Browsing by Subject "social psychology"

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  • Kuljukka, Tomi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    In this thesis, I attempt to answer the question of whether it is possible to reflect the modern psychological theory of culture of honour to the Late Copper/ Early Bronze Age period of the Eurasian steppe zone. Furthermore, how does this affect social structure and can archaeological evidence prove it. To study culture of honour, Indo-European sources and ethnographic research on mobile pastoralism are also examined. Through a sociocultural approach, this thesis strives to reconstruct the sociocultural background and changes originating from the Yamnaya. In this approach, theories from anthropology, ethnography, sociology, social psychology, and science of religion interact. Furthermore, sources associated with early Indo-European culture (e.g., social structure and mythology) are included. Essentially, this study aims to link the Yamnaya culture with the sociocultural theory of culture of honor. A focus of this thesis is the study of anthropomorphic stone stelae associated with the Yamnaya and adjacent cultures. The area where the stelae have been found consists of the modern countries of Romania, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Moldova, North Macedonia and Russia. Moreover, general knowledge about grave goods, burial rituals, osteological and genetic materials contribute to the overall reconstruction and interpretation process. A comprehensive outline of Yamnaya's ideological, social, and behavioral aspects is attempted through the use of comparative methodology. In order to accomplish this, the archaeological materials and their symbolic meaning are interpreted using the theoretical frameworks provided and compared to later Indo-European traditions and ethnographic studies on mobile pastoralism. Using theoretical frameworks and comparative method, this thesis demonstrates that the sociocultural theory of culture of honor can be reflected in archaeological materials. The reflections of sociocultural behaviour can be argued to be present in burial rituals, grave goods, osteological, genetic and most of all in the anthropomorphic stone stelae.
  • Brylka, Asteria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The present cross-sectional study investigates the reciprocity of ethnic relations in Finland and the role this reciprocity plays in the development of an inclusive integration context characterised by positive intergroup attitudes, and support for multiculturalism and for the minority groups collective action. The theoretical framework builds on the social identity theory, the theory of acculturation and contact hypothesis. Identity- and contact-related predictors of the inclusive integration context are examined among Finns and among Russian and Estonian immigrants. First, this study sheds more light on intergroup attitudes in the context of immigration. High national identification of Finns and Russian immigrants elicited stronger psychological ownership of Finland. However, while strong ownership made the attitudes of Finns towards Russian immigrants more negative, among the Russian immigrants ownership was linked to more positive attitudes towards Finns. Positive contact with Finns elicited more positive attitudes towards this group, which in turn were linked to more favourable mutual attitudes among Estonian and Russian immigrants. The same association, but with a negative valence, was true for negative contact. Moreover, positive contact with Finns was linked to higher, and negative contact to lower, public collective self-esteem among low-status Russian immigrants but not among high-status Estonian immigrants; higher and lower public collective self-esteem was, in turn, respectively linked to more positive and more negative attitudes towards Estonian immigrants. Second, ethnic identification of Russian immigrants fostered support for multiculturalism only when ethnic superiority of the ingroup was not perceived. Third, among Finns the perception of Russian immigrants preserving more of their culture than Finns would prefer, elicited stronger anxiety and lowered trust, these factors both in turn being related to lower support for collective action of Russian immigrants. When Russian immigrants perceived that they were not allowed by Finns to preserve as much of their culture as they wished, outgroup trust declined and strengthened support for the ingroup s collective action. This study shows that the inclusive integration context does not develop in a social vacuum and provides strong evidence on the importance of the reciprocity of multidimensional intergroup relations in diverse societies.
  • Tassinari, Matilde; Aulbach, Matthias; Jasinskaja-Lahti, Inga (2022)
    Virtual Reality (VR) has often been referred to as an “empathy machine.” This is mostly because it can induce empathy through embodiment experiences in outgroup membership. However, the potential of intergroup contact with an outgroup avatar in VR to increase empathy is less studied. Even though intergroup contact literature suggests that less threatening and more prosocial emotions are the key to understanding why intergroup contact is a powerful mean to decrease prejudice, few studies have investigated the effect of intergroup contact on empathy in VR. In this study, we developed a between-participants design to investigate how VR can be used to create a positive intergroup contact with a member of a stigmatized outgroup (ethnic minority) and present the results of the effect of intergroup contact in VR on empathy. Sixty four participants experienced either positive contact (i.e., equal intergroup status, collaborative) with a black (experimenter-controlled) avatar (experimental condition) or no intergroup contact (i.e., ingroup contact with a white avatar; control condition), with situational empathy (personal distress and empathic interest) being measured through a self-report questionnaire up to a week before and right after the VR contact experience. The experiment showed that satisfying degrees of body ownership of participants’ own avatar and co-presence with the contacted avatar can be achieved in simple and universally accessible virtual environments such as AltspaceVR. The results indicated that while VR intergroup contact had no significant direct effect on empathy, exploratory analyses indicated that post-intervention empathic interest increased with stronger feelings of co-presence in the intergroup contact condition.
  • Keipi, Teo; Näsi, Matti; Oksanen, Atte; Räsänen, Pekka (Routledge, 2017)
    Over the past few decades, various types of hate material have caused increasing concern. Today, the scope of hate is wider than ever, as easy and often-anonymous access to an enormous amount of online content has opened the Internet up to both use and abuse. By providing possibilities for inexpensive and instantaneous access without ties to geographic location or a user identification system, the Internet has permitted hate groups and individuals espousing hate to transmit their ideas to a worldwide audience. Online Hate and Harmful Content focuses on the role of potentially harmful online content, particularly among young people. This focus is explored through two approaches: firstly, the commonality of online hate through cross-national survey statistics. This includes a discussion of the various implications of online hate for young people in terms of, for example, subjective wellbeing, trust, self-image and social relationships. Secondly, the book examines theoretical frameworks from the fields of sociology, social psychology and criminology that are useful for understanding online behaviour and online victimisation. Limitations of past theory are assessed and complemented with a novel theoretical model linking past work to the online environment as it exists today. An important and timely volume in this ever-changing digital age, this book is suitable for graduates and undergraduates interested in the fields of Internet and new media studies, social psychology and criminology. The analyses and findings of the book are also particularly relevant to practitioners and policy-makers working in the areas of Internet regulation, crime prevention, child protection and social work/youth work.
  • Lieberoth, Andreas; Lin, Shiang-Yi; Stockli, Sabrina; Han, Hyemin; Kowal, Marta; Gelpi, Rebekah; Chrona, Stavroula; Tran, Thao Phuong; Jeftic, Alma; Rasmussen, Jesper; Cakal, Huseyin; Milfont, Taciano L.; Yamada, Yuki; Amin, Rizwana; Debove, Stephane; Flis, Ivan; Sahin, Hafize; Turk, Fidan; Yeh, Yao-Yuan; Ho, Yuen Wan; Sikka, Pilleriin; Delgado-Garcia, Guillermo; Lacko, David; Mamede, Salome; Zerhouni, Oulmann; Tuominen, Jarno; Bircan, Tuba; Wang, Austin Horng-En; Ikizer, Gozde; Lins, Samuel; Studzinska, Anna; Uddin, Muhammad Kamal; Juarez, Fernanda Perez-Gay; Chen, Fang-Yu; Sanli, Aybegum Memisoglu; Lys, Agnieszka E.; Reynoso-Alcantara, Vicenta; Flores Gonzalez, Ruben; Griffin, Amanda M.; Lopez, Claudio Rafael Castro; Nezkusilova, Jana; Cepulic, Dominik-Borna; Aquino, Sibele; Marot, Tiago A.; Blackburn, Angelique M.; Boullu, Lois; Bavolar, Jozef; Kacmar, Pavol; Wu, Charles K. S.; Areias, Joao Carlos; Natividade, Jean C.; Mari, Silvia; Ahmed, Oli; Dranseika, Vilius; Cristofori, Irene; Coll-Martin, Tao; Eichel, Kristina; Kumaga, Raisa; Ermagan-Caglar, Eda; Bamwesigye, Dastan; Tag, Benjamin; Contreras-Ibanez, Carlos C.; Aruta, John Jamir Benzon R.; Naidu, Priyanka A.; Tran, Thao P.; Dilekler, Ilknur; Cenek, Jiri; Islam, Md. Nurul; Ch'ng, Brendan; Sechi, Cristina; Nebel, Steve; Sayilan, Gulden; Jha, Shruti; Vestergren, Sara; Ihaya, Keiko; Guillaume, Gautreau; Travaglino, Giovanni A.; Rachev, Nikolay R.; Hanusz, Krzysztof; Pirko, Martin; West, J. Noel; Cyrus-Lai, Wilson; Najmussaqib, Arooj; Romano, Eugenia; Noreika, Valdas; Musliu, Arian; Sungailaite, Emilija; Kosa, Mehmet; Lentoor, Antonio G.; Sinha, Nidhi; Bender, Andrew R.; Meshi, Dar; Bhandari, Pratik; Byrne, Grace; Kalinova, Kalina; Hubena, Barbora; Ninaus, Manuel; Diaz, Carlos; Scarpaci, Alessia; Koszalkowska, Karolina; Pankowski, Daniel; Yaneva, Teodora; Morales-Izquierdo, Sara; Uzelac, Ena; Lee, Yookyung; Hristova, Dayana; Hakim, Moh Abdul; Deschrijver, Eliane; Kavanagh, Phillip S.; Shata, Aya; Reyna, Cecilia; De Leon, Gabriel A.; Tisocco, Franco; Mola, Debora Jeanette; Shani, Maor; Mahlungulu, Samkelisiwe; Ozery, Daphna Hausman; Caniels, Marjolein C. J.; Correa, Pablo Sebastian; Ortiz, Maria Victoria; Vilar, Roosevelt; Makaveeva, Tsvetelina; Pummerer, Lotte; Nikolova, Irina; Bujic, Mila; Szebeni, Zea; Pennato, Tiziana; Taranu, Mihaela; Martinez, Liz; Capelos, Tereza; Belaus, Anabel; Dubrov, Dmitrii (2021)
    The COVIDiSTRESS global survey collects data on early human responses to the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic from 173 429 respondents in 48 countries. The open science study was co-designed by an international consortium of researchers to investigate how psychological responses differ across countries and cultures, and how this has impacted behaviour, coping and trust in government efforts to slow the spread of the virus. Starting in March 2020, COVIDiSTRESS leveraged the convenience of unpaid online recruitment to generate public data. The objective of the present analysis is to understand relationships between psychological responses in the early months of global coronavirus restrictions and help understand how different government measures succeed or fail in changing public behaviour. There were variations between and within countries. Although Western Europeans registered as more concerned over COVID-19, more stressed, and having slightly more trust in the governments' efforts, there was no clear geographical pattern in compliance with behavioural measures. Detailed plots illustrating between-countries differences are provided. Using both traditional and Bayesian analyses, we found that individuals who worried about getting sick worked harder to protect themselves and others. However, concern about the coronavirus itself did not account for all of the variances in experienced stress during the early months of COVID-19 restrictions. More alarmingly, such stress was associated with less compliance. Further, those most concerned over the coronavirus trusted in government measures primarily where policies were strict. While concern over a disease is a source of mental distress, other factors including strictness of protective measures, social support and personal lockdown conditions must also be taken into consideration to fully appreciate the psychological impact of COVID-19 and to understand why some people fail to follow behavioural guidelines intended to protect themselves and others from infection. The Stage 1 manuscript associated with this submission received in-principle acceptance (IPA) on 18 May 2020. Following IPA, the accepted Stage 1 version of the manuscript was preregistered on the Open Science Framework at This preregistration was performed prior to data analysis.
  • Caserta, Tehetna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The psychosocial well-being of orphans in Africa has received little attention in the empirical literature despite experiences of orphan crisis in Sub-Saharan Africa precipitated by war, diseases, and natural disasters. The purpose of this dissertation is to shed light on factors associated with the psychosocial well-being of orphans by taking into consideration living environments, quality of care, the psychological vulnerability, and the sources and functions of social support in buffering stressful situations. This study was based on a survey of Rwandan orphans (N=430) consisting of participants from four living environments (i.e., child-headed households, orphanages, streets, and foster homes). The thesis applied a set of instruments to measure psychosocial well-being, social support, stigma and marginalization, and socio-demographic factors through a close-ended questionnaire administered to survey participants. First, the study assessed the psychosocial well-being of orphans in Rwanda by focusing on their living environments and the quality of care they received. Results indicated that the living environments played an important role where orphans in the orphanage exhibited a higher level of emotional wellbeing, lower mental distress and risk taking behavior than others. Quality of care such as having three meals a day and going to school were associated with high levels of emotional well-being and low levels of mental distress. However, length of time spent in a particular living environment was associated strongly with lower levels of emotional well-being and higher levels of mental distress. Second, orphans psychological vulnerability, such as perceived stigma and marginalization, were explored with respect to living environments, status and cause of parental death, and their roles on emotional well-being and mental distress. The result indicated perceived stigma and marginalization were associated strongly only with the living environments. High levels of stigma and marginalization were associated with lower level of emotional well-being and higher level of mental distress. Furthermore AIDS orphans exhibited higher levels of mental distress compared to those orphaned by genocide or other causes after controlling for stigma, marginalization and social support. Low levels of social support due to stigma and marginalization contributed to low levels of emotional well-being and mental distress. Third, the study explored the relative importance of social support in buffering stressful events. The findings suggest that higher perceived social support was associated with higher emotional well-being and lower mental distress. In addition not all sources and functions of perceived social support were equally beneficial for emotional well-being and mental distress. The most important finding was that the variations in psychosocial well-being across living environments diminished significantly when controlling for stigma, marginalization, and social support, suggesting that community interactions with orphans were important factors in shaping the emotional and mental health of orphans. Understanding this complex reality could provide significant insight into the improvement of the psychosocial well-being of orphans.
  • Jauhiainen, Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Tiivistelmä – Referat – Abstract Adjustment to a traumatic brain injury is a major life event involving new self-experiences. Drawing upon a phenomenological perspective, this thesis explores one woman’s understanding of herself and her life with a moderate traumatic brain injury. Adjustment is portrayed broadly, involving new experiences of one’s body, oneself, and society. Interpretative phenomenological analysis serves as the method for this thesis. In contrast to previous findings, the results show that the experience of change in social identities does not always lead to an experience of a temporal division or loss of the self. The results provide an understanding of the self as existing on two levels; an interplay with transient social identities and a more profound sense of being. The results highlight the idea of social identities as connected to hegemonic understandings of the able body and an unconscious dependency on a high-functioning body and mind. Regarding clinical implications, the results imply that verbal sense-making of the trauma can enhance the patient’s understanding of neurological deficit: the injury is experienced as more real as it is verbally placed in a socially shared reality. Moreover, during the initial state of the injury, the person’s understanding of their condition can be multiple, inaccurate and contradictory. Hence, this thesis strengthens the importance of improving the patient’s early access to a diagnosis and healthcare. A person’s experience of the healthcare process can have a major impact on how they experience their illness. Shortcomings in the patient information system and a lack of information during the rehabilitation re-evaluations can cause the patient to experience uncertainty over their health, eliciting emotions of loneliness and mistrust towards the healthcare, hampering the adjustment process. Motivation to adjust can manifest as an interaction between having a positive outlook on life, the experience of having a limited choice, and an embodied understanding of being alone with the illness. Lastly, the results point out that the realization of a traumatic brain injury is a recurrent process of thought. The process is crucial in terms of adjustment since it enables the person to create a meaningful presence in times of adversity.
  • Sortheix, Florencia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The purpose of this dissertation was to analyze the relationships between personal values and well-being, paying special attention to the contexts in which these associations emerge. This study addresses an ongoing controversy in current research between two competing hypotheses: a direct or healthy values perspective and the value-environment congruence perspective, the latter of which will be further developed in this dissertation. The theoretical background of the study is derived from Schwartz's value theory (1992, 2006), value-environment congruence models of well-being (Sagiv & Schwartz, 2000; Diener, Oishi, & Lucas, 2003; Diener & Diener, 1995), self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985), as well as research on subjective and work well-being (Diener, 1984; Bakker, Schaufeli, Leiter, & Taris, 2008). This study used a variety of samples: large population samples from 25 European countries (N~40.000, European Social Survey, ESS, 2006), two representative samples of working age adults from a Finnish rural community in 1993 and 2007 (N = 373), university students from Argentina, Bulgaria and Finland (N = 627), as well as a representative sample of young adults from a longitudinal data set from the Finnish Educational Transitions (FinEdu) research project (N = 571). First, the current study tested the relationships between values and the cognitive aspect of SWB specifically life satisfaction (LS) across European countries, and found that the level of socio-economic development of a country moderated the relationships between values and life satisfaction. Interestingly, some associations were contradictory: achievement values were positively and universalism values were negatively associated to life satisfaction in low socio-economically developed countries, and the reverse associations were found in highly developed nations. In less developed countries, which in the ESS are mostly Eastern European, openness to change values (positive) and conservation values (negative) were more strongly related to LS than in higher developed nations. This study also showed some universal positive motivations for well-being: valuing benevolence and hedonism, but not security or power was related to higher SWB in general population across countries. Second, person-group value congruence understood as the similarity between individual and average group values related to higher subjective well-being among university students and fewer psychological stress symptoms among community members. Value congruence, but not individuals scores on value priorities, predicted increased SWB in student samples. In the community sample, conservation values related to fewer psychological symptoms in times of economic crisis, but not in times of economic prosperity. Finally, this study examined long-term predictors of well-being at work (engagement) and proposed a conceptualization of career values based on self-determination theory s ideas of autonomous versus controlled sources of motivation. Results showed that intrinsically rewarding career values were positively related to subsequent engagement, but extrinsically motivated career values were unrelated. According to the findings, perceived person-organization value congruence was the strongest predictor of work engagement. In sum, this study shows that the relationship between values and well-being is dependent on the broader social context that individuals inhabit. In particular, the relationship between individuals values and well-being is influenced by country level characteristics, by the social groups to which they belong, as well as by organizational and developmental situations.