Browsing by Subject "socioeconomic"

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  • Ahlholm, Ville-Heikki; Rönkkö, Viljami; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Karppinen, Jaro; Oura, Petteri (2021)
    Background: Multisite pain is commonly chronic and often lacks its initial role as a potential tissue damage signal. Chronic pain among working-age individuals is a risk for disability and imposes a major burden on health care systems and society. As effective treatments for chronic pain are largely lacking, better identification of the factors associated with pain over working years is needed. Methods: Members of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 participated in data collection at the ages of 31 (n = 4,028) and 46 (n = 3,429). Using these two time points, we performed a multivariable analysis of the association of socioeconomic, occupational, psychological and lifestyle factors (i.e., low education, living alone, low household income, unemployment, occupational physical exposures [hard physical labor, leaning forward, back twisting, constant moving, lifting loads of ≥ 1 kg], physical inactivity, regular smoking, regular drinking, overweight, and psychiatric symptoms) with the number of musculoskeletal pain sites (i.e., upper extremity, lower extremity, lower back, and the neck-shoulder region; totalling 0–4 pain sites). The data were analyzed using generalized estimating equations. Results: At the age of 31, multisite pain was reported by 72.5% of men and 78.6% of women. At the age of 46, the prevalence of multisite pain was 75.7% among men and 82.7% among women. Among men, the number of pain sites was positively associated with age (rate ratio 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.01–1.08), low household income (1.05, 1.01–1.08), unemployment (1.13, 1.06–1.19), any occupational exposure (1.17, 1.12–1.22), regular smoking (1.06, 1.02–1.11), and psychiatric symptoms (1.21, 1.17–1.26). Among women, the number of pain sites was positively associated with age (1.06, 1.04–1.10), unemployment (1.10, 1.05–1.15), any occupational exposure (1.10, 1.06–1.13), regular smoking (1.06, 1.02–1.10), overweight (1.08, 1.05–1.11), and psychiatric symptoms (1.19, 1.15–1.22); living alone was negatively associated with the number of pain sites (0.95, 0.91–0.99). Conclusion: Of the studied predictors, psychiatric symptoms, occupational physical exposures and unemployment were most strongly associated with multisite pain among both sexes. The results of this study deepen the understanding of the underlying factors of and comorbidities behind multisite pain, and help develop pain relief and rehabilitation strategies for working-age individuals with multisite pain.
  • Virtanen, Marianna; Oksanen, Tuula; Pentti, Jaana; Ervasti, Jenni; Head, Jenny; Stenholm, Sari; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimaki, Mika (2017)
    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine occupational class differences in working more than six months beyond the mandatory retirement age and factors that may contribute to these differences. Methods The study comprised a prospective cohort study of a total of 5331 Finnish municipal employees (73% women) who were not on work disability pension and reached the age eligible for old-age pension in 2005-2011. Occupational class included four categories: managers and professionals, lower grade non-manual, skilled manual, and elementary occupations. Survey responses while at work were linked to national health and pension registers. Results A total of 921 participants (17.3%) worked beyond the pensionable age. Compared with elementary workers, skilled manual workers had a similar probability [gender-adjusted risk ratio (RR) 0.95, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.72-1.23] while lower grade non-manual workers had a 2.03-fold (95% CI 1.59-2.58), and managers and professionals had a 1.79-fold (95% CI 1.41-2.27) probability of working beyond the pensionable age. Adjustment for physical workload (32.0% in lower non-manual, 36.7% in managers and professionals), work time control (20.4% and 11.4%) and perceived work ability (16.5% and 29.1%) contributed to the largest attenuation for these associations. Analyses using a counterfactual approach suggested greater mediated effects for physical workload and work time control than those observed in traditional mediation analyses. Conclusions Employees with higher occupational classes are two times more likely to continue working beyond the retirement age compared to those with lower occupational classes. A large proportion of these differences were explained by having physically light job, better work time control, and better self-rated work ability among employees with high occupational class.
  • Shekarchizadeh, Hajar; Ekhtiari, Hamed; Khami, Mohammad R.; Virtanen, Jorma I. (2012)
  • Lallukka, Tea; Ervasti, Jenni; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor; Tinghog, Petter; Kjeldgard, Linnea; Pentti, Jaana; Virtanen, Marianna; Alexanderson, Kristina (2016)
    Aims: We aimed to examine how newly diagnosed diabetes and work disability jointly predict death during working age. Methods: We used prospective population-based register data of 25-59-year-old adults who had lived in Sweden since 2002. All those with onset of diabetes recorded in 2006 were included (n=14266). A 2% random sample (n=78598) was drawn from the general population, comprising people with no indication of diabetes during 2003-2010. Net days of sickness absence and disability pension in 2005-2006 were examined; the follow-up time for mortality was 2007-2010. Cox regression models were fitted (hazard ratios, HR, 95% confidence interval, CI) adjusting for sociodemographics and time-dependent health conditions. Results: Individuals with diabetes and work disability for over 6 months were at a higher risk of premature death (HR=14.2, 95% CI 12.0-16.8) than their counterparts without diabetes and work disability. A high risk was also observed among people without diabetes but equally prolonged work disability (HR=6.4, 95% CI 5.4-7.6). Diabetes was associated with premature death even without work disability (HR=3.5, 95% CI 2.8-4.4). The associations were particularly attenuated after adjustment for health conditions assessed over the follow-up. Conclusions: Diabetes and work disability jointly increase the risk of death during working age. Diabetes with long-term work disability is associated with the highest risk of premature death, which highlights the importance of their prevention and early detection.