020. Forskningen tar både fasta på hur kommunikationen på Facebook har sett ut samt hur rederierna säger sig ha upplevt krisen. Avhandlingen svarar på frågan hur kommunikationen har sett ut och på vilket sätt den skiljer sig från tiden före pandemin. Dessutom ger analyserna svar på hur rederiernas kommunikation skiljer sig från varandra. Avhandlingen strävar efter att belysa de teman som rederierna har kommunicerat på Facebook under coronaviruspandemins första fas i Finland, samt vilka metoder som använts för att förstärka budskapen i inläggen. Detta analyseras ur mottagarens synvinkel, alltså på vilket sätt Facebookinläggen kan tolkas och vilka upplevelser de väcker. Studien grundar sig i teori om kriskommunikation och intryckshantering. Metoderna som används är kvalitativ forskningsintervju, tematisering och kvalitativ semiotisk innehållsanalys. Den sistnämnda är av störst relevans eftersom den möjliggör breda insikter i hur kommunikationen på Facebook har sett ut. Analyserna av inläggen fokuserar på inläggens bilder och texter, medan exempelvis kommentarer och reaktioner utesluts. Eftersom det inte är ändamålsenligt att analysera varje inlägg som publicerats, görs en innehållstematisering av inläggen. Tematiseringen bidrar med ett målstyrt urval bestående av totalt tio inlägg som analyseras noggrannare med hjälp av den semiotiska analysen. Forskningens resultat tyder på liknande upplevelser av pandemin hos både Tallink Silja och Viking Line. De teman som lyftes fram i kommunikationen var också i stort sett samma, men skillnader i kommunikationen noteras också. En signifikant skillnad är rederiernas förhållningssätt till social media som kriskommunikationskanal. Viking Line använder sig på ett bredare plan av social media i kriskommunikationen, medan Tallink Silja främst utnyttjar andra kanaler. Avhandlingen kan fungera som grund för vidare forskning i kriskommunikation på social media. Det som exempelvis inte tas upp i denna forskning är vilka reaktioner kommunikationen har väckt hos mottagarna. Avhandlingen riktar sig till kommunikatörer som med hjälp av social media vill utveckla sin kommunikation eller kriskommunikation, särskilt när krisen slår till mot organisationen utifrån.
  • Backholm, Klas Henrik; Ausserhofer, Julian; Frey, Elsebeth; Grøndahl Larsen, Anna; Hornmoen, Harald; Högväg, Joachim; Reimerth, Gudrun (2017)
    Social media (SoMe) platforms provide potentially important information for news journalists during everyday work and in crisis-related contexts. The aims of this study were (a) to map central journalistic challenges and emerging practices related to using SoMe for collecting and validating newsworthy content; and (b) to investigate how practices may contribute to a user-friendly design of a web-based SoMe content validation toolset. Interviews were carried out with 22 journalists from three European countries. Information about journalistic work tasks was also collected during a crisis training scenario (N = 5). Results showed that participants experienced challenges with filtering and estimating trustworthiness of SoMe content. These challenges were especially due to the vast overall amount of information, and the need to monitor several platforms simultaneously. To support improved situational awareness in journalistic work during crises, a user-friendly tool should provide content search results representing several media formats and gathered from a diversity of platforms, presented in easy-to-approach visualizations. The final decision-making about content and source trustworthiness should, however, remain as a manual journalistic task, as the sample would not trust an automated estimation based on tool algorithms.
  • Dhir, Amandeep; Torsheim, Torbjorn; Pallesen, Stale; Andreassen, Cecilie S. (2017)
    Selfies, or self-portraits, are often taken and shared on social media for online self-presentation reasons, which are considered essential for the psychosocial development and well-being of people in today's culture. Despite the growing popularity and widespread sharing of selfies in the online space, little is known about how privacy concerns moderate selfie behavior. In addition to this, it is also not known whether privacy concerns across age and gender groups influence selfie behavior. To address this timely issue, a survey assessing common selfie behaviors, that is, frequency of taking (individual and group selfies), editing (cropping and filtering), and posting selfies online, and social media privacy concerns (over personal data being accessed and misused by third parties) was conducted. The web-survey was administered to 3,763 Norwegian social media users, ranging from 13 to 50 years, with a preponderance of women (n = 2,509, 66.7%). The present study investigated the impact of privacy concerns on selfie behaviors across gender and age groups (adolescent, young adult, and adult) by use of the structural equation modeling approach. The results suggest that young adults have greater privacy concerns compared to adolescents and adults. Females have greater privacy concerns than males. Greater privacy concerns among female social media users were linked to lower engagement in selfie behavior, but privacy concerns did not influence selfie behavior in the case of male adolescents and young adults. Overall, privacy concerns were more consistently and inversely related to selfie behavior (taking and posting) among females than males. The study results have theoretical as well as practical implications for both researchers and policy makers.
  • Pasanen, Niko (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Tutkielmani vertailee kahden eri ikäryhmän – yli 50-vuotiaiden ja alle 20-vuotiaiden teinien – kommunikaatiokäyttäytymistä ja erityisesti hymiöiden käyttöä chat-huoneympäristössä. Päähuomioni keskittyy siihen, miten ja kuinka usein hymiöitä käytetään itsenäisinä kommunikaatiovälineinä yleisesti, ja toisaalta siihen, miten näiden kahden eri ikäryhmän kommunikoiminen eroaa toisistaan. Teknologinen kehitys ja sen mukanaan tuomat erilaiset toinen toistaan kehittyneemmät sosiaaliset mediapalvelut luovat keskustelijoille kasvavia paineita kommunikoida yhä nopeammin ja tehokkaammin: esimerkiksi Twitter tarjoaa käyttäjilleen vain 140 merkkiä ajatustensa ja kokemustensa jakamiseen. Näin ollen erilaisista lyhenteistä ja erityisesti juuri hymiöistä on tullut lähivuosina huomattavasti aiempaa tarpeellisempia kommunikaatiovälineitä, eikä niiden käyttöä tai ylipäätään tietokonevälitteistä viestintää ole yksinkertaisesti tutkittu tarpeeksi. Tutkimukseni teoriapohjana toimii sekä vanhempi tietokonevälitteisen viestinnän ominaispiirteitä käsittelevä ja toisaalta hymiöiden käyttöön liittyvä tutkimus (erityisesti Wolf, 2000; Lo, 2008; Herring, 1999; Dresner & Herring, 2010 ja Park, 2007), mutta toisaalta oma tutkimukseni keskittyy hyvin erilaisiin yksityiskohtiin, ja pohjautuu näin ollen pääasiassa kommunikaatioteoriaan ja erityisesti vuoronvaihtelun periaatteisiin (Oreström, 1983; Yngve, 1970; Tottie, 1991; Argyle, 1988). On kuitenkin tärkeää huomioida, että kyseinen teoriapohja liittyy pääsääntöisesti puhuttuun kieleen, joten olen muokannut vuoronvaihtelun kategorisointia paremmin omiin tarkoitukseeni ja chat-huoneympäristöön sopivammaksi. Olen kerännyt materiaalini kahtena eri ajankohtana syksyllä 2012 ja syksyllä 2015 icq.com -sivuston tarjoamien chat-huoneiden kautta. Vuoden 2012 pilottitutkimus sisälsi 1334 lausumaa teinien huoneesta ja 1266 50+ -huoneesta, ja vuoden 2015 laajempi tutkimus vastaavasti 1845 ja 2217. Analyysini osoittaa, että valittujen ikäluokkien kommunikaatiokäyttäytymisessä on huomattavia eroja, sekä yleisellä tasolla, että kolmen vuoden ajanjakson aikana. Ensinnäkin nuoret käyttävät huomattavasti enemmän hymiöitä itsenäisinä kommunikaatiovälineinä, kun taas vanhemmat eivät käytä niitä juuri ollenkaan itsenäisesti, vain ainoastaan lauseiden yhteydessä. Toisaalta vanhemmat keskustelijat käyttävät lähestulkoon pelkästään perinteistä :)-hymynaamaa, ja nuoret vastaavasti varioivat käyttöään huomattavasti enemmän. Toisaalta eri ikäluokkien kommunikaatiokäyttäytymisessä on havaittavissa mielenkiintoisia trendejä: nuorten hymiöiden käyttö on kolmen vuoden aikana vähentynyt, ja vanhempien vastaavasti lisääntynyt huomattavasti. Voidaankin olettaa, että Dresner & Herringin (2010) näkemys siitä, että hymiöt ovat evolutiivisia, pitää todella paikkansa: nuorten hymiöiden käyttö vaikuttaa pääasiassa olevan kytköksissä trendeihin. Uudenlaiset, innovatiivisemmat tavat viestiä syrjäyttävät hyvinkin nopeasti vanhemmat, ja näin ollen perinteiset hymiöt ja ylipäätään chat-huoneistot jäävät vähitellen syrjään, kun nuoret siirtyvät käyttämään uusia sosiaalisen median palveluita ja emojeja, joita voidaan pitää hymiöiden uutena, kehittyneempänä muotona, joka tarjoaa mahdollisuuden laajempaan ja värikkäämpään viestintään. Ajankohtaisen tutkimuksen tuottamisen vaikeutena on teknologian ja esimerkiksi Internetin nopea kehitys ja leviäminen 2000-luvulla: tutkijoiden on yksinkertaisesti vaikea pysyä menossa mukana. Oman tutkimukseni päällimmäinen tarkoitus on ensinnäkin tuoda esille entistä laajemmin hymiöiden käyttöön liittyviä mahdollisuuksia ja niiden käyttötarkoituksia, ja toisaalta osoittaa, miten suuria eroja eri ikäluokkien kommunikaatiokäyttäytymisessä on. Lisäksi haluan ennen kaikkea luoda pohjaa myöhemmälle, laajemmalle tutkimukselle.
  • Lin, Jinquan (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    When international students from mainland China go abroad and start their new life in Finland, they have the choice of using social media platforms such as Facebook and Twitter which have been blocked by mainland China for many years. Additionally, they may keep using platforms that of their native language, like WeChat and Sina Weibo. The current research studies Chinese international students’ perception of their cultural adaptation to Finnish society, with a particular focus on the role of social media usage during their process of adaptation. This study also aims to give attention to intercultural adaptation in the Finnish context. The study conducts a semi-structured interview among eight Chinese mainland students who study in Finland. Interviews are audio-recorded. All data collected are transcribed in Chinese and then translated into English. The qualitative research of content analysis is employed in this study for analysing the research data. The analysis indicates that most Chinese students have positive feelings about Finland. However, the ties between Chinese students and Finnish natives are weak due to various reasons including languages, cultural differences and personalities. These findings further state that the social media usage patterns and preferences of Chinese students are different depending on their length of stay in Finland and the gratification of social media. The analysis demonstrates that the majority of Chinese students prefer to use social media platforms that of their native language, other than Facebook and Twitter. The analysis also highlights different perceptions of cultural adaptation from Chinese students, which reveals that each respondent has his/her way of adapting to Finland.
  • Lundahl, Outi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Moral panics are instances of public anxiety in response to a problem regarded as threatening the moral standards of society. Extant literature on moral panics has then tended to focus on individual deviants. In contrast, this study focuses on a moral panic where the morally objectionable actor is an entire industry which is portrayed as having intentionally manufactured the societal problem for their own personal gain. Thus, this study investigates how does the media create a moral panic around an industry? The context of this study is social media addiction. In order to answer this research question, a longitudinal, mixed methods media analysis of British newspapers in 2015–2019 is conducted. The constructivist media frame analysis then shows that while previously social media addiction was seen as an individual disorder, media then framed social media addiction as a manufactured epidemic. Thus, the study shows that a moral panic around social media addiction was created and that there were increased calls for regulation of the industry. However, it also that as these calls were seen as being responded to by the government, the moral panic dissipated. In addition, an automated text mining analysis also shows that, contrary to extant literature, the media framing does not rely on increasingly emotional rhetoric. The study then firstly contributes to extant literature on moral panics by showing how an industry, instead of groups of individuals, can become seen as the “folk devil”. This happens through powerful metaphors which are formed around social media companies. This can have considerable implications for the industry as even if this particular moral panic around social media addiction may remain short-lived, it may prove to be only one wave in the so-called spiral of signification, in other words, the increasing anxiety towards the social media industry. Secondly, the study also contributes to the understanding of emotions in a moral panic by showing that moral panics do not necessitate increased emotional rhetoric in the media framing. The study concludes with a discussion of the implications of the recent public policy measures in the UK.