Browsing by Subject "soil"

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  • Westman, Carl Johan; Starr, Michael; Laine, Jukka (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1985)
  • Kuusipalo, Jussi (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1985)
    The vegetation and some physical and chemical soil properties were studied in 410 sample plots in a random sample of stands by two-way indicator species analysis, discriminant analysis and analysis of variance. Understorey vegetation was dependent on site fertility and on the tree stand (especially species composition). Although the forest vegetation was distributed in a rather continuous way along a soil fertility gradient, relatively unambiguous site classification was possible based on the appearance of indicator species and species groups.
  • Ahonen, Irja; Porkka, Osmo H.; Paasio, Ilmari; Luotola, V. L. (Vanamo, 1931)
    Annales Societatis zoologicae-botanicae Fennicae Vanamo ; 15
  • Leppäkoski, Lauri; Uusitalo, Ville; Horn, Susanna; Levänen, Jarkko; Kasurinen, Heli; Härri, Anna (Elsevier BV, 2022)
    Cleaner Materials
    Straw is an interesting renewable feedstock for various high-value products, such as textile fibers. However, straw encompass to soils maintains a good soil structure, fertility, and carbon storage. Despite the availability of previous research on this topic, uncertainties remain regarding the climate and soil impacts of straw collection. This study aims to show the carbon footprint (CF) of straw collection compared with that of soil encompass. The goal is to demonstrate uncertainties related to initial data and methodological assumptions on whether straw is regarded as a waste or a coproduct and illustrate where more measured data is needed. Life cycle assessment method was used to conduct this study and the data therein were gotten from literature. The results show that straw removal can lead to reduced greenhouse gas emissions in comparison to soil encompass because of reduced nitrogen fertilizing needs and subsequent N2O emissions. However, there is high uncertainty related to soil organic carbon (SOC) and N2O emission changes because of straw removal. It is also possible that greenhouse gas emissions increase due to straw removal. Straw seems to have a relatively low CF, especially when it is regarded as a waste. Coproduct interpretation significantly increases the emissions allocated for straw. Straw also stores carbon, and its total CF can be negative. The life cycle length of the straw-based end products determines how long carbon can be stored before it is released back into the atmosphere. Total greenhouse gas emission balance at a system level can be defined only when also straw refining and manufacturing of replaced final products are considered. Additional information is needed, especially on soil emissions (N2O and CH4) and impacts on SOC storage, to ensure the sustainability of straw-based products.
  • Lindholm, Tapio; Jakovlev, Jevgeni; Kravchenko, Alexey (Finnish Environment Institute, 2015)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 40/2014
    Zaonezhye Peninsula (Zaonezhsky Peninsula; Заонежский полуостров in Russian transcription) is situated on the northwestern coast of Lake Onega in the Republic of Karelia, Russia. The territory of Zaonezhye is unique in that it contains nearly every type of terrain and unconsolidated sediment known in the vast expanses of northwest Russia. It is also eastern part of Fennoscandian shield. It is characterized by a high diversity of basic limestone and carbonate rocks that determine the fertility of local soils as well as the unique diversity of habitats, flora and fauna. Numerous rare calciphile plant and lichen species are found here, as well as rich, eutrophic wetlands. Long-term farming and animal husbandry have led to a large number of grassland communities in the area. As a result, a mosaic structure of diverse habitats has evolved here. Europe’s second largest lake, Lake Onega, with its clear and deep waters also affect the local climate, making it milder. This report provides for the first time detailed species lists of vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens, wood-growing fungi and insects covering the entire Zaonezhye Peninsula, Kizhi archipelago and other adjacent islands. The most important sites for protection were observed, and six new nature monuments in the southern and southerneast parts of Zaonezhye Peninsula are recommended to be established. This publication contents following articles characterizing nature of Zaonezhye area: 1. Geology and physical geography: 1.1.Geological description, 1.2. Geomorphology and Quaternary deposits, 1.3. Hydrological characteristics, 1.4. Soil cover, 1.5. Palaeogeography, 1.6. Existing and planned protected areas; 2. Landscapes and ecosystems: 2.1. Modern landscapes of Zaonezhye, 2.2. Landscape structure, 2.3. Structure of the forest covered land and forest stands, 2.4. Forest structures, 2.5. Mires, 2.6. Meadows; 3. Flora and fauna: 3.1. Vascular plants, 3.2. Bryophyte flora, 3.3 Species list of lichens and allied fungi, 3.4. Red listed and indicator lichens, 3.5. Aphyllophoroid fungi and 3.6. Insect fauna. 3.7. Localities in Zaonezhye area used in species lists of vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens, fungi and insects, and their toponyms.
  • Koskiaho, Jari; Okruszko, Tomasz; Piniewski, Mikolaj; Marcinkowski, Pawel; Tattari, Sirkka; Johannesdottir, Solveig; Kärrman, Erik; Kämäri, Maria (Elsevier, 2020)
    Ecohydrology & Hydrobiology
    There exist numerous ecotechnologies for recovery and reuse of carbon and nutrients from various waste streams before they are lost to runoff. However, it remains largely unknown how growing implementation of such ecotechnologies affect nutrient emissions to surface waters at catchment scale. Here, this knowledge gap is addressed by application of SWAT model in three case study catchments draining to the Baltic Sea: Vantaanjoki (Finland), Fyrisån (Sweden) and Słupia (Poland). Sustainability analysis with Multi-Criteria Analysis was applied in the stakeholder workshops in the case study areas to assess different ecotechnology alternatives. The following ecotechnologies received the highest sustainability scores: in Vantaanjoki anaerobic digestion, based on mostly agricultural residues; in Fyrisån source-separation of wastewaters; in Słupia nutrient extraction within the wastewater treatment process. The effect of application of digestate on agricultural soils in the Vantaanjoki catchment was simulated by adjusting the model parameters describing the organic carbon content and physical properties of soil. The results showed small reductions of nutrient loads to the Gulf of Finland. Larger reductions of nutrient loads to Lake Mälaren in Sweden and the Baltic Sea in Poland were achieved as a result of the wastewater treatment upgrades. In the Fyrisån catchment, higher relative reductions were simulated for TN than TP, and in dry years than in wet years. Although the studied ecotechnologies did not show as high effectiveness in nutrient load reduction as combinations of traditional Best Management Practices reported in literature, they do have other multiple benefits including crop yield increase, electricity, heat and bio-based fertilizer production.
  • Lindholm, Tapio; Nummelin, Matti (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1983)
  • Greiser, Caroline; Hylander, Kristoffer; Meineri, Eric; Luoto, Miska; Ehrlen, Johan (2020)
    The role of climate in determining range margins is often studied using species distribution models (SDMs), which are easily applied but have well-known limitations, e.g. due to their correlative nature and colonization and extinction time lags. Transplant experiments can give more direct information on environmental effects, but often cover small spatial and temporal scales. We simultaneously applied a SDM using high-resolution spatial predictors and an integral projection (demographic) model based on a transplant experiment at 58 sites to examine the effects of microclimate, light and soil conditions on the distribution and performance of a forest herb, Lathyrus vernus, at its cold range margin in central Sweden. In the SDM, occurrences were strongly associated with warmer climates. In contrast, only weak effects of climate were detected in the transplant experiment, whereas effects of soil conditions and light dominated. The higher contribution of climate in the SDM is likely a result from its correlation with soil quality, forest type and potentially historic land use, which were unaccounted for in the model. Predicted habitat suitability and population growth rate, yielded by the two approaches, were not correlated across the transplant sites. We argue that the ranking of site habitat suitability is probably more reliable in the transplant experiment than in the SDM because predictors in the former better describe understory conditions, but that ranking might vary among years, e.g. due to differences in climate. Our results suggest that L. vernus is limited by soil and light rather than directly by climate at its northern range edge, where conifers dominate forests and create suboptimal conditions of soil and canopy-penetrating light. A general implication of our study is that to better understand how climate change influences range dynamics, we should not only strive to improve existing approaches but also to use multiple approaches in concert.
  • Sarvela, Konsta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The purpose of this thesis was to design, build and test a system, which is capable of measuring in real time simple quantities influencing on tire-soil contact of agricultural tractors mobility. The measuring equipment is based on acceleration and distance sensors connected to the Arduino Uno microcontroller. The tractor’s CAN bus was logged and the data was saved using a CAN bus card connected to a Raspberry Pi minicomputer. The sensors were calibrated, and their sensitivity checked before performing the experiments while driving in the field. Accelerometers were placed on top of the rear axle of the tractor at both ends in housings printed for them and distance sensors were mounted behind the rear axle. All sensors were logged by using Raspberry's Raspbian operating system with a python program. The Raspberry was chosen as a computer because of its demanding low space, low cost, and versatility of interfaces. The properties of the field were monitored by monthly penetrometer measurements as well as SoilScout sensors embedded in the ground, which indicated the moisture and temperature of the ground at that depth in real time. The purpose of this was to find out the changes in the field during the growing season, which would also affect the tractor's mobility. The measurement were carried out successfully and the result were considered to be reliable and provide many other opportunities for the future. The results clearly indicated the factors influencing the tractor’s mobility and the different stages of the tillage could be recognized. Future challenges remain the filtering of large amounts of data and the application of measuring equipment in further research. The measurement equipment developed in the work is well suited for its purpose in terms of measurement accuracy and economical affordability. In the future, better accuracy could be achieved with more accurate measuring devices as well as data obtained from this work.
  • Kettunen, Ilkka Henrikki (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Aim of this study is to develop biogeochemical exploration methods for cobalt. Several different samples were collected from study area, analyzed, and compared to each other. This study took place at Rautio village at North Ostrobothnia and more accurately over the Jouhineva mineralization. Jouhineva is well-known high-grade cobalt-copper-gold mineralization. Elements examined in this study are cobalt, copper, arsenic, zinc, selenium, and cadmium. Samples were collected from three different study profiles from the area. From these three profiles samples collected are: soil, pine, lingonberry, birch, rowan, and juniper. Water samples were collected around the study area from every location possible. Soil samples were analyzed with four different methods: Ionic leaching, aqua regia, weak leaching and pXRF. Ionic leaching and aqua regia had both elevated concentrations of cobalt, but in different locations depending on study profile. Ionic leaching detects rising ions from the ore and therefore elevated concentrations are found at different locations compared to aqua regia. Aqua regia results proved how different orientation of study profile, direction of the ore and glacial flow can affect to the anomalies of elemental concentration. Profile-2 was oriented differently to ore and glacial flow than Profile-1, and therefore elevated concentrations of cobalt and copper were not drifted away from the ore on Profile-2 like they were on Profile-1. Aqua regia and pXRF have very similar copper, arsenic and zinc results. Pine and lingonberry turn out to be the most promising plant species applied for cobalt exploration, and rowan appears to be most suitable for copper exploration. Lower detection limit could significantly improve pine analyses as exploration method and more extensive sampling could remove some of the uncertainties about the method. Lingonberry samples have elevated concentration of copper and arsenic. Birch and juniper produced somewhat unclear results. Despite this, cobalt and copper concentrations in birch leaves were elevated when compared to concentrations found in other studies. In addition to this birch is suitable for arsenic exploration. Juniper had elevated copper concentration in the study area compared to other studies. Water samples collected from the Jouhineva area yielded concentrations of cobalt, copper and arsenic that were above the average concentration in the Kalajoki area waters. Copper and arsenic were above the average concentration of the Kalajoki area in every sample collected from the study area. Cobalt was above the average concentration in all samples that were not collected directly from the pond formed in the old test mine. Zinc concentration was below the average limit in all samples collected from the area. Zinc concentration in the water samples collected from the pond is significantly lower compared to the other samples collected from the area.
  • Kuusipalo, Jussi (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1984)
  • Mattila, Tuomas J.; Rajala, Jukka (Wiley, 2022)
    Soil Use and Management
    Traditionally, locally calibrated soil tests were used for fertilizer and lime recommendations. Farmers and advisors are increasingly using new ‘universal’ soil tests without local calibration. The objective of this study was to compare five commercially available soil tests and to determine whether they would provide similar recommendations. In total, 24 fields in Western Finland were sampled for 4 years while being treated with fertilizers, lime and manure. The soil samples were analysed with Mehlich-3, ammonium acetate, H3A, hydrochloric acid and mild acetic acid (Spurway) extractants. In addition, Soil Health Tool (CO2 burst, water-soluble C and N) and tissue testing were conducted. The different tests extracted different orders of magnitude of nutrients (especially P and Mg), but the results from the different extractions were correlated. Mehlich-3 degree of phosphorus saturation (DPS) presented a threshold, below which soluble phosphorus was not detected. Similar thresholds were found for P, S and Mg. Mehlich-3 and ammonium acetate provided similar results for Ca, Mg and K and can be used interchangeably for liming recommendations. Mehlich-3 identified more fields with Zn, Cu, B and S deficiencies and less fields with Mn deficiencies compared with ammonium acetate + EDTA and tissue testing. The tests had strong correlation, but the determination of nutrient deficiencies needs local calibration of deficiency limits.
  • Allen, John A.; Setälä, Heikki; Kotze, David Johan (2020)
    Urban residents and their pets utilize urban greenspaces daily. As urban dog ownership rates increase globally, urban greenspaces are under mounting pressure even as the benefits and services they provide become more important. The urine of dogs is high in nitrogen (N) and may represent a significant portion of the annual urban N load. We examined the spatial distribution and impact of N deposition from dog urine on soils in three urban greenspace typologies in Finland: Parks, Tree Alleys, and Remnant Forests. We analyzed soil from around trees, lampposts and lawn areas near walking paths, and compared these to soils from lawn areas 8 m away from pathways. Soil nitrate, ammonium, total N concentrations, and electrical conductivity were significantly higher and soil pH significantly lower near path-side trees and poles relative to the 8 m lawn plots. Also, stable isotope analysis indicates that the primary source of path-side N are distinct from those of the 8 m lawn plots, supporting our hypothesis that dogs are a significant source of N in urban greenspaces, but that this deposition occurs in a restricted zone associated with walking paths. Additionally, we found that Remnant Forests were the least impacted of the three typologies analyzed. We recommend that landscape planners acknowledge this impact, and design parks to reduce or isolate this source of N from the wider environment.
  • Lipas, Erkki (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1983)
  • Mälkönen, Eino (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1976)
  • Rimhanen, Karoliina; Ketoja, Elise; Yli-Halla, Markku; Kahiluoto, Helena (2016)
    More than half of the cultivation-induced carbon loss from agricultural soils could be restored through improved management. To incentivise carbon sequestration, the potential of improved practices needs to be verified. To date, there is sparse empirical evidence of carbon sequestration through improved practices in East-Africa. Here, we show that agroforestry and restrained grazing had a greater stock of soil carbon than their bordering pair-matched controls, but the difference was less obvious with terracing. The controls were treeless cultivated fields for agroforestry, on slopes not terraced for terracing, and permanent pasture for restrained grazing, representing traditionally managed agricultural practices dominant in the case regions. The gain by the improved management depended on the carbon stocks in the control plots. Agroforestry for 6-20 years led to 11.4 Mg ha(-1) and restrained grazing for 6-17 years to 9.6 Mg ha(-1) greater median soil carbon stock compared with the traditional management. The empirical estimates are higher than previous process-model-based estimates and indicate that Ethiopian agriculture has greater potential to sequester carbon in soil than previously estimated.
  • Selonen, Salla; Dolar, Andraž; Jemec Kokalj, Anita; Sackey, Lyndon N.A.; Skalar, Tina; Cruz Fernandes, Virgínia; Rede, Diana; Hurley, Rachel; Nizzetto, Luca; van Gestel, Cornelis A.M. (Elsevier, 2021)
    Environmental Research 201: 111495
    Abrasion of tire wear is one of the largest sources of microplastics to the environment. Although most tire particles settle into soils, studies on their ecotoxicological impacts on the terrestrial environment are scarce. Here, the effects of tire particles (<180 μm) on three ecologically relevant soil invertebrate species, the enchytraeid worm Enchytraeus crypticus, the springtail Folsomia candida and the woodlouse Porcellio scaber, were studied. These species were exposed to tire particles spiked in soil or in food at concentrations of 0.02%, 0.06%, 0.17%, 0.5% and 1.5% (w/w). Tire particles contained a variety of potentially harmful substances. Zinc (21 900 mg kg−1) was the dominant trace element, whilst the highest concentrations of the measured organic compounds were detected for benzothiazole (89.2 mg kg−1), pyrene (4.85 mg kg−1), chlorpyrifos (0.351 mg kg−1), HCB (0.134 mg kg−1), methoxychlor (0.116 mg kg−1) and BDE 28 (0.100 mg kg−1). At the highest test concentration in soil (1.5%), the tire particles decreased F. candida reproduction by 38% and survival by 24%, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of P. scaber by 65%, whilst the slight decrease in the reproduction of E. crypticus was not dose-dependent. In food, the highest test concentration of tire particles reduced F. candida survival by 38%. These results suggest that micro-sized tire particles can affect soil invertebrates at concentrations found at roadsides, whilst short-term impacts at concentrations found further from the roadsides are unlikely.
  • Peltonen-Sainio, Pirjo; Jauhiainen, Lauri; Känkänen, Hannu; Joona, Juuso; Hydén, Tony; Mattila, Tuomas J. (MDPI AG, 2022)