Browsing by Subject "solar wind - magnetosphere coupling"

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  • Kilpua, Emilia K. J.; Pomoell, Jens; Price, Daniel; Sarkar, Ranadeep; Asvestari, Eleanna (2021)
    We investigate here the magnetic properties of a large-scale magnetic flux rope related to a coronal mass ejection (CME) that erupted from the Sun on September 12, 2014 and produced a well-defined flux rope in interplanetary space on September 14-15, 2014. We apply a fully data-driven and time-dependent magnetofrictional method (TMFM) using Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) magnetograms as the lower boundary condition. The simulation self-consistently produces a coherent flux rope and its ejection from the simulation domain. This paper describes the identification of the flux rope from the simulation data and defining its key parameters (e.g., twist and magnetic flux). We define the axial magnetic flux of the flux rope and the magnetic field time series from at the apex and at different distances from the apex of the flux rope. Our analysis shows that TMFM yields axial magnetic flux values that are in agreement with several observational proxies. The extracted magnetic field time series do not match well with in-situ components in direct comparison presumably due to interplanetary evolution and northward propagation of the CME. The study emphasizes also that magnetic field time-series are strongly dependent on how the flux rope is intercepted which presents a challenge for space weather forecasting.
  • Pulkkinen, T. I.; Dimmock, A. P.; Lakka, A.; Osmane, A.; Kilpua, E.; Myllys, M.; Tanskanen, E. I.; Viljanen, A. (2016)
    We examine the role of the magnetosheath in solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling using the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms plasma and magnetic field observations in the magnetosheath together with OMNI solar wind data and auroral electrojet recordings from the International Monitor for Auroral Geomagnetic Effects (IMAGE) magnetometer chain. We demonstrate that the electric field and Poynting flux reaching the magnetopause are not linear functions of the electric field and Poynting flux observed in the solar wind: the electric field and Poynting flux at the magnetopause during higher driving conditions are lower than those predicted from a linear function. We also show that the Poynting flux normal to the magnetopause is linearly correlated with the directly driven part of the auroral electrojets in the ionosphere. This indicates that the energy entering the magnetosphere in the form of the Poynting flux is directly responsible for driving the electrojets. Furthermore, we argue that the polar cap potential saturation discussed in the literature is associated with the way solar wind plasma gets processed during the bow shock crossing and motion within the magnetosheath.
  • Turc, Lucile Francoise; Fontaine, Dominique; Escoubet, Philippe; Kilpua, Emilia Katja Johanna; Dimmock, Andrew P. (2017)
    The magnetosheath plays a central role in the solar wind-magnetospheric coupling. Yet the effects of its crossing on solar wind structures such as magnetic clouds (MCs) are generally overlooked when assessing their geoeffectivity. Using 82 MCs observed simultaneously in the solar wind and the magnetosheath, we carry out the first statistical study of the alteration of their magnetic structure in the magnetosheath. For each event, the bow shock properties are obtained from a magnetosheath model. The comparison between the model results and observations shows that in 80% of cases, the MHD-based model captures well the magnetosheath transition; the other events are discussed separately. We find that just downstream of the bow shock the variation of the magnetic field direction shows a very good anticorrelation (r = −0.91) with the angle between the upstream magnetic field and the shock normal. We then focus on the magnetic field north-south component Bz because of its importance for geoeffectivity. Although the sign of Bz is generally preserved in the magnetosheath, we also find evidence of long-lasting intervals of opposite Bz signs in the solar wind and the magnetosheath during some events, with a |Bz| reversal > 10 nT at the magnetopause. We find that these reversals are due to the draping of the field lines and are associated with predominant upstream By. In those cases, the estimated position of the regions of antiparallel fields along the magnetopause is independent of the sign of the upstream Bz . This may have strong implications in terms of reconnection.