Browsing by Subject "sosiaalinen kompetenssi"

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  • Väisänen, Anna (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has detrimental effects on one's course of life. Educational underachievement can be identified as one of the most salient disparities over time, and therefore studying the mediating mechanisms is crucial. In previous studies, comorbidities and above-average positive bias in self-evaluations have been demonstrated to be associated with poorer prognosis. However, there are only a few longitudinal studies extending over decades. This master's thesis investigates psychiatric symptoms and social competence reported by parents and youths themselves at 16 years of age. The study also examined how these and the bias in their reporting predict educational level at thirty years of age. The data consisted of persons born in Kätilöopisto (1971–1974) who experienced pre- and perinatal risks. In childhood, part of them (n=122) had diagnostic criteria fulfilling symptoms of attention deficits and hyperactivity. In the follow-up, a non-ADHD (n=738) and a healthy control group born in the same hospital during the same period of time (n=194) were also assessed and compared to an ADHD group (N=1054). Psychiatric symptoms and social competence were measured by the Child Behavior Checklist and the Youth Self-Report. Information regarding educational level in adulthood was available from 570 participants. The ADHD-group had more psychiatric symptoms and lower social competence in adolescence than other groups, according to self-reports and parental reports. Additionally, educational level in adulthood was lower. In this study, an ADHD-associated above-average positive bias was not found. The size of a bias predicted educational level when the effects of covariants were taken into account. However, the predictive power was weaker than for self-reports or parent reports only. Psychiatric symptoms and social competence explained 13–18 % of variance in educational level in the data. Investing in psychosocial interventions with adolescents suffering from ADHD could prevent underachievement in adulthood.
  • Haltsonen, Tytti (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    The emotional instability and the risk of being socially excluded are growing all the time among the children and young people. The chances of physical activities improving the quality of life is an interesting and current study, as for a human being the physical activities play a big role in one's psychological well-being, and there is a good chance to prevent children's and young people's social exclusion with sports. This study was purposed to find out what kind of children take part to Helsinki's EasySport -easy access sport clubs. The study is supposed to find out if the EasySport -action is reaching the right children, which are in threat of being socially excluded or are the participating children mainly already having experience in sport clubs and sport as a hobby. I am also analyzing if participating a sport club is improving child's social interaction or if it's bringing more friendships. I also think it's very important to know the children's opinion about how this easy access action differs from a traditional sport club action and physical education at school. The study's theoretical frame of reference forms from the social exclusion and it's prevention as well as the affection of sports in psychological and social development of a person. The sport club action and physical education in relation to easy access sports are also handled in the theory part. The research questions were: What kind of children are participating the EasySport-clubs? Is the EasySport-action reaching the right children to support the prevention of the social exclusion? How do the EasySport-clubs differ from the traditional sport club action? What makes the EasySport an easy access action? Are the EasySport-clubs encouraging children's social development? The target of the research was, therefore, the children participating the Easy Sport -ball clubs. The study was carried out in form interview by visiting eight Easy Sport -ball clubs. A total of 71 children from age 7 to 13 responded to the survey. The study was conducted as a qualitative case study and the data was analyzed using content analysis. Based on the study it became clear that the children participating the EasySport-clubs are mainly boys with immigrant background. The activity supports the integration of immigrants, which is part of the prevention of the exclusion. Ball clubs also develops children's communication skills and the regular participation in the club can improve the children's quality of life and ignite the enthusiasm of exercise. The results of the operation can also be seen as contributing to children's social development and friendships. The children participating the Easy Sport -ball clubs experience the activity meaningful and different from the school sports or sport club activity, because the children have the opportunity to decide what the program includes and the activities are considered more free.
  • Sneck, Antti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Objectives. Attachment theory is a theory of social development and personality, known around the world. According to the theory, children have an innate tendency to develop a biologically based and central nervous system-regulated attachment bond to their primary caregivers in order to ensure safety, care, and survival. Early attachment experiences contribute to the way one sees oneself and others and lead to secure, insecure, or disorganized attachment styles, which affect rest of one’s life. Previous research has confirmed the universal nature of attachment, different attachment categories and styles, and early attachment’s links with future relationships and various internal and external problems. Attachment research has traditionally concentrated on early childhood and early childhood environments, whereas middle childhood, adolescence, and school context have been studied less. The objectives of the present study were to find out what kinds of links there are between attachment and the lives of school-aged children and youngsters, what kinds of attachment-related challenges teachers encounter at school, and how teachers could support their students with those attachment-related challenges. The aim is to explore attachment in the lives of school-aged children and youngsters, including at school, to gain a better understanding and to create a valuable foundation for future research. Methodology. The present study was conducted as a systematic literature review, which allowed the gathering of diverse and comprehensive, yet relevant research material, while also supporting objectivity and reproducibility aspects of the study. The material, available through electronic databases, was comprised of research articles from around the world, published in peer-reviewed international research journals. The material was analyzed thematically by research questions and topics, which were then used as a framework in the Results section. Results and conclusions. Early attachment and attachment styles were directly and indirectly linked to the lives of school-aged children and youngsters, including teacher-student relationships, peer relationships, family relationships, and academic achievement, as well as internal and external problems. Various attachment-related challenges and problems were visible at school, but teachers had many ways to buffer them. Current attachment research has not affected or changed school environments enough. Much more attention should be given to attachment within schools, teacher education, and in-service training programs in order to give students better support for their attachment-related problems and challenges.
  • Erkinheimo, Emilia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Objectives. Eating disorder (ED) symptoms are quite common in youth, especially among girls. EDs are life-threatening illnesses, but also separate and subclinical ED symptoms are associated with psychological distress, and they present a risk for developing more severe symptoms. EDs are known to be associated with social impairment and problems in social competence. Research is scarcer regarding ED symptoms in the general population and its associations with different aspects of social competence. Longitudinal studies and data concerning boys are especially needed. This prospective study examines whether childhood social competence is associated with ED symptoms in adolescence among girls or boys in the general population. Social competence is understood as a hypernym, and social skills, aggressiveness, social anxiety and social cognition are examined as its aspects. The prospective nature of the study creates a possibility to identify associations between social competence in middle childhood and ED symptoms later in adolescence. Methods. The data was from the Finnish cohort study Glycyrrhizin in Licorice (GLAKU). The final sample included 193 participants, of which 115 were girls (59.6%). The children’s social skills and their tendency towards social anxiety and aggressiveness at 8 years of age were evaluated with the Social Competence and Behavioral Evaluation (SCBE-30) inventory by their mothers. Sociocognitive skills were evaluated with the theory of mind subtests of the NEPSY-II test battery at 12 years of age. At 17 years of age, the participants evaluated their ED symptoms with the Eating Disorder Inventory 2 (EDI-2). The scales used were bulimia, drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction. Associations between the social competence variables and ED symptoms were examined with linear regression analysis separately for girls and boys. Results and conclusions. Lower scores in the theory of mind verbal task predicted an increase in drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction for girls and an increase in bulimia subscale for boys. Concerning the mechanism between ED symptoms and problems in social cognition, it has been suggested that impairments in theory of mind might lead to misunderstandings of others’ verbal and nonverbal expressions, and thus in worse experiences in relationships. These problems might then in turn lead to adopting ED symptoms as maladaptive coping strategies. Even though the effect found in this study was weak, it should not be ignored; even mild sosiocognitive deficits may be a risk factor for ED development, and the deficits might exacerbate as a consequence of EDs. Strengthening theory of mind skills could work as a preventative measure for development or exacerbation of ED symptoms.
  • Appelqvist-Schmidlechner, K; Lämsä, R; Tuulio-Henriksson, A (Kela, 2017)
    Työpapereita 120
    Kehityksellisiä neuropsykiatrisia häiriöitä potevien nuorten aikuisten tiedetään kohtaavan keskimääräistä suurempia haasteita siirryttäessä nuoruudesta aikuisuuteen. Tämän kohderyhmän psykososiaalisesta hyvinvoinnista on kuitenkin vain niukasti tietoa. Tämän tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on kuvata Kelan neuropsykiatriseen Oma väylä -kuntoutukseen ohjautuneita kuntoutujia, heidän taustojaan, psykososiaalista hyvinvointiaan sekä kuntoutukseen liittyviä odotuksiaan kuntoutuksen alkaessa. Tutkimukseen osallistui lähtötilanteessa 188 keski-iältään 25-vuotiasta Oma väylä -kuntoutujaa. Aineisto kerättiin kyselylomakkeilla, joka sisälsi kysymyksiä ja mittareita kartoittaen vastaajien elämäntilannetta, toimintakykyä, psyykkistä hyvinvointia, terveyskäyttäytymistä, sosiaalisia suhteita sekä sosiaalista kompetenssia. Kuntoutujista yli puolet oli opiskelu- ja työelämän ulkopuolella. Noin kolmasosalla oli suuria vaikeuksia normaaleissa arjen tehtävissä. Yli puolella kuntoutujista oli neuropsykiatrisen diagnoosin lisäksi rinnakkaisdiagnooseja. Reilulla kolmasosalla oli samanaikaisesti mielialaan tai stressiin liittyvä häiriö. Toiseuden ja kuulumattomuuden tunteet olivat yleisiä. Liikunnallisesti passiivisten osuus osoittautui suureksi. Kuntoutukseen liittyvät odotukset liittyivät useimmiten arjessa selviytymiseen, opiskeluvalmiuksien parantamiseen sekä työelämävalmiuksien kohentumiseen. Oma väylä -kuntoutuksessa aloittaneet kuntoutujat muodostivat melko heterogeenisen ryhmän niin toimintakyvyn, työhön kuin koulutukseen kiinnittymisen, osallisuuden tuntemusten, mielialan kuin terveyskäyttäytymisenkin suhteen. Yleistä kuntoutujille oli kuitenkin ryhmässä toimimisen haasteet, toiseuden ja kuulumattomuuden tunteet sekä liikunnallinen passiivisuus. Nämä seikat on hyvä ottaa huomioon tälle kohderyhmälle kohdistetun kuntoutuksen sisältöjä suunniteltaessa. Lisäksi psyykkiseen oireiluun liittyvä tuen ja mahdollinen hoidon tarve tulisi selvittää perusteellisesti.
  • Ahlholm, Mia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of the Pieni Oppiva Mieli -intervention (MindUp™) in the day care centers children of 3 to 6 years of age on social competence as perceived by the staff and children's parents. In the study, social competence consisted of emotional symptoms, conduct problems, inattention, peer relationship problems, prosocial behavior and psychosocial wellbeing. The research questions are: 1. What is the children's social competence before and after the intervention? 2. How do the children differ on the basis of sex with respect to social competence before and after the intervention? 3. What are the differences in children's social competence before and after the intervention based on mother's or father's education? Previous studies have shown that mindfulness-based interventions on children have a positive effect on, for example self-regulation, emotional regulation, socio-cognitive skills, academic skills and social skills. There has been little research on the effects of socio-emotional programs on the young children's social competence, although various social skills training programs in early childhood are much in use. The study was part of the Pieni Oppiva Mieli -project at the University of Helsinki and was attended by 234 children from three different kindergartens in the metropolitan area. The study was conducted investigating the effects of a 30-week intervention on the day care group during the academic year 2016-2017. Strenghts and Difficulties form (SDQ-Fin) was used to investigate the difference between initial and final measurement, and it was combined with the information on the background information form, namely the gender of the child and the education of parents. The material was analyzed quantitatively by SPSS Statistics 24 -program using non-parametric tests as analyzing method; a Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test, a Mann–Whitney U test, and a Kruskal–Wallis test. I also used a parametric t-test (Independent Samples) alongside the Mann–Whitney U test. The results indicate that the intervention might have positive effects on child's inattention, peer problems, prosocial behaviour and psychosocial wellbeing. Based on the answers provided by the staff, the results also indicate that the sex may have an impact on the initial and final measurement of conduct problems, inattention, prosocial behavior and psychosocial wellbeing. Based on parent's responses, the results are parallel, but narrower. Results of the boys were worse than the girls in all the sub-variables of social competence except for the peer problems. The research results of staff and parents of children differed from the impact of maternal and father's education on the child's social competence and development.
  • Heiniö, Miira (2002)
    Tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan yritysmyynnin psykologisia menestystekijöitä kolmen teoreettisen viitekehyksen kautta, joita ovat psykometrinen persoonallisuuden tutkimus, markkinoinnin psykologia ja sosiaalisen kompetenssin viitekehys. Tutkimuksen empiirinen aineisto on kerätty yhdestä suuresta suomalaisesta teollisuuskonsernista. Tutkittuja myyjiä oli organisaation kymmenestä eri yksiköstä yhteensä 47 henkilöä. Menetelminä pyrittiin käyttämään konsernissa jo käytössä olevia mittareita, niiden käytön ymmärtämiseksi ja syventämiseksi. Analyysi tehtiin tilastollisesti.Tutkimuksen ensimmäinen hypoteesi oli, että on konsernille on kehitettävissä yleinen hyvä myynnin mittari yhdistämällä esimiesarvio ja myynnin tuloksellisuuden mittari. Toinen hypoteesi oli, että persoonallisuusmittarin dimensioista tunnollisuus, ulospäinsuuntautuneisuus ja empatia ennustavat hyvää myyntitulosta. Kolmas hypoteesi oli, että käytetty myyntityöhön räärälöity taitomittari olisi hyvä myynnin ennustaja. Neljäs hypoteesi oli, että sosiaalinen kompetenssi on hyvä myynnin ennustaja ja viides, että kaikkien mittareiden tarkkuus paranee, kun myynti jaotellaan asiakkaan kokeman arvon mukaan transaktiomyyntiin, konsultatiiviseen myyntiin ja strategiseen yhteistyöhön.Ensimmäinen hypoteesi kumoutui täysin. Esimiesarvion ja myynnin tuloksellisuuden mittari korreloivat toisiinsa lievän negatiivisesti. Toinen hypoteesi sai hieman tukea. Persoonallisuuden ulottuvuuksista vaatimattomuus liittyi negatiivisesti ja empatian suuntainen mittari positiivisesti myyntitulokseen. Yllättävänä tuloksena perinteisyys ennusti psykometrisistä mittareista myyntitulosta parhaiten. Tämän johtumista toimialasta tai myyjien iästä ei voitu tarkastella. Kolmas mittari myyntitaitomittarin hyvyydestä kumoutui ja neljäs hypoteesi sosiaalisen kompetenssin käytettävyydestä sai hieman tukea. Myynnin luokittelu teorian mukaisesti kolmen tyyppiseen myyntiin osoittautui hyvin hyödylliseksi ja paransi psykometrisen persoonallisuusmittarin mittaustarkkuutta hyvin. Myynnin huolellisempi luokittelu ja ympäristötekijöiden ja asiakkaaseen liityvien tekijöiden kontrolloiminen parantaisi todennäköisesti mittareiden ennustavuutta.