Browsing by Subject "social work"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-19 of 19
  • Sjöblom, Stina (2007)
    Services for disabled people are changing as a part of the ongoing processes of change in the area of welfare services in the municipalities. The study examines the role and position of social work within these processes. With a starting point in the close connections between social movements and social work, I have pointed out the impact of the Disabled people’s movement on the ideas of disability, the so called disability models. Parallell to the changes in the society and the shifting discourse of disability models, social work is changing as well. In this study focus lies on empowerment and dialogue as ideas which are both theoretically and ethically motivated, but also important as practical elements in social work. The study points out research that has influenced the discussion on disability models and empowerment in social work. Understanding about disability influence how society is planned, how legislation and criteria for services are formulated and practised. This understanding influences the substance in the social workers’ practice and the alternatives in the everyday life of disabled people who use services. An other dimension of these processes is the one that takes place in the meeting between social workers and disabled people. This study contributes to the discussion of the role and position of social work. At the same time there is a goal that contributes to practise as well: to increase the self-reflection and knowledge within services for disabled people, to enhance the possibilities for co-operation and to find some ideas and tools for developping dialogical practice. The research question has risen from practical needs. In my contacts as a social worker, with disabled people and social workers from all parts of Finland, I have created a general picture about social work within services for disabled people. The questions that have risen from practise are connected with encounters, dialogue, practises, co-operation and the ethics. The research question examines what influences the end result that social work is carried out way it is. The qualitative research project started with an action research approach with focus on development, and it transformed during the research process. This is the reason why the same process is described in this study with two different approaches. First, in the participatory action research frame, and secondly, from the individual perspective in the frame of content analysis of focus group interviews. The study results point out something of the potential that social work possesses and raises questions about whether the full potential of social workers is in use today. The results also point at the limitations. The interesting question then is: who is setting the limits and how does this connect with the potential not in use. Are the limits set from outside or do social workers have the chance to participate in defining them? The study reveals facts that influence and to a certain point explains the existing differences between different municipalities, when it comes to the social work offered within services for disabled people. The significance for research is that in the scope of Finnish social work, the marginal group of social workers who work with services for disabled people, in this study are heard and documented.
  • Koskimies, Silka (1999)
    Social work is today faced with a bigger diversity in society and ethnically mixed client groups. Mainstream social work methods are not always enough to meet the needs of all these new client groups. Therefore, social work has to develop its practices to be able to meet the challenges of the multi-ethnic society. The aim of this study is to compare how social work in England and Finland has responded to its minority ethnic clients, what policies and practices are developed. The study is a case study of social work in two local areas, namely the London borough of Islington in England and the city of Vantaa in Finland. The study material consists of semi-structured interviews with twelve social workers from different social service departments in Islington and Vantaa and of policy and practice documents. The study is a qualitative study and the interview material is analysed by using grounded theory (Strauss & Corbin 1990) and comparative methodology (Miles & Huberman 1994). A comparative framework was developed firstly by comparing different concepts used in each country concerning social work and minority ethnic groups, secondly by examining the situation of the minority ethnic groups in each country and finally by using theoretical literature for analysing the study material. The theoretical framework was mainly developed by theories about minority political ideologies (Ely and Denney 1989), theories about ethnic identity (Liebkind 1992, Hutnik 1991) and by a multicultural awareness framework (Matinheikki-Kokko 1997). The results of the study show that both countries have developed some responses to take into account the needs of minority ethnic clients. However, in Vantaa the process has just recently started. In Vantaa the services are based on an equality principle, which means in Finnish conditions that all clients are given the same kind of services. This has shown to be problematic as the service are often based on majority needs, which does not support minority groups. The effects might be the opposite, that is assimilationist. In Islington the social workers strive also for equality, but the starting point is more pluralistic, as the social workers attempt to take into account cultural background when providing services. The study showed also the importance of a clearly stated policy, which particularly takes into account minority ethnic groups. The policy has to be clearly outlined for all staff and even for clients. To put policy into practice means that it has to be effectively implemented. This means firstly that the whole social service department has to be aware of the needs of minority ethnic groups and of adequate intervention strategies to meet the needs. Secondly, the social workers have to be aware of the situation of their minority ethnic clients. This means that the social workers cannot be left alone with the responsibility to improve services. The social service department has to support the social workers by providing them means to develop the services. This includes a clear policy statement, training for all staff and regular supervision and discussions in meetings about issues concerning minority ethnic groups.
  • Katsui, Hisayo; Kazakunova, Gulmira; Mojtahedi, Mina C. (2020)
    The main aim of this paper is to tease out the historical and deeply rooted ethical standards, spirituality, and social values that have long supported the social service system in Kyrgyzstan, which, today, faces pressure to align with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The data are based on an intervention conducted as part of the European Union‐Social Protection Systems programme in Kyrgyzstan between 2017 and 2018 where 30 university lecturers were part of. Interviews both to the Kyrgyz trainers with disabilities and to the trainees of the university lecturers as well as follow‐up survey conducted in 2019 form important part of data for this paper. We first investigate the conventional ethical standards, spiritual explanations, and social values related to disabilities within the Kyrgyz social protection system and social services. We elaborate on the Kyrgyz context of the societal ethics, spirituality, and values around disability in the Kyrgyz university education for social workers. Second, we analyse the transformation of the perception of disability among the university lecturers. We conclude this paper with a discussion on the negotiation between a charity‐based approach that reinforces the stigmatization of disability and a human rights‐based approach that promotes paradigm change, to contribute to global discourse of social change towards disability inclusion.
  • Ståhl, Tore (Helsingfors universitet, 2001)
    The aim of the study was to explore why the MuPSiNet project - a computer and network supported learning environment for the field of health care and social work - did not develop as expected. To grasp the problem some hypotheses were formulated. The hypotheses regarded the teachers' skills in and attitudes towards computing and their attitudes towards constructivist study methods. An online survey containing 48 items was performed. The survey targeted all the teachers within the field of health care and social work in the country, and it produced 461 responses that were analysed against the hypotheses. The reliability of the variables was tested using the Cronbach alpha coefficient and t-tests. Poor basic computing skills among the teachers combined with a vulnerable technical solution, and inadequate project management combined with lack of administrative models for transforming economic resources into manpower were the factors that turned out to play a decisive role in the project. Other important findings were that the teachers had rather poor skills and knowledge in computing, computer safety and computer supported instruction, and that these skills were significantly poorer among female teachers who were in majority in the sample. The fraction of teachers who were familiar with software for electronic patient records (EPR) was low. The attitudes towards constructivist teaching methods were positive, and further education seemed to utterly increase the teachers' readiness to use alternative teaching methods. The most important conclusions were the following: In order to integrate EPR software as a natural tool in teaching planning and documenting health care, it is crucial that the teachers have sufficient basic skills in computing and that more teachers have personal experience of using EPR software. In order for computer supported teaching to become accepted it is necessary to arrange with extensive further education for the teachers presently working, and for that further education to succeed it should be backed up locally among other things by sufficient support in matters concerning computer supported teaching. The attitudes towards computing showed significant gender differences. Based on the findings it is suggested that basic skills in computing should also include an awareness of data safety in relation to work in different kinds of computer networks, and that projects of this kind should be built up around a proper project organisation with sufficient resources. Suggestions concerning curricular development and further education are also presented. Conclusions concerning the research method were that reminders have a better effect, and that respondents tend to answer open-ended questions more verbosely in electronically distributed online surveys compared to traditional surveys. A method of utilising randomized passwords to guarantee respondent anonymity while maintaining sample control is presented.
  • Bergman-Pyykkönen, Marina; Salovaara, Veronica (Finlandssvenska kompetenscentret inom det sociala området, 2021)
    FSKC Rapporter
    Emotions in social work - how can they be understood and managed? In this book we describe findings from a project that developed together with social workers from three municipalities network meetings for investigating emotions in social work practice on basis of Karen Healy's (2018) CSCE-model.
  • Isokuortti, Nanne; Aaltio, Elina (2020)
    Given that multiple countries have recently adopted social work practice models in children’s services, it is striking that only a few studies have systematically analysed both the level of fidelity and potential implementation barriers and facilitators. The aim of this study is to provide an in-depth analysis of how and why the Reclaiming Social Work (RSW) model works in different settings. The study context was the implementation in Finland of an adaptation of the model, the Systemic Practice Model (SPM). This mixed-methods study evaluates 1) fidelity to the SPM and 2) the possible influencing factors. The results reveal high variability in the extent of fidelity in 23 implementation sites, and even among individual teams within the same site. A lack of clarity concerning systemic social work practice, insufficient training, and inadequate resources and leadership hindered the implementation, whereas coaching and positive experiences of the SPM were facilitating factors. In particular, the involvement of a clinician qualified in systemic family therapy was crucial in embedding the new approach. The relationship between the level of fidelity and the influencing factors worked both ways (e.g., low coverage was associated with a decrease in participant responsiveness, and vice versa). Given the complexity of children’s social care as an implementation environment, careful preparation and ongoing support are crucial in the implementation of practice models.
  • Nordberg, Camilla Christina (2015)
    In a time of welfare state restructuring, migrant background ‘stay-at-home’ mothers have become a politicised social category, constructed as unproductive and socially disengaged. The article examines the ways newly arrived women, who take care of children at home, enact and negotiate their own and their families’ early citizenisation process, with a particular focus on institutional encounters. Drawing on two case stories from the capital region of Finland, I discuss the dynamics of mothers’ claims-making for a transitionary citizenship, from the sphere of the home via social rights based public daycare to language training and education. I conclude that the constrained agency migrant mothers are subjected to, risks shaping a new gendered and racialised order of parenthood and ultimately of citizenship in the transforming welfare states.
  • Heinonen, Hanna (2007)
    The study explores the role of research and evaluation practices in the everyday work practices of social workers. The aim of the study is to analyse different meanings that social workers give to the research and evaluation practices in their everyday work. One way to get social workers more involved in development of social work is to help them apply research and evaluation in their own work. Research and evaluation in social work help social workers improve the availability and quality of services in close connection with the clients. Research and evaluation help social workers to improve client-orientation and also provide new ideas and information for the theory of social work. Research in social work focuses on the processes of social works and analysis of the interaction relationship between social worker and the client. Evaluation in social work focuses on analysing the outcome of the processes of the social work and effectiveness of the social work. The research material consists of five focus-group interviews. These five interviews were made in different social work units. Three of these units worked with child protection services or adult services and two in the special sectors of social work. Altogether 33 social workers were interviewed. The analysis methods were similar to the contents analysis. According to social workers' opinions research and evaluation in their work consists of: research, evaluation, reflection, communality, influencing and development work. Social workers also explained why they were motivated to apply research and evaluation in their own work. The research on the interactional relationship between social worker and the client helps to improve client orientation of social work. This orientation is one way to get a deeper understanding of the clients' needs and the phenomena that may only be possible to notice in social work practices. Community oriented way to develop social work is considered very important especially in the work with adult services and the special social work sector. The use of evaluation is a new practice in social work. Social workers are not interested in evaluating the effectiveness of the social work. They see application of evaluation as a tool of process evaluation or development evaluation. After these processes it is more motivating to think about the effectiveness issues. Influencing in the social work is not very common, although social workers think it should be. It is challenging to try to find the ways how to support social workers in this influencing task. It is important to report the conclusions that rise from the field of social work and to get the social workers involved in the development work. With the help of the research and evaluation practices it is possible to cross borders of traditional research. It also strengthens the knowledge construction that arises from practice.
  • Kääriäinen, Aino (2003)
    The primary task of this study is to clarify the significance of documentation in professional practices and information formation involved in social work concerning child protection. The document texts under study were examined from three angles: 1) How were the documents written? 2) What information did the documents contain? 3) Why were the documents written as they were? The research material consisted of information from a database of client information compiled from notes and custody decisions by social workers involved in child protection. Documents relating to twenty children of varying ages and their families were selected for this study, a total of 1613 pages. The texts are dated between 1989 and 2000. The method of study is discourse analytical and is based on a three-dimensional model developed by Fairclough (1997) in which discourse is defined as the interaction between texts, practices and socio-cultural environment. The model used for the analysis consists of rhetoric and thematic material as well as investigation from the pragmatic point of view. Categorizing the documents into speaker categories revealed the polyphony of the texts, text-structures including viewpoints and opinions of several people. The rhetorical analysis showed that documents pertaining to social work involving child protection contain a large amount of dynamic description of the work. The polyphony of the texts adds to their credibility and is one way to influence the meaning by using rhetoric. The thematic study showed that the content of the themes in the documents and the empirical themes repeat themselves as dynamically interchanging concentric and superimposed threads. Social workers introduce many simultaneous themes into their documents, which help them to form a professional judgement of the case at hand. Studying the documents from the pragmatic angle revealed the contextual dimensions of reading and writing and the process of information formation. The drawing up of documents is one of the practices employed in social work. It is also a crucial part of the creation and maintenance of professional understanding. The dynamics of information forming that is revealed in documents originates in writing practices, and in the common areas of writing and reading and occupational practices.
  • Järvenpää, Juulia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Among the clients of social work, the people who have traumatic experiences are more common than in the general population. In the recent years MDMA, also known by its street name ecstasy, has been studied for treating posttraumatic stress disorder, with promising results. As the research goes on, it is possible that some people turn to MDMA for the purpose of treating their own traumas by themselves. Social workers should be able to evaluate realistically the risks and potential benefits of such behavior, and also think about the problems of the current prohibition and punishment-based drug laws in terms of human rights. If MDMA-assisted therapies become a legal treatment option, social workers should know how to assist and guide their clients in case they wish to engage in such treatment. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted a breakthrough status to psilocybin (a psychedelic compound found in some mushroom species) and MDMA-assisted psychotherapies. This means that the preliminary results have been so promising it is possible to make these treatments available faster, in case the further research provides results as good as the previous research. Currently phase 3 studies are ongoing. Lately there have also been discussions about whether these substances are dangerous or even beneficial outside the clinical context. Multiple studies have been done on psychedelics regarding this matter, and the researchers have found out that lifetime use of psychedelics is associated with reduced risk for mental health problems and suicidality instead of increased risk. A similar investigation has not yet been done to the same extent on MDMA. The purpose of this analysis is to fill the void in the research regarding MDMA and find out whether MDMA use is linked to increased likelihood of past month psychological distress, measured by K6 scale, and past year suicidality, defined as suicidal thoughts, suicide plans and suicide attempts. The dataset used for this study is National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) from the years 2016–2019. The data of NSDUH is collected via randomized selection of a representative population of the US. The main method of the analysis is multivariate logistic regression. Among the lifetime use of MDMA and other drugs, also the effects of recency have been investigated. The weighted odds ratios were compared to the odds ratios of other drug use groups. Based on the results of this analysis, MDMA use was not associated with increased likelihoods of past month psychological distress or past year suicidality, after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, risk-taking tendency and other illicit/non-medical drug use. Instead, lifetime use of MDMA was associated in most of the models to decreased likelihood of the predicted variables. The odds ratios of MDMA groups were smaller than the odds ratios for other substances in almost every model. Among the other substances, the results of psilocybin were the closest to the results of MDMA. The study suggests that the increased risk for mental health problems and suicidality among the people who use MDMA is likely to be more linked to other drug use than specifically to MDMA use. This analysis does not suggest that MDMA would be an independent risk factor for psychological distress or suicidality.
  • Karvinen-Niinikoski, Synnove; Beddoe, Liz; Ruch, Gillian; Tsui, Ming-sum (2019)
    INTRODUCTION: Supervision is a well-established component of practice in the health and social care professions. In recent years, however, relentless changes in the nature of professional roles within these contexts have led to corresponding variations in how professional practice supervision is configured and delivered. METHOD: This article examines how professional supervision and its future are seen by an international group of experts in social work supervision. The evolving perceptions of social work supervision's role, and the relationship to professional autonomy in the social sphere are explored with reference to the authors' earlier research. FINDINGS: The tension between supervision as a surveillant tool of management and a practice of critical reflection is acknowledged in literature as posing a threat to one aspect of professional autonomy and agency.
  • Rissanen, Päivi (2005)
    The main idea of my study is to present in the form of research one chance to speak of schizophrenia - it's mental care and rehabilitation of it. In my study I examine schizophrenia as a process of rehabilitation in many points of view. Firs of all I have included to my research my own experience of this illness and my rehabilitation of it. Secondly I have interviewed those employees how have participated to my rehabilitation process from which arises the second point of view to the work. The third point of view has been formed from the customer relationship, co-operation and community and the meaning of working habits. The fourt point of view enlightens the meaning of self-help and community effect on that is how the other people who are going through a rehabilitation process have helped me. I think that examine schizophrenia from many points of views is important becauce schizophrenia is complicated mental disorder. My aim was to find reasons which in my life had an effect on and led me to this process of rehabilitation. I'm going through how persons in mental care and rehabilitation have helped me and what kind of succesful mental care rehabilitation relationships have been in my life. My study begins as a story tellin form of my own experiences. I have analysed these stories in theory for example conversations of social work, mental care and rehabilitation by exploiting my own experience. The recearch materials I have collected in three ways: first of all by reading the research works writen before and the discussions of therapy. Secondly I have gone through my own experiences of rehabilitation and mental care as a source in form of diaries. And as a third method I interviewed the employees who took part in my rehabilitation and therapy, out of which I gathered the empiric materials of my research work based on the theme interviews. The meaning of customer relationship and interaction came up from my own experiences, the interviews of the employees and from discussions in theory. I myself consider mental care and rehabilitation work as fycical, psychic and social phenomen. Also the employees thought their mental work as a total effect, and they felt thinking the future of the customers, their aims at back to normal life and avoidin marginalization. One of my most important source of my study is a book of Martin Buber named "I and You". Otherwise I have concertrated to compare my own experiences of social work, mental care and the rehabilitation and the discussion of them.
  • Virokannas, Elina Tuulikki; Liuski, Suvi; Kuronen, Marjo (2020)
    The concept of vulnerability is widely used in the social sciences as well as in policy making, health and social care services and in social work, referring to a variety of groups or individuals, but it has rarely been theoretically defined or analysed. This article provides a literature review on how vulnerability has been used and defined in academic, peer-reviewed articles published in international social science journals between 2000 and 2016. The aim is to analyse and clarify critically the concept for social work research. The article analyses themes and topics connected to vulnerability, how gender is related to vulnerability and how vulnerability is conceptualised in these articles. The analysis showed that there is an important critical commentary on the concept, but only a few efforts to specify, theoretically analyse, reconceptualise or use the concept in an innovative way. The authors suggest that in social work research, instead of vulnerable groups or individuals we should focus on vulnerable life situations, and the role of the welfare services in reducing but possibly also (re)producing vulnerability. It is also important to recognise the temporal, situational, relational, and structural nature of vulnerability.
  • Wang, Ziyu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This doctoral thesis examines how young Chinese people experience being and becoming in their education and how their child-parent relationships relationally influence these experiences. Two groups of concepts frame the analysis: first, being and becoming (including temporality, well-being, learner identity and orientations towards future) and, second, the child-parent relationship (including parental involvement, agency and relational influences). This study employs both quantitative and qualitative methods. The data was gathered through a China Family Panel Studies survey (N=1306), individual interviews (N=25) and an open-ended survey (N=479). These data were analysed by various methods, including statistical analysis, qualitative content analysis and thematic analysis. These young Chinese people have experienced multiple ways of being and becoming. The majority juggle being and becoming in a future-oriented way to achieve educational success, while a significant minority focus on the present and on happiness, entertainment and socialising. The findings point to a mix of abundant parental social support (particularly emotional support) and distant, conflictual child-parent interactions in young people’s negotiations of being and becoming. Young people’s agency has diverse forms embedded in their past, present and future family episodes, and they exercise their agency to mediate their parents’ educational involvement. The thesis suggests that the concept being and becoming heightens the entanglement between the present and the future and the intersection of the temporal and the social, which is increasingly recognised when studying youth. This study also demonstrates that a relational perspective is valuable in uncovering the dynamics, nuances and interactions in young people’s living and growing up. These rich descriptions enable further re-envisioning young Chinese people by questioning their traditionally submissive archetype. Such an inquiry into young people’s individual experiences and their interactions with their social context pinpoints ‘the social’ in social work studies at large. This study also draws out implications for educational and career support for young people and relational social work in practice.
  • Määttä, Simo K. (2020)
    This paper analyzes the translation of five child protection assessments and decisions from Finnish into English. Translators of such text have to make difficult decisions in relation to the linguistic resources of the end users, namely the child’s parents or custodians, because it is impossible for the translator to assess their linguistic resources. Therefore, it is difficult to strike a balance between an accurate translation and a pragmatically felicitous translation. Besides, these texts are typically translated by community interpreters who have no formal training in translation. A total of 18 examples of translation problems related to terminology, nominalization, passive constructions, and speech representation were analyzed by mobilizing different linguistic theories related to each category. The results show that the target texts present several accommodation strategies aimed at rendering the translations more accessible. Thus, terms are explained or glossed, and terms, grammatical constructions, and complex forms of reported speech are simplified. More awareness-raising among different stakeholders is needed in order to produce translations that really empower migrant communities.
  • Metsis, Katrin (2008)
    Unemployment is a new phenomenon in Estonia; it was unknown until the beginning of the 1990s. Until 1991, Estonia was a part of the Soviet Union with a centrally planned economy. Transition to the market economy started in the beginning of the 1990s. This brought about dramatic economic and social changes for Estonian population. The unemployment and inactivity levels increased among population, many households were hit by poverty. This study examines youth unemployment in Estonia in 1995, at the end of the period of radical reforms. The aim of the study is to analyse the determinants of unemployment in Estonia among people aged 16-29. The data from the Estonian Labour Force Survey in 1995 are used and bi- and multivariate analyses are applied. The results of the data analysis are as follows. First, people aged 16-19 were more likely of being unemployed than respondents in the 20-24 and 25-29 age groups. Second, there were no differences between young men and women. Third, divorced people experienced more difficulties in the labour market than singles or married individuals. Fourth, unemployment was significantly higher among respondents with a primary or basic education. Fifth, young non-Estonians were more likely of being unemployed than young Estonians. However, further analysis revealed that the lack of Estonian language skills was mostly responsible for high unemployment levels among non-Estonians. Finally, young people in South Estonian rural areas were particularly vulnerable to unemployment.
  • Sätre, Ann-Mari; Varyzgina, Alla; Granberg, Leo (2020)
    This article considers how Russian local civic organizations work and adapt to societal changes. We studied thirteen small NGOs in a region (oblast) of central Russia. These NGOs work with social issues, often connected to poverty and social marginalization. The NGOs are both formal and informal organiza-tions, such as charity funds, registered associations, informal clubs, and local groups for mutual help and support. The NGOs have varying relations to the wider public, as well as to Russian authorities. Examining the local level means here urban or rural settlements and small towns. Social issues were a subject of concern for numerous local organizations. Their success in this activity was connected to trust in them among citizens. The overall picture is that a lot depended on the reputation of a leading person at the NGO. There were not many signs of internal democracy or collective decision-making in these NGOs, strategic decisions were mostly taken by the leader. The Russian State has launched a contradictory policy on NGOs including legislation on 'foreign agents,' which means that NGOs are living in a 'dual reality': locally acting non-governmental and/or non-commercial organizations are both welcomed to contribute to solving social problems and increasingly controlled. This has caused problems for many NGOs which have, however, proved flexibility to survive. Quite a few reorganized their activities, some started deeper collabora-tion with other NGOs, the local administration or the church. The study gives more evidence of charity as the main method of helping people rather than activating them.
  • Johansson, Juhani (2011)
    This study investigates what and how Keski-Uusimaa newspaper wrote about young people's risk of exclusion, in particular criminality. The data for the study comprised articles of children and young people's risk of exclusion published in Keski-Uusimaa newspaper in 2006. The constructionist theory was used and the data were analysed using the analytical discursive method. The data were divided into three different discourses making it possible to observe the discussion of social exclusion from three different viewpoints: the discourse of being involved in a criminal incident, the discourse of threat to safety and the discourse of being relieved from responsibility. In the discourse of being involved in a criminal incident, neither the young people nor adults commented on the crime itself. Even reported incidents in the media were tolerable as long as they did not disturb the day-to-day work at school. Ignoring crimes may partly be explained by the general decrease of commentary on moral issues. Public humiliation or mocking in the media is not a random phenomenon. Researchers are worried that the lack of comments may turn into admiration. In particular, hard crimes can cultivate myths of eternity and admiration, expanding to different hate communities on the Internet. In the discourse of threat to safety, children and young people were described by rhetorical means, to be dangerous for themselves or others. On the one hand, the context of serious crimes described children and young people as murderers and killers. On the other hand, they were presented as threats to those using public facilities. By presenting single cases, children and young people were described as general dominant threats to society and also the inclusion of information on the nationwide crime defence programme suggested that children and young people should always be under the surveillance of some public authority. The aim of this surveillance seems not to be inclusion but exclusion, thus increasing the risk of crimes. The child held in the custody of child welfare after committing a serious crime, such as manslaughter, was reflected in the discourse of being relieved from responsibility. Despite this turmoil continued. The media missed the information about the crisis and speakers' categories. It seems to be difficult to protect the criminal. Furthermore, the social media passed on the material not published in the media. This type of situation made it possible for school mass murderers to publish and rehearse their self-made videos among other media material. The incomprehension of children and young people was exploited financially in the discourse of being relieved from responsibility. They were expected to know how to take a quick loan by phone, illicitly without their parents knowing, but not to count the real interest rate for twelve months. In this discourse, children were lured to have cash easily. The discourse of being relieved from responsibility also included discarding a sense of shame regarding crimes. Moreover, taboos surrounding the role of victims of sexual abuse require open discussion. ne of the main principles of social work is normality. According to it, society takes a risk of stigma when reacting to children and young people's minor offences. Stigmatisation may be attached to assuming a deviant identity. There should be nationwide norms for children and young people's minor offences because of the significant decrease of social tolerance in local projects concerning them. Social workers should be more involved in discussions concerning children and young people both in the real world and virtually. Instead of making children and young people harmless, we could bring into focus the voice and position of the socially excluded so that they could be seen as subjects of their lives and responsible citizens.
  • Vartiainen, Annastiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Evictions have been on the rise in Europe and around the globe during recent years. This study aims at giving voice to the people who are experiencing housing insecurity in the Portuguese capital city, Lisbon. Housing has become a key issue in local politics and this study sheds light on the topic in the context of the Portuguese welfare state. The first research question is to find out how the people, who are being evicted, or threatened to be evicted, see and describe their situation and how the situation has affected their lives. The second research object is to find out from where they have looked for assistance with their housing situations and how they perceive the help they have received. The literature review and the theoretical framework deal with the special features and development trajectories of the Portuguese welfare state. Despite the later democratic development, the legacies of Salazar´s authoritarian regime and of the colonial past are still visible in the form of considerable inequality within the society. The focus, though, is on the lived experiences of the participants. The approach of the study is qualitative and experience-centered narrative research. The data are made up of nine semi-structured interviews. All participants have experienced housing insecurity. Insecure housing, together with limited financial means, lead to a situation where the tenants are trapped in a dwelling which is insecure in terms of both legal rights and physical living conditions. Additionally, many tenants suffer from different types of harassment and intimidation by the landlords. Housing insecurity impacts various areas of people’s lives and the study reveals the downward spiral that the lives of the participants in the most insecure situations had taken. The insecure housing and economic deprivation increased the dependency on welfare provision and led to deepening poverty, with several unwanted practical, emotional and social consequences. Managing day-to-day life became physically and emotionally consuming for the participants and their personal relationships suffered. Many participants reported feelings of nervousness and depression, increasing health issues and a sense of being lost. Local authorities are involved in most cases and several participants had been in contact with the social services. The findings of the study support the existing literature about the short-comings of social protection and social welfare in Portugal. The housing issue in Portugal seems to be a structural problem arising from the societal inequalities, the pursued housing policies and the traditionally large role of the family in welfare and housing provision. Different grass-root organizations, such as Habita, seem to play a crucial role in supporting the individual, in raising awareness through publicity and in uniting people in a collective struggle for structural changes in society.