Browsing by Subject "social science"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-5 of 5
  • Sinnemäki, Aino (2003)
    The subject of the thesis is the way of thought, writing, talk and action constructed in time and place in Finnish academic sociology. The institutional, textual and political problems of outlining and defining sociology run through the whole thesis. A more exact outline comes from the actual subject of research, Professor Erik Allardt's ongoing life work. Allardt's work has had a broader impact than just on Finnish academic sociology and through this both the university institution and research politics enter into my research. Many of the theoretical concepts of the thesis are based on the works of Pierre Bourdieu, Steven Shapin, and Helga Nowotny. The research material is first and foremost texts that have produced and interpreted Finnish sociology, secondly archive material, the most important of these are the protocols of the Faculty of Social Sciences at the University of Helsinki, but also expert statements found in the archives of other universities and the protocols of the Central Board of Research Councils from 1986-1990, third oral and written reminiscences. The method of research is linking the central fragments of texts through concepts with the already ample history writing of Finnish sociology. This method is more a method of presenting than of explaining things. The titles of the three main parts of the thesis are 'Habitus and Capital'. 'Fields' and 'Practices'. In chapter two of part one Allardt's background and resources, on which his career was built, are presented. In chapter three of part two a general picture of post-war Finnish sociology is presented. In chapter four Allardt's activity as an academic actor is analyzed according to different forms of university capital. In chapter 5 the non-academic aspects of Allardt's political activity and his links to fields of economy are analyzed. Chapter 6 of part three presents Allardt's work through various archive materials and reminiscences. Chapter 7 deals with the heart of academic matter, writing. In chapter 8 the historical self-understanding of Finnish sociology is analyzed. In Erik Allardt's career there is an unusual and balanced program-view of the function of sociology in society and an attempt to realize this view on all levels, both in research and in participation in society. It is a question of acting in an area, where research produces information, that is experienced as convincing and needed, that creates and forms a view of society, that 'needs' more of that information and that supports the production of such information. Allardt's lifework is part of a time, where in this area at least from time to time a certain 'balance' was achieved. He has had a central part in at least the following developments in Finnish society. The professionalization of science has brought scientists closer to other highly educated professional groups. Mass university education has produced scientifically trained professionals in many fields. This might have led to the questioning of the former special position of authority of science. The same phenomenon has also created a 'mass audience' for science, that is capable of following scientific reasoning and discussions.
  • Ehrnrooth, Mats (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2002)
    Economics and Society
    On the one hand this thesis attempts to develop and empirically test an ethically defensible theorization of the relationship between human resource management (HRM) and competitive advantage. The specific empirical evidence indicates that at least part of HRM's causal influence on employee performance may operate indirectly through a social architecture and then through psychological empowerment. However, in particular the evidence concerning a potential influence of HRM on organizational performance seems to put in question some of the rhetorics within the HRM research community. On the other hand, the thesis tries to explicate and defend a certain attitude towards the philosophically oriented debates within organization science. This involves suggestions as to how we should understand meaning, reference, truth, justification and knowledge. In this understanding it is not fruitful to see either the problems or the solutions to the problems of empirical social science as fundamentally philosophical ones. It is argued that the notorious problems of social science, in this thesis exemplified by research on HRM, can be seen as related to dynamic complexity in combination with both the ethical and pragmatic difficulty of ”laboratory-like-experiments”. Solutions … can only be sought by informed trials and errors depending on the perceived familiarity with the object(s) of research. The odds are against anybody who hopes for clearly adequate social scientific answers to more complex questions. Social science is in particular unlikely to arrive at largely accepted knowledge of the kind ”if we do this, then that will happen”, or even ”if we do this, then that is likely to happen”. One of the problems probably facing most of the social scientific research communities is to specify and agree upon the ”this ” and the ”that” and provide convincing evidence of how they are (causally) related. On most more complex questions the role of social science seems largely to remain that of contributing to a (critical) conversation, rather than to arrive at more generally accepted knowledge. This is ultimately what is both argued and, in a sense, demonstrated using research on the relationship between HRM and organizational performance as an example.
  • Sulkunen, Pekka Juhani (2018)
  • Muszynski, Lisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This dissertation examines the deeply hidden metaphysical presuppositions from traditional philosophy of language that are built into the theoretical construct history-as-fiction. This construct is Hayden White's main contribution to the linguistic turn in the study of history-writing, or historiography, and is framed here from roughly the early 1970s to the early 2000s. History-as-fiction posits the figural nature of historical consciousness in terms of the master tropes of rhetoric (i.e., metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche, and irony). This figural analysis, which White developed on the basis of Giambattista Vico's 18th-century metaphor (tropic) theory of language, hypothesizes the unconscious linguistic strategies as structuring elements in historians writings. White is unaware, however, that this tropic theory unmakes history-as-fiction by sidelining the very framework it was meant to fulfill. Classical literary theory, which White employed as his framework in developing his tropic analysis, emerged from structural linguistics as developed in the early 20th century by linguist Ferdinand de Saussure. Saussure's key principle of language is the arbitrariness of the binary linguistic sign (i.e., the random pairing of the sound of a word with its meaning). This binary arbitrariness separated mind from body and was the cornerstone upon which Saussure constructed the science of modern linguistics as a system of linguistic value. By contrast, Vico's key principle of language was the necessary dependence of language on the human body acting in the world. The strategy of this thesis is to separate White's figural, tropological (Vichian) analysis from his (post)structuralist (Saussurean) framework, within which he analyzed history-as-fiction. From my methodological standpoint of autopoietic enactive embodiment (AE), I examine tropology and (post)structuralism within their own philosophical contexts and logics. My examination reveals a hidden tension between the two principles of language underpinning each theoretical strand of White s construct history-as-fiction. By decoupling the two strands, I explore the source of the tension at the core of history-as-fiction in its unmaking.
  • Kivivuori, Janne (2017)
    Today, the Finnish criminologist and sociologist Veli Verkko (1893-1955) is remembered and cited because of Verkko's laws', which predict cross-sectional and temporal regularities between homicide rates and patterns. This article describes Verkko's criminological thought more broadly and situates him in the historical divide between bio-criminology and the rise of sociological environmentalism. In this paradigmatic conflict, Verkko took an unlikely path: while remaining a multiple factor theorist and social environmentalist, he came to see biology as increasingly relevant in the post-war era, at a time when other social scientists were rejecting bio-perspectives. Because of this, he became involved in the controversy over the malleability of human behaviour. Following prior work on institutional influences on the development of human sciences, it is shown that policy demand for a new kind of research influenced the genesis and outcome of this debate. The post-war building of the welfare state promoted research and social engineering activities based on the premise of human malleability. The Verkko case thus suggests how historically changing institutional factors can influence not only research topics but also more fundamental changes in paradigmatic assumptions of research.