Browsing by Subject "social security"

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  • The second expert group for evaluation of the adequacy of basic social security (Kela, 2015)
    Working papers 80
    In accordance with the act on the national pension index, the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health is to commission an evaluation of the adequacy of basic social security every four years. An independent expert group is to be appointed for the task and to carry out the assessment autonomously. In April 2014, commissioned by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, the National Institute for Health and Welfare convened the second expert group for evaluation of the adequacy of basic social security, and to conduct the second evaluation of its kind. The second expert group decided to conduct the evaluation by applying the same basic solutions as the first evaluation group did but developed and intensified the evaluation in several aspects. The second evaluation examines the development of the adequacy of basic social security and the factors affecting it from 2011 to 2015. The model family calculations applied in the evaluation have been generated with the new SISU microsimulation model of Statistics Finland. As a rule, the disposable income of households depending on basic benefits (or on low wages) increased between 2011 and 2015, in relation to average wage-earners and in real terms, both before and after dwelling costs. However, during the same period, the real wages of an average-earning household remained essentially at the same level. Persons living alone in rental dwellings and receiving the basic benefits are calculatedly entitled to means-tested basic social assistance. Their income level is determined according to the level of basic means-tested social assistance, and amounts to 43 per cent of the income level of average earners living alone. As the level of guarantee pension is higher than the other benefits, the estimated entitlement to means-tested social assistance is not realised. The income level of single-dweller guarantee pension recipients is 48 per cent of the income level of average earners. In Finland, the income level guaranteed by basic social security is in line with the average level in Western Europe, both before and after housing costs. With the exception of pensioners, the income level of persons relying on basic social security is not adequate to cover reasonable minimum costs determined in reference budgets. In 2014, the income level of unemployed persons, students or sickness allowance recipients living alone in rental housing was enough to cover 71 per cent of reasonable minimum costs. The respective figure for guarantee pension recipients was 102 per cent. The income level of persons on basic social security has increased since 2011 compared with the reference budgets of reasonable minimum costs. Their income level proves to be inadequate when compared with the level deemed adequate by the general public. It amounted to 66 per cent of the monetary sum deemed adequate. The income level of persons on guarantee pension amounted to 85 per cent of the level that the Finnish general public regarded adequate for living. The total number of people living in households completely dependent on basic social security—basic benefits, housing allowances and means-tested social assistance—totalled 231,000 or 4.3 per cent of the Finnish population in 2013. The number has increased since 2011. The average duration of total dependence on basic security is four years on average. A total of 71 per cent of households on basic social security benefits are at risk of poverty (the respective percentage for the total population is 13), and 54 per cent report their income to be inadequate (respectively, 25 per cent of the total population). When monitoring the benefits administrated by the Finnish Social Insurance Institution (Kela), the majority, or 64 per cent, of basic benefit recipients are women. Meanwhile, 61 per cent of general housing allowance recipients living alone are men. Further, of all recipients of means-tested social assistance 53 per cent are men. Reforms in benefit and tax legislation during 2011–2015 have decreased the Gini coefficient used to measure the income gap by approximately 0.8 percentage points, and the relative poverty risk by approximately 1.4 percentage points. Due to legislative amendments, the share of unemployed persons in unemployment traps has increased. Furthermore, the participation tax rate has increased, both regarding the transition from unemployment to full-time work and from part-time to full-time work.
  • Kela (Kela, 2019)
  • Kela (Kela, 2020)
    Suomen virallinen tilasto
  • Kela (Kela, 2021)
    Suomen virallinen tilasto
  • Kansaneläkelaitos Kela; Social Insurance Institution of Finland Kela; Folkpensionsanstalten FPA (2008)
  • Kansaneläkelaitos Kela; Social Insurance Institution of Finland Kela; Folkpensionsanstalten FPA (Kela, Tilastoryhmä, 2009)
  • Kansaneläkelaitos Kela; Folkpensionsanstalten FPA; Social Insurance Institution of Finland Kela (Kela, Tilastoryhmä, 2010)
  • Kansaneläkelaitos Kela; Folkpensionsanstalten FPA; Social Insurance Institution of Finland Kela (Kela, Tilastoryhmä, 2011)
  • Kansaneläkelaitos Kela; Social Insurance Institution of Finland Kela; Folkpensionsanstalten FPA (2012)
  • Kansaneläkelaitos Kela; Social Insurance Institution of Finland Kela; Folkpensionsanstalten FPA (2013)
  • Kansaneläkelaitos Kela; Social Insurance Institution of Finland Kela; Folkpensionsanstalten FPA (2014)
  • Kansaneläkelaitos Kela; Social Insurance Institution of Finland Kela; Folkpensionsanstalten FPA (Kela, 2015)
  • Kansaneläkelaitos Kela; Social Insurance Institution of Finland Kela; Folkpensionsanstalten FPA (Kela, 2016)
  • Kela (Kela, 2017)
  • Kela (Kela, 2018)
  • Kela (Kela, 2019)
  • Kela (Kela, 2020)
  • Kela (Kela, 2021)
  • van Gerven, Minna (Kela, 2008)
    Sosiaali- ja terveysturvan tutkimuksia 100
    Tämä tutkimus tarkastelee hyvinvointivaltion muutosta vertailevasta näkökulmasta analysoimalla sosiaaliturvaetuuksien (työttömyysturvan, sairauspäivärahan ja työkyvyttömyyseläkkeen sekä toimeentulotuen) saajien oikeuksien ja saamisehtojen muutoksia Isossa-Britanniassa, Alankomaissa ja Suomessa vuosien 1980 ja 2006 välisenä aikana. Tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan, 1) miten etuuksien saantiehtoja ja oikeuksia on näissä kolmessa eurooppalaisessa maassa muutettu vuodesta 1980 lähtien, 2) onko yhtäläisiä trendejä muutoksen suunnasta löydettävissä eri maiden ja järjestelmien väliltä sekä 3) mitä nämä muutokset kertovat hyvinvointivaltion muutoksen suunnasta sekä sen laajuudesta Euroopassa. Aineistona käytetään kansallisia sosiaaliturvalainsäädäntöjä ja muita kansallisia primäärilähteitä. Aineistosta löytyy neljä eurooppalaista trendiä: muutokset ovat 1) korostaneet työn merkitystä, 2) lisänneet etuudensaajien aktivointia, 3) kohdentaneet etuuksia tarkemmin tietyille tuensaajille sekä 4) heikentäneet etuuksien tasoa. Nämä yhdensuuntaiset trendit antavat syyn olettaa, että reformien tavoitteet ovat lähentyneet toisiaan Euroopassa. Toisaalta mitä yksityiskohtaisemmin aineistoa tarkastellaan, sitä enemmän eroavuuksia löytyy. Yksityiskohtainen analyysi osoittaa, että maat seuraavat kohtalaisen hyvin ennalta määrättyjä kehityspolkuja siinä, miten uusiin haasteisiin vastataan: brittiläisessä sosiaalipolitiikassa on ensisijaisesti palattu vähimmäisturvan tarjontaan, Alankomaiden järjestelmä pyrkii yhä säilyttämään työväestön sosiaalivakuutukset ja Suomessa perusturva on pyritty pitämään suurimpien muutosten ulkopuolella. Tutkimus osoittaa myös, että eräät maat ja niiden järjestelmät ovat käyneet läpi merkittävämpiä muutoksia kuin toiset. Merkittävimmät yksittäiset muutokset on toteutettu Isossa-Britanniassa maatasolla sekä työkyvyttömyys(eläke)järjestelmässä järjestelmätasolla. Lähempi tarkastelu osoittaa myös, että muutoksen koko vaihtelee eri etuudensaajaryhmien välillä. Varsinkin nuoret ja pitkäaikaistyöttömät sekä osittain työkyvyttömät ovat kokeneet viime vuosikymmenten aikana ehtojen tiukentumisen, ja heidän oikeuksiaan on rajoitettu. Tutkimuksen johtopäätös on, että toteutetut sosiaaliturvan muutokset viime vuosikymmeninä seuraavat kansallisia ratkaisumalleja. Kuitenkin muutoksen mahdollisuus on olemassa, sillä näillä polkuriippuvaisilla sosiaaliturvaetuuksien muutoksilla on leveämmät urat kuin usein kirjallisuudessa esitetään. – Suomenkielinen yhteenveto s. 290–293.
  • Ayeah, Emile Yonghabi (2007)
    The aim of this research was to understand how elderly people in the Kom region were surviving without effective social security systems in Cameroon considering that survival among elderly people in the Kom region of Cameroon had become increasingly difficult with the advent of the economic crisis in the early 1980s.This crisis affected institutions as well as family resources thereby reducing their capacity to render support especially to its elderly members. With the help of face to face interviews conducted during my field work with a sample population from the Kom area, I was also able explain to what extent the elderly people could possibly survive on their own initiatives as well as those obstacles and challenges involved in the process. The effects of the crisis leads to wide spread poverty forcing households units as well as extended families to also limit their financial and material support to older family members and to also start considering as important only their most immediate family members as their primary beneficiaries (that is their spouses and kids) of the resources available. Understandably, the elderly people usually in the country sides as in the context of the Kom region are mostly affected as they gradually see the active members of the households and the family units moving out to the urban areas to meet up with the realities of modernisation and urbanisation. The harsh reality of the disintegration of family structures sets in as households can no longer carry on its responsibilities as a social security institution. The struggle for survival by the elderly people is again explained in this research as being aggravated by certain factors. While some elderly people faced the challenges of surviving amidst difficult traditional beliefs and customs which off course impacts seriously on elderly women in particular, other factors like bribery and corruption within State institutions continues to act as speed brakes on the progress of the elderly people in the Kom region. As part of my findings, one of the most important understandings was how to link my hypothesis to the problem which was trying to understand the effects of the crisis on a long standing tradition of household support on its members. The lack of an effective social security system is not unique to many societies especially in Sub Saharan Africa as suggested in most of the documented sources I used for this research that include diverse UN web pages, the CIA World Fact Book, published journals, library sources ,articles as well as internet sources. However, these rich diverse sources had something in common which was the calling for a global reaction towards improving the situation of the elderly people.