Browsing by Subject "sosiaalietiikka"

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  • Heikkerö, Topi (2009)
    This study addresses the following question: How to think about ethics in a technological world? The question is treated first thematically by framing central issues in the relationship between ethics and technology. This relationship has three distinct facets: i) technological advance poses new challenges for ethics, ii) traditional ethics may become poorly applicable in a technologically transformed world, and iii) the progress in science and technology has altered the concept of rationality in ways that undermine ethical thinking itself. The thematic treatment is followed by the description and analysis of three approaches to the questions framed. First, Hans Jonas s thinking on the ontology of life and the imperative of responsibility is studied. In Jonas s analysis modern culture is found to be nihilistic because it is unable to understand organic life, to find meaning in reality, and to justify morals. At the root of nihilism Jonas finds dualism, the traditional Western way of seeing consciousness as radically separate from the material world. Jonas attempts to create a metaphysical grounding for an ethic that would take the technologically increased human powers into account and make the responsibility for future generations meaningful and justified. The second approach is Albert Borgmann s philosophy of technology that mainly assesses the ways in which technological development has affected everyday life. Borgmann admits that modern technology has liberated humans from toil, disease, danger, and sickness. Furthermore, liberal democracy, possibilities for self-realization, and many of the freedoms we now enjoy would not be possible on a large scale without technology. Borgmann, however, argues that modern technology in itself does not provide a whole and meaningful life. In fact, technological conditions are often detrimental to the good life. Integrity in life, according to him, is to be sought among things and practices that evade technoscientific objectification and commodification. Larry Hickman s Deweyan philosophy of technology is the third approach under scrutiny. Central in Hickman s thinking is a broad definition of technology that is nearly equal to Deweyan inquiry. Inquiry refers to the reflective and experiential way humans adapt to their environment by modifying their habits and beliefs. In Hickman s work, technology consists of all kinds of activities that through experimentation and/or reflection aim at improving human techniques and habits. Thus, in addition to research and development, many arts and political reforms are technological for Hickman. He argues for recasting such distinctions as fact/value, poiesis/praxis/theoria, and individual/society. Finally, Hickman does not admit a categorical difference between ethics and technology: moral values and norms need to be submitted to experiential inquiry as well as all the other notions. This study mainly argues for an interdisciplinary approach to the ethics of technology. This approach should make use of the potentialities of the research traditions in applied ethics, the philosophy of technology, and the social studies on science and technology and attempt to overcome their limitations. This study also advocates an endorsement of mid-level ethics that concentrate on the practices, institutions, and policies of temporal human life. Mid-level describes the realm between the instantaneous and individualistic micro-level and the universal and global macro level.
  • Pruuki, Heli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Who is the patient? A social-ethical study of the Finnish practice of prenatal screening. The aim of this study is to examine the Finnish practice of prenatal screening from a social-ethical perspective. Analyzing ethical problems in medicine and medical practice only on a general scale may conceal relevant ethical dilemmas. Previous studies have suggested that many pregnant women view the prenatal screening practices customary in the Finnish maternal care system as intimidating and oppressive. This study analyzes the ethical questions of prenatal screening by focusing on the experiences and decision-making of a pregnant woman. Finnish women s experiences of and decision-making on the most common prenatal screening methods are reflected in the basic principles of biomedical ethics described by Tom L. Beauchamp and James F. Childress in Principles of Biomedical Ethics. To concretize women s experiences I refer to studies of Finnish women s experiences of prenatal screenings. This study shows that the principles of autonomy, non-maleficence and beneficence seem to materialize rather poorly in the Finnish practice of prenatal screening. The main ethical problem with prenatal screening is that the likelihood of a foetal cure is very limited and, upon detection of an affected foetus, the choice is usually whether to continue with the pregnancy or to undergo an abortion. Although informed consent should be required, women s participation in prenatal testing is, in many cases at least, not based on their active decision. Many women experience severe anxiety when they receive a positive screening result and must wait for the final results. Medical studies indicate that long- term anxiety may negatively influence the foetus and the mother-child relationship. This study shows that the practice of prenatal screening as such may cause more harm than benefit to many pregnant women and their foetuses. This study examines the decision-making process of a pregnant woman by using the theory of medical casuistry described in Jonsen, Siegler and Winslade s Clinical Ethics. This study focuses on each of the four points of view recommended by the theory. The main problem seems to be the question of whom the patient of prenatal screening is and whom the practice is intended to benefit: the mother, the foetus, the family or society? This study shows that the concepts of health in Finnish maternal care in general, and of the prenatal screening system in particular, differ considerably. It also demonstrates that the purpose and the aims of prenatal screening, aside from the woman s right to choose, has been expressed neither in Finnish public health programmes nor in the public recommendations of prenatal screening. This study suggests that the practice of prenatal screening is a statement, though unexpressed, of public health policy and as such comprises part of the policy of disability. This study further demonstrates that through a single explicit aim (the woman s right to choose) society actually evades its obligation to women by saddling pregnant women with the entire moral responsibility as well as the possible negative consequences of her choice, such as sorrow, regrets and moral balancing. The study reveals several ethical problems in the Finnish practice of prenatal screening. Such problems should be dealt with as the Finnish practice of prenatal screening advances.
  • Alhanen, Kai (Gaudeamus Kirja, 2007)
    Practices and Thought in Michel Foucault s Philosophy The present thesis examines Michel Foucault s (1926-1984) notion of practice and argues that it is an essential concept in his philosophy, especially in his analysis of knowledge, power and ethics. The thesis reveals a previously neglected chronological and methodological unity in Foucault s work. The first chapter clarifies Foucault s philosophy by outlining it according to four central themes. First, the main philosophical goal of his historical studies is to analyse how human subjects have become objects of their own thinking. Second, this goal calls for methodological precaution to avoid all anthropological universals. Third, Foucault s studies are directed towards fields of practices. Fourth, the analysis of practices is executed along three axes: knowledge, power and ethics. The second chapter concerns the notion of practice in Foucault s archaeological method. Foucault s archaeological analysis is not directed towards objects and subjects as such, but to the way that the rules of discursive practice form them in the discourse. Many commentators have neglected Foucault s concept of practice when discussing his ideas concerning rules of discourse and limits of knowledge. I argue that Foucault s analysis concerning the limits of knowledge relates to local and contingent rules of discursive practice, not to transcendental rules of thinking in general. The third chapter deals with power relations and practices. I clarify Foucault s concept of dispositif by defining it as a functional ensemble of practices, and argue that this concept is crucial to his understanding of power relations. I stress a conceptual definition, which separates relations of power from the practices of government and show that the latter is based on the idea that power relations are integrated into practices. This conceptual clarification also helps in understanding Foucault s critique concerning modern practices of power. The fourth chapter examines Foucault s way of perceiving ethics as a practice. He separates three essential dimensions in morals: moral codes, moral behaviour and practices of self. His ethics concern practices of self and he studies how these practices have constituted different relations that subjects have to themselves, to others and to their societies. I argue that Foucault s own ethical views can be found in the ideas on the importance of practices of self in the modern world, and emphasize that these ideas should be connected to his views concerning the tradition of the Enlightenment, and to his own political action.
  • Siikaniva, Anu (Helsingfors universitet, 2004)
    Tutkimuksen tehtävänä on tarkastella niitä keinoja, joita Yhteisvastuukeräys on käyttänyt keräysesitteissään houkutellakseen ihmisiä osallistumaan keräykseen. Lisäksi tutkimuksessa pohditaan käytettyjen keinojen yhteensopivuutta luterilaisen sosiaalietiikan kanssa. Tutkielman näkökulma on eettinen. Tutkittava aineisto on koottu Kirkkopalveluiden arkistosta ja se sisältää Yhteisvastuukeräyksestä vuosittain julkaistut keräysesitteet vuosilta 1959, 1960, 1974 sekä vuodesta 1979 vuoteen 2003. Luterilaisen sosiaalietiikan osalta tutkimuksessa tukeudutaan erityisesti suomalaiseen tutkimustraditioon, jota edustavat Antti Raunio, Tuomo Mannermaa sekä Jaana Hallamaa. Tutkimus on toteutettu referoimalla ja analysoimalla aineistoa sekä erilaisia tekstikokonaisuuksia ja pyrkimällä muodostamaan niiden pohjalta tutkimustehtävän kannalta mielekkäitä temaattisia kokonaisuuksia. Tutkielma sisältää neljä päälukua, joista ensimmäisessä käsitellään Yhteisvastuukeräyksen historiaa. Katsauksen tarkoituksena on esitellä keräyksen taitekohtia, jotka ovat vaikuttaneet sen toimintaan sekä keräysorganisaation diakonisen itseymmärryksen muodostumiseen. Seuraavat kolme päälukua käsittelevät aineiston pohjalta muodostettuja temaattisia kokonaisuuksia. Ensimmäinen kokonaisuus esittelee palkitsemisen yhtenä lahjoittamiseen rohkaisevana motivaatiotekijänä. Tutkimuksessa esitetään, että palkitseminen on osoitus pyrkimyksestä hyödyntää ihmisen luontaista itsekkyyttä. Käyttämällä hyväksi tätä ominaisuutta Yhteivastuukeräys jättää huomioimatta sen, että luterilaisesta näkökulmasta katsottuna sisäinen motivaatio on teon arvioinnin kannalta olennainen tekijä ja moraalin tehtävänä on pyrkiä paljastamaan väärät ja itsekkäät motiivit. Toisaalta palkitseminen näyttää olevan myös vastoin Antti Raunion esittämää tulkintaa kristillisen avustutyön perusteista. Kristillisen avustustyön tulisi pohjautua lahjan-ajatukseen eikä sillä tulisi pyrkiä tavoittelemaan ulkopuolisia päämääriä tai palkintoja. Toinen temaattinen kokonaisuus käsittelee lähimmäisyyttä ja lähimmäisen tarpeisiin vastaamista motivaatioon vaikuttavana tekijänä. Yhteisvastsuukeräyksen esitteissä lähimmäinen on kuvattu kahdella tavalla: avun tarvitsijana ja avun vastaanottajana. Esitystavoilla on pyritty vakuuttamaan lahjoittaja siitä, että apu on tarpeen ja että avun vastaanottaja kykenee hyödyntämään saamansa tuen. Lähimmäinen avun tarvitsijana ja lähimmäisen tarve näyttävät olevan laupiaaseen samarialaiseen liitetyn vertauksen ja Kultaisen säännön mukaan myös luterilaisen tarkestelutavan keskiössä. Toisaalta nykyinen hyvinvointiyhteikunnan malli, jota myös luterilainen sosiaalietiikka korostaa, edellyttää ihmisiltä taloudellista itsenäisyyttä sekä halua toimia tuottavalla tavalla yhteisön hyväksi. Nämä näkökulmat yhdessä näyttävät tukevan Yhteisvastuukeräyksen käyttämää esitystapaa. Kolmas temaattinen kokonaisuus esittelee auttamisen päämääriin ja tavoitteisiin viittavat tavat motivoida lahjoittajaa. Löydetyt keinot jakaantuvat kahteen ryhmään sen mukaan onko niissä pyritty viittaamaan auttamisella konkreettisesti saavutettuihin tuloksiin vai arvoihin. Molemmat lähestymistavat kutsuvat lahjoittajaa vastustamaan epäoikeudenmukaisuutta ja köyhyyttä. Lutherin käsitys omaisuudesta, sen käytöstä sekä oppi pelatuksesta, joka on ihmisen omista teoista riippumaton, vaikuttivat yhdessä siihen, että luterilaiseen sosiaalieettiseen ajatteluun voitiin luontevasti yhdistää ajatus köyhyydestä yhteiskunnallisena epäkohtana. Toisaalta valtiolle siirtynyt päävastuu huolehtia köyhistä ja huonompiosaisista, on vaikuttanut kirkon mahdollisuuksiin toimia aktiivisena auttajana. Konkreettisen auttamistyön sijaan kirkon köyhyyden vastainen työ painottuu yhteiskunnalliseen ja poliittiseen vaikuttamiseen. Yhteisvatuukeräyksen esitteissä kantaaottavuuden ja yhteiskunnallisen kritiikin sijaan on panostettu avustustyön konkreettisuuteen ja yksilön vastuuseen ja vaikutusmahdollisuuksiin.
  • Nikula, Karoliina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Keywords: goodness, capability, choice, ethics, deaf, sign language, cochlear implant, clinical practice, medicalization. Lapsen hyvää edistämässä. Syntymäkuurojen lasten sisäkorvaistutehoitokäytännön sosiaalieettistä tarkastelua. [Promoting The Good of The Child. A Social-Ethical Analysis of Cochlear Implants in Children Born Deaf]. Karoliina Nikula, University of Helsinki. In 1995, after a long period of lobbying and political action, sign language was granted a legal status in Finland. In 1997, the first cochlear implant surgeries were performed on children in Finland. At present, 90 percent of deaf children undergo cochlear implant surgery. The use of sign language as a first language is diminishing. The majority of deaf children are born to hearing parents, and they are being asked to make the choice whether their children should receive cochlear implants or not. Previous empirical studies have shown that some parents feel that their choices are not always respected. The aim of this research project is to study cochlear implant clinical practices using the concepts of goodness, capability, and choice, as well as to analyse whether the shift in clinical practices from sign language to spoken language is based on careful deliberation and reasonable arguments. This study helps us to better understand the parents process of deciding whether or not to obtain cochlear implants for their children, and the family s journey through treatment options and standard clinical practices. In addition, this study provides tools for parents of deaf children to assist their decision-making and to medical practitioners who advise these parents. The study is focused around the following research questions: (1) What constitutes medical goodness for a child born deaf? (2) In what ways do cochlear implants and sign language promote a deaf child s capabilities? (3) Is it adequate to speak of choice when thinking about the dilemmas of parents of children born deaf? The research methodology is philosophical concept and argumentation analysis along with analysis of the construction of the concept of choice. The research data consists of various sources and literature. The sources can be divided into the following: 1) Avaintietokansio [materials made available to families of the deaf]; 2) publications of the Satakieli seminars; 3) brochures and other information provided by device manufacturers; 4) DVD and video recordings; 5) Internet pages; and 6) legislation. The literature is comprised of (1) previous empirical studies on the parents of deaf children obtaining treatment for their children. Empirical studies on family experience include materials published by the Finnish Association of the Deaf and the Institute for the Languages of Finland, e.g., Suomen viittomakielten kielipoliittinen ohjelma (2010); a publication of the Ombudsman for Children Hei, kato mua! (Johanna Kiili and Kirsi Pollari, eds., 2012); and Riia Celen s documentary Sanoja sormenpäissä (2009) and Minna Luukkainen s Viitotut elämät: Kuurojen nuorten aikuisten kokemuksia viittomakielisestä elämästä Suomessa (2008). These provide information on the experiences of families whose deaf children are being treated. Internationally, Stuart Blum s The Artificial Ear (2010) also provides information on the experiences of families. (2) Ethical and medical discourse on cochlear implants in deaf children. (3) Previous philosophical and ethical work, particularly the following: a) Martha Nussbaum s capability approach; b) Georg Henrik von Wright s The Varieties of Goodness (1963, Finnish translation 2001); and c) rational choice theory, especially in the work of Jon Elster. In addition, (4) methodological handbooks (e.g., literature about the conceptual tools) were used. The study is organized as follows. Chapter two examines deafness from two points of view: audiological and socio-cultural. I also introduce topics often associated with deafness, such as sign language and deaf culture. Here I also discuss the technical aspects of cochlear implants and provide a brief history of the deaf in Finland. In chapters 3 5 I examine the three main concepts goodness, capabilities, and choices with reference to the research questions. These provide essential conceptual tools when analysing the issue, as the processes connected to cochlear implants are centred around the question of what constitutes a good life for the child, the child s ability to develop, and the choices that parents in this situation must make. My research demonstrates the following: (1) The transition from sign language to spoken language is not based on sound arguments. This study did not find a solid rationale for reducing the use of sign language in order to rehabilitate hearing. Giving up sign language cannot be said to promote the child s good, capabilities, or opportunities to make independent choices in the future. On the contrary, it may indeed interfere with them. (2) In conjunction with the cochlear implant treatment process, it sometimes seems that the ideas of promoting choice and increasing capabilities are more of an illusion. We can also speak of language as an illusion in the sense that in the literature I surveyed (as well as in this discourse), language is often used synonymously with spoken language. The rhetoric used directs choice and creates impressions. We cannot speak of a family s autonomous, rational choices if the situation does not meet the criteria for choice. (3) Occasionally, the process seems to be about audism, i.e., valuing spoken language over signed language, medicalization, technological imperatives, and the treatment of cochlear implants as an ideological issue. All of these can have an effect on the decision-making processes of parents. (4) Cochlear implant clinical practices differ from general health care practices in the sense that implant practices are not always based on evidence (e.g., there is no evidence of the advantages of choosing not to learn sign language; there is as yet no knowledge of the long-term effects of cochlear implants). Furthermore, health care usually focuses only on areas within the medical field, but a language is not only a medical issue. Health care practices are usually based on research results, limited to areas in which medical authorities have competence and designed to maximize the patient s capabilities. (5) Legislation, different schools of thought, and treatment practices create different ways of understanding deafness. Legislation treats the deaf in terms of language and handicap. Different schools of thought lead to polarized discourse about deafness. Finally, according to the reports of parents, current clinical practices require them to choose one language for their child, although it would be possible to choose both sign language and spoken language. These divisions in the discourse may affect the decision-making of parents. (6) The idea of choice is not the best way to promote the well-being of deaf children. Focusing instead on capabilities would free parents and health care practitioners from the burden of predicting outcomes which will only come with time: that is, if all capabilities are promoted, it is not necessary to know how hearing or speech will develop, what the child would like to do or be when s/he grows up, or what sort of future the child will have. A discourse of choice creates an either/or, rather than a both/and situation. Both/and is a better platform from which to develop a child s full capabilities. (7) The concepts of goodness, capabilities, and choice provide useful tools to examine cochlear implant clinical practices and the dilemma of families with deaf children. These concepts can also be used more generally in thinking about ethical considerations in medical practice, as they represent fundamental issues in terms of both ethics and health care practice. (8) Cochlear implant clinical practices need to be developed. This study shows that written materials supporting parental decisions need to be improved, and care needs to be taken that space is given to different alternatives. In addition, more multi- and cross-disciplinary co-operation needs to be developed to improve the prospects for deaf children. Based on this study, I suggest that in the future we need to focus on four issues. First, we must pay attention to the rhetoric used in legislation, in information packets for families of the deaf, and in the research literature. Second, instead of talking about choice, we must take into consideration the child s strengths and skills on many levels. Third, we should consider the possibilities offered by multiculturalism, which includes different types of language choices, as well as multi- and cross-disciplinary clinical teams. If advice is being given on language, the treatment team should include a language specialist as well as a member who knows sign language. This study affirms the need for further multi- and cross-disciplinary co-operation. Fourth, deaf children should be treated as a whole person, not simply through their hearing or lack thereof.
  • Niemenkari, Hanna-Riikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Menestyksen käsite: Esimerkkitapauksena Helsingin yliopisto pro gradu -tutkielmassa tarkastellaan menestyksen käsitettä käsiteanalyyttisen menetelmän avulla. Menestyksen käsitettä tarkastellaan suhteessa lähikäsitteisiinsä ja vastakohtiinsa. Huomiota kiinnitetään myös menestyksen käsitteen historialliseen muutokseen. Menestyksen käsite sisältää lähikäsitteensä ja osan vastakohdistaan. Kirjallisuuden avulla kiinnittäen huomiota menestyksen arvioimiseen erilaisissa asiayhteyksissä. Tutkielman tavoitteena on luoda menestyksen käsitettä selkeyttäviä käsitteellisiä erotteluja, joita voidaan käyttää välineinä menestyksen käsitteen tarkastelemisessa Helsingin yliopiston kontekstissa. Välineiksi määrittyivät sisäinen, ulkoinen ja kokonaisvaltainen menestys. Menestystä voi tarkastella myös saavuttamisen, tapahtumisen ja olosuhteiden näkökulmasta. Tutkielma on toteutettu sosiaalietiikan pääaineessa sosiaalietiikan peruskäsitteiden pro seminaarissa. Teoreettisen taustan tutkielmalle muodostavat Jaana Hallamaan yhteistoiminnan etiikan teoria ja Georg Henrik von Wrightin Hyvän muunnelmia -teoksessa esitetyt teoreettiset erottelut hyvän luonteesta. Menestystä tarkastellaan teoreettisesti toiminnan ja hyvän näkökulmasta. Toiminnan ja hyvän käsitteet ovat tärkeitä etiikan ja sosiaalietiikan tutkimuskohteita. Menestystä tarkastellaan yksilötoiminnan näkökulmasta kiinnittäen huomiota menestykseen toimintana ja prosessina. Yksilötoiminnan näkökulmasta arvioidaan myös menestyksen subjektiivista puolta, menestystä teknisenä hyvänä ja suorittamisena sekä menestystä sisäisenä hyvänä ja kukoistamisena. Helsingin yliopistoa analysoidaan akateemisena yhteisönä, jonka tarkoitus on tarjota tutkimukseen perustuvaa ylintä opetusta. Aineistona käytetään vuosien 2007–2009, 2010–2012 sekä 2013–2016 strategiaa yhdessä Helsingin yliopiston opetuksen ja opintojen eettisten periaatteiden ja Helsingin yliopiston avajaisissa vuosina 2013 ja 2014 pidettyjä juhlapuheita. Helsingin yliopiston toimintaa verrataan analyysissa yrityksen toimintaan. Helsingin yliopiston toimintaa tarkastellaan yhteistoiminnan teorian näkökulmasta ja kiinnitetään huomiota toimijoiden intressien huomioonottamiseen. Aineistosta paljastuvia menestysnäkemyksiä kommentoidaan ajankohtaisen keskustelun avulla ja erityistä huomiota kiinnitetään vuonna 2010 voimaan tulleen yliopistouudistuksen vaikutukseen ja 1.8.2015 voimaan tulevaan uuteen Helsingin yliopiston johtosääntöön.
  • Martikainen, Jenny (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Pro gradu -tutkielmassa tarkastellaan työllisyydenhoitoa omanarvontunnon ja ihmisarvon näkökulmasta. Tutkimuskysymykseni ovat: 1) Miten ihmisarvo tulee esiin työllisyydenhoitoon liittyvässä lainsäädännössä? 2) Miten kuntouttavassa sosiaalityössä voidaan parantaa työttömän työ- ja toimintakykyä tukemalla hänen omanarvontuntoaan voimavaralähtöisesti? Tutkielmassa työhön kuntoutusta käsitellään työllistämistä edistävän monialaisen yhteispalvelun (TYP) kontekstissa. TYP-toiminnassa luodaan pitkäaikaistyöttömälle yksilöllinen palvelukokonaisuus Kelan kuntoutuspalveluista, työvoimapalveluista ja kunnan sosiaali- ja terveyspalveluista. Moniammatillisen yhteistyön taustalla on kuntouttavan sosiaalityön ja työvoimapalveluiden erilaisia tavoitteita koskeva eettinen ristiriita. Työvoimaviranomaisilla tavoitteena on työllistyminen ja sosiaalityössä laajemmat elämäntilanne- ja hyvinvointitavoitteet. Tutkielmassa pyritään selvittämään sosiaalityön merkitystä ja tarpeellisuutta TYP:ssä sosiaalieettisestä näkökulmasta. Tutkielma jakaantuu kolmeen osaan. Ensimmäisessä osassa selvennetään ihmisarvon ja ihmisoikeuksien käsitteiden suhdetta, ja niiden esiintymistä työllisyydenhoitoon liittyvässä lainsäädännössä. Toisessa osassa käsitellään työhön kuntouttavaa sosiaalityötä dialogisessa ja asiakaslähtöisessä kohtaamisessa. Kolmannessa osassa pohditaan ratkaisukeskeisten voimavaralähtöisten valmennusmenetelmien hyödyntämistä omanarvontunteen ja toimintakyvyn tukemisessa, sekä niiden hyödyntämistä työhön kuntouttavassa sosiaalityössä. Tutkimus on aineistolähtöinen kirjallisuuskatsaus, jossa käytetään menetelmänä sisällönanalyysia. Tutkimuksen tuloksena on, että sosiaalityöllä on perustava ja välttämätön tehtävä sosiaalieettisesti kestävän TYP-työn toteuttamisessa. Sosiaalityössä korostuu ihmisarvoon ja asiakaslähtöisyyteen perustuva henkilökohtaisen psykososiaalisen keskustelun lähestymistapa, joka on välttämätön asiakkaan sosiaalisen tilanteen kartoittamiseksi ja edistämiseksi. Sosiaalihuoltolain mukaan erityisen tuen tarpeessa olevilla ihmisillä tulee olla sosiaalityöntekijä omatyöntekijänään. Monialaisen työllistymissuunnitelman laatimisessa sosiaalityöntekijän on tuotava esiin asiakkaan kokonaisvaltainen sosiaalinen tilanne ja asiakkaan näkemys omasta toimintakyvystään sekä harjoitettava asiakkaan asianajoa. Asiakkaan työ- ja toimintakykyä voidaan tukea ratkaisu- ja voimavarakeskeisellä valmentavalla työotteella, jolla on vaikutusta asiakkaan motivaatioon suuntautua kohti pitkäaikaista muutosta ja sitoutua muutokseen.
  • Paulanto, Virpi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Tässä tutkielmassa tutkin miten ja millaisena kirkkojen ja kirkollisten toimijoiden yhteiskunnallinen vaikuttamistoiminta ilmenee Kristittyjen ykseyden rukousviikon viettämiseen tarkoitettujen materiaalivihkojen rajaamassa viitekehyksessä. Kristittyjen ykseyden rukousviikkoa on vietetty 1900-luvun alusta alkaen. Nykyisin Rukousviikon tekstimateriaali valmistellaan yhteistyössä paikallisten kirkkojen ja kirkollisten toimijoiden kanssa vuosittain vaihtuvissa maantieteellisissä ympäristöissä. Materiaali käännetään useille eri kielille ja sitä rohkaistaan soveltamaan paikalliseen kontekstiin maailmanlaajuisesti. Rukousviikon valmistelua koordinoi Kirkkojen maailmanneuvoston Faith and Order -jaosto. Tutkimuksen teoreettinen viitekehys muodostuu kirkkojen ekumeenisen järjestötoiminnan ja yhteiskunnallisen vaikuttamistoiminnan historiasta, KMN:n sosiaalieettisen ajattelun malleista ja ohjelmista sekä KMN:n uusimmista, kristittyjen todistusta määrittelevistä ja ohjaavista asiakirjoista. Tutkimuksen lähdeaineistoina ovat Kristittyjen ykseyden rukousviikon vuosien 2018–2020 materiaalivihkot, jotka on koottu Indonesian, Karibian sekä Maltan ja Gozon maantieteellisillä alueilla. Tutkimukseni on laadullinen ja teoriasidonnainen tutkimus. Tutkimuksen analyysimenetelmä on sisällönanalyysi. Tutkimustuloksena on, että kirkkojen yhteiskunnallinen vaikuttamistoiminta ilmenee Kristittyjen ykseyden rukousviikon materiaalivihkoissa sosiaalisen oikeudenmukaisuuden, taloudellisen oikeudenmukaisuuden ja ympäristöoikeudenmukaisuuden puolustamisena sekä vieraanvaraisuutta, profeetallista hengellisyyttä ja vastarinnan merkkinä olemista korostavana kristittyjen todistuksena. Kristittyjen tunnistettiin olevan myös osallisia epäoikeudenmukaisuuden aiheuttamisessa ja ylläpitämisessä. Kirkkojen yhteiskunnallisessa vaikuttamistoiminnassa painotettiin kaikille kristityille kuuluvan profeetallinen tehtävä puolustaa oikeudenmukaisuutta sanoin ja teoin.
  • Ahonen, Karoliina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Finnish Mental Health Policy – Public Authority Governance in Protecting the Human Rights of Those with Mental Health Disorders. Following international examples, Finland began to dismantle psychiatric hospitals in the 1980s. Changes relating to the treatment of mental health disorders were influenced by many different ideas and objectives influenced by them. These trends led to a political decision to dismantle hospital institutions, which was justified as strengthening the human rights of the seriously ill. The aim of this research is to examine how public authority, in carrying out its mental health responsibilities, has sought to secure the fundamental and human rights of its citizens. Following five research questions were formulated: 1) What has been the political governance guiding the implementation of Finnish mental health policies? 2) What values and norms do the mental health policy governance documents contain? 3) How is mental health work understood and perceived in such mental health policy documents, what objectives do they set, and in which direction have they steered the development of mental health practices? 4) Which mental health-related aspects have been left out of or received little attention in the mental health policy documents? 5) How have Finnish mental health policies influenced the safeguarding of the fundamental and human rights of citizens with mental health disorders? The research methodology utilized in this study is systematic concept analysis. The research material includes primary sources and secondary sources. The primary sources consists of public policy documents describing the objectives, phenomena, and ideas that are then examined with the help of secondary sources which make up the research literature for this study. Examining mental health policy governance in Finland from 1970 to the present leads to the following observations: 1) The first documents governing mental health policies written in Finland clearly include concepts that concern the protection of the fundamental and human rights of seriously ill citizens. In the following decades, such objectives no longer appear in the written documents governing mental health policies. 2) The focus of mental health policies changed from protecting the fundamental and human rights of seriously ill citizens to the management of the mental health and wellbeing of the entire population. 3) The Finnish mental health policy focuses on the promotion of health, preventive care and development of a service system as part of welfare state policy. Because the objectives have been extensive and by their nature abstract, it has been impossible to form effective policy governance to achieve them. 4) It has not been possible to ensure the fundamental and human rights of seriously ill citizens with a development process focused on the service system. The concepts and paradigms utilized in the development process documents have directed the focus away from the questions relating to the realization of fundamental and human rights. 5) The ethos of wellbeing and preventive healthcare has steered attention away from the improvement of the position of the seriously ill. Public authority’s definition of a good life as well as the central focus of mental health governance in the development process of the service system has resulted in the seriously ill being forgotten in seemingly inclusive outpatient care. Key words: Mental health policy, human rights, mental disorders, public authority, service systems, agency
  • Hallamaa, Jaana; Haikarainen, Raine; Kalliokoski, Taina (2021)
  • Karppela, Lasse (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    Science and the Scientist's Social Responsibility. Joseph Ben-David's, Roger Sperry's and Knut Erik Tranøy's Views of Science and the Scientist's Social Responsibility The aim of the study was to investigate, whether or not there is any connection between Jewish sociologist Joseph Ben-David's, American neuroscientist Roger Sperry's and Norwegian philosopher Knut Erik Tranøy's views of science and views of the scientist's social responsibility. The sources of information were their writings concerning this topic. Ben-David has a classical view of science. He thinks that the Mertonian norms of scientific activity, first written in 1942, are still valid in modern science. With the help of these norms Ben-David defends the view that science is morally neutral. Ben-David thinks that a scientist has a limited social responsibility. A scientist only reports on the new results, but he is not responsible for applying the results. In any case Ben-David's ideas are no longer valid. Sperry has a scientistic view of science. According to Sperry, science is the source of moral norms and also the best guide for moral action. The methods of natural sciences "show" how to solve moral problems. A scientist's personal views of science and social responsibility are not important. However Sperry's view is very problematic on the ethical side. Tranøy stresses the scientist's social responsibility. A scientist has common norms with the society from with he or she comes. This is why a scientist has the right, and also the responsibility, to discuss social and ethical questions between science and society. Tranøy's view has some ethical and practical problems, but it is valid in principle. Finally, Ben-David's, Sperry's and Tranøy's views of both science and the scientist's social responsibility have a connection: the view of science corresponds to the certain view of scientist's social responsibility. The result of this study is: Ben-David's, Sperry's and Tranøy's view of science have an ethical starting point as its fundamental presupposition, which include certain views of scientific knowledge, good and the scientist's ethical responsibilities. The connection between Ben-David's, Sperry's and Tranøy's views of science and views of the scientist's social responsibility means that their views of epistemology, meta-ethics and the scientist's ethical responsibilities have a connection to their views of the scientist's social responsibility. The results of this study can help the scientific community to organize the social responsibility of a scientist and deepen the conversation concerning the scientist's social responsibility.
  • Kalliokoski, Taina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This doctoral dissertation studies the meaning of communality both as a concept and as a phenomenon. Taking various meanings of the Finnish word for communality, yhteisöllisyys as a starting point, I explore the conditions of how communalities take a form and dissolve, and the relationship between different forms of the human good and communality. The research applies and develops further three theories: Raimo Tuomela’s collective action theory that distinguishes the we-mode collective action from I-mode collective action, Christian Smith’s theory of basic human goods, and Russell Hardin’s theory of trust as encapsulated interests. The methodological approach is philosophical conceptual analysis, which I have used to analyze the meanings of concepts, to create definitions of community and communality, and to formulate the ethical implications different meanings of communality have in terms of the human good. The research clarifies the meaning of community and communality and the relationship between these two concepts. The conclusion of the analysis is a definition of community comprising of five conditions called the group condition, the recognition condition, the interaction condition, the ethos condition and the continuity condition. Communality as a phenomenon is defined as human dynamic interaction processes which interacting agents experience each in their own way. Community as a social formation may exist even if there is no experienced communality between community members. The conditions of how communality as a phenomenon takes place are analyzed on three levels: level of preconditions, level of action, and level of experience. Formation of communality presupposes that it is possible for a person to recognize their co-agency in collective action, and that no external or internal conditions are inhibiting them from participating in collective action. Forms of communality based on we-mode collective action will not develop if agents do not recognize each other as co-agents, if they do not recognize a common interest, and if they do not commit themselves to pursue the common interest. Functional communality becomes continuous only if agents commit themselves to each other, to the aim of the collective action, or the ethos that emerges from the committed collective action. After the commitment, the prerequisites for trust as encapsulated interests are met and trust may evolve between co-agents. Agents may assess their experiences of collective action as either positive or negative. The basic human goods defined by Smith are 1) bodily survival, security, and pleasure, 2) knowledge of reality, 3) identity coherence and affirmation, 4) exercising purposive agency, 5) moral affirmation, and 6) social belonging and love, which when pursued all together may lead to human flourishing. In the third part of the research, I examine these basic goods as interests pursued as the goals of action, and as the states of affairs that are realized and maintained by private and collective action. By analyzing the basic goods and their opposites the non-goods, the research clarifies how communality that develops and maintains in the collective action process either fosters or prevents the realization of human good. The success or failure of collective action depends on the ability of co-agents to make positive and negative evaluation about the social and teleological content of collective action both in the I-mode and in the we-mode. Communality may become symbiotic, in which case the I-mode agency of a person weakens or vanishes, and communality becomes intrinsically destructing. Communality may enhance or destroy the basic human goods on different grounds: as an environment that does not enable the co-actors to pursue human goods, on the grounds of the nature and identity of the community, for functional reasons, or for normative reasons that depend on the relationships between the goods of community and the basic human goods. In order to develop and enhance communality that strengthens the human good, the community ethos has to include an idea of practicing criticism. This means that the community ethos needs to protect the members’ ability to evaluate the collective action and the ethos. Community needs to have accepted means to criticize community practices and ethos, and measures with the help of which to take the criticism and revaluation seriously.