Browsing by Subject "sosiaalitieteet"

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  • Mäntyneva, Päivi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This dissertation is an institutionally oriented ethnographic study of rehabilitative work. Rehabilitative work was established and institutionalized in the early 2000s as part of the welfare state and service system. It brings together people from a wide range of life situations and authorities from various branches of government in a multidisciplinary manner. The research explores, broadens, and brings new social scientific knowledge on rehabilitation work from the perspectives of inclusion, human agency, and capabilities. The study opens up new possibilities on how social policy is pursued and implemented and not separated from the everyday lives of people. Active social policy has had tangible impacts on people’s lives in situations of extended and even chronic unemployment. Data were collected as a multi-location ethnography in three work units during 2015–2016. The fieldwork lasted eight months and was preceded by approximately six months of planning and practical preparatory work. The research material included interview materials for participants in rehabilitation work (37 in total) and fieldnotes of three units of work activities. A total of 25 interviews were conducted with participants in social rehabilitation, work placements (internships), work trials (job test participants), and employees. In addition, empirical research compiled written documents on work activities and its practices in different units. This research challenges the myth that everyone involved in rehabilitative work is in need of rehabilitation. According to the study, there are many people for whom the primary reason for participation was the lack of paid employment. Thus, the way in which rehabilitative work activities is used as part of ocial policy has changed. From the perspective of inclusion, the existence of rehabilitative work activities is unclear. Meaningful action, cohesion, and the experience of autonomy strengthened inclusion. Rehabilitative work also proved to be a part of the negative cycle of unemployment, creating a deadlock that weakened participants’ expectations for the future. The consequences of rehabilitative work activities for inclusion, human agency, and opportunities for action had been differentiated. In addition, there were differences in operating practices between work units. Without positive transitions and future horizons, the promising opportunities for rehabilitative work to promote inclusion and strengthen engagement remained temporary and interrupted, or even sudden erupted. In spite of good intentions, rehabilitative work and the capabilities it offers can strengthen social distances and exclusion rather than favourable capabilities. Theoretical concepts of this research, inclusion, human agency, and capabilities, unite all people. The strength of the policy supporting capabilities can be that it can make the direction of social policy and welfare services more sustainable. Key concepts: rehabilitative work activities, institutional ethnography, inclusion, capabilities, human agency
  • Lonkila, Annika (SAGE Publications, 2021)
    Cultural Geographies 28: 3, 479-493
    Although ethical questions are at the core of more-than-human geographies, more attention needs to be paid on researchers’ ethical responsibilities to more-than-human research subjects in social scientific research. In this paper I critically analyze my empirical work on Finnish dairy farms from the perspective of multispecies research ethics. I suggest that the concept of care is useful in understanding more-than-human research ethics. Attending to the needs of others can work as a starting point for making difficult ethical decisions in the field. However, in contested moments, different needs are often in conflict. Here, situated ethical responses might be needed in relation to the practices of fieldwork, for example to avoid causing harm to research subjects. Importantly, researchers have to care for their research subjects also through their analysis; addressing the questions related to research ethics also in terms of knowledge politics. When the ethics of care is complemented with the notion of ethics of exclusion, it has potential to tease out broader responsibilities both in interactions and knowledge about other animals and more-than-human research settings.
  • Katisko, Marja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Citizenship in the everyday of a work community. Immigrants narratives of working life. Through globalisation and the mobility of workforce, citizenship has gained new forms, and the mere legal definition of citizenship no longer gives a comprehensive view of the citizenship of an individual. Also the social, cultural and financial dimensions of it are related to the concept of citizenship. In Finland, full citizenship is promoted, according to the Integration Act and social security system, by the requirement that immigrants should mainly get their livelihood through work. In my study I approach citizenship on four levels: the global, national, work community and private levels. In the study, the global has constituted the largest possible context, which refers to the local affects of global processes. The local and the global come together in the research in that globalisation is realised on the local level, i.e. in small communities such as work communities. The objective of the study is to examine how the citizenship of immigrants who live and work in Finland is constructed in the everyday life of a work community. The most central concept of the study is cultural script, which is based on prevailing forms of knowing, and which are constructed in different ways in different times and cultures. Conflicts of scripts in the working life and difficulties in understanding and applying them are in the centre of the study. In the study, the working life experiences of immigrants are approached through narrative research. The research material consists of the working life narratives of nine immigrants who live and work in Finland permanently. Each interviewee has been interviewed 2 4 times so the research material consists of 26 interviews. The material has been analysed from the points of view of perception, feeling and action. Deborah Tannen s and William Labov s as well as Matti Hyvärinen s method of expectancy analysis to locate cultural scripts has been utilised to organise the research material. In addition, David Herman s concepts of participatory roles and event types formed in narratives have been used in the analysis of the material. The basis in the analysis is that the world, events and experiences do not define the available processes; they are always culturally and individually anchored choices of the speaker and narrator. The most important results of the study are related to the gap between globalisation and everyday life. The discussion about the future need for workforce due to the changing population structure as well as about the benefits for national economy brought by internationalisation has continued in Finland for years. However, the working life narratives of the immigrants interviewed for the study show that an average citizen and member of a work community does not immediately encounter the macro level benefits in, for example, the mobility of workforce. In most of the working life narratives there was a point in speaking and saying, in which the immigrant worker either dares to speak or falls silent. Sometimes the courage to speak was related to language skills but more to the courage to be seen and to be part of a Finnish work community. Other workers that either speak their colleague with an immigrant background into a part of their work community or marginalise the colleague with their silence have an important role in a Finnish work community. In several working life narratives, the script of the Finnish working life and work community, the way to work, was opened to the immigrant and the so-called script exchange did not take place. The study shows that working life experiences and inclusion and exclusion built on the working life have an important role in the construction of active citizenship. The detailed analysis of the working life experience narratives gives new, relevant research data about citizenship as inclusion.
  • Mäkinen, Liisa A. (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This doctoral thesis investigates private surveillance practices in everyday life, ranging from control-related monitoring to watching for familial care, for both practical and playful purposes. The focus is on individual camera surveillance practices in private and semi-private places such as homes and recreational surroundings. The work is located in the field of Surveillance Studies. The research builds on the view that surveillance in its current form cannot be conceptualized merely in the framework of control, and recognizes that play can be offered as an alternative. Consequently, the objective is to examine how private surveillance practices can be placed in between, and beyond, frames of control and play. Furthermore, the aim is to examine how surveillance traditionally understood as a control-related activity can be connected to game-like and playful practices on a theoretical level. The study includes four research articles and a summary article. The main body of the empirical data is comprised of qualitative interviews (N:23) collected in Finland with users of private surveillance equipment. Two articles build on interview data, one is a case study (on an online surveillance application) and one is grounded on a theoretical analysis of playful traits in surveillance practices. The main result from the empirical data is that while private surveillance practices connect to forms of control-related monitoring and playful watching practices, uses are not limited to either but combine and add to them. A particularly interesting combination of the two is manifested in gamified surveillance, where surveillants might operate playfully, but surveillance is still authoritative. Control and play can indeed happen simultaneously. Five types of surveillance produced with domestic surveillance systems are recognized: controlling, caring, recreational, communicational and sincere. Furthermore, online cameras are analysed as practical devices which enable a convenient way to monitoring places and property which are important to the users. The key result on the theoretical level is the metaphorical model of surveillance analysis presented in two of the articles. This research introduces five novel metaphors for future surveillance analysis: 1) cat-and-mouse, 2) hide-and-seek, 3) labyrinth, 4) sleight-of-hand, and 5) poker. The metaphorical approach to surveillance practices proposes that control-related surveillance can be analysed from a ludic perspective. This study furthers both empirical and theoretical understanding of private surveillance practices and surveillance taking place at the interfaces of control and play. The underlying argument is that, in addition to control and play, convenience should be considered a framework for analysing private surveillance practices. Consequently, the positions of surveillance subjects should also be rethought.
  • Turkia, Heidi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    In this research, I examine the development of cooperation and case management between Kela and Eksote (the South Karelia Social and Health District) in the context of a social work development project from 1 January 2017 to 31 July 2019. The aim of this study was to create new information on issues affecting cooperation and to develop and study what kind of cooperation models can be used to support cooperation and case management between Kela and the municipalities, especially for the most vulnerable customers. A local working group was set up for the project in South Karelia, with a total of 21 employees. Employees were from Kela’s customer services and benefits services, from Eksote’s adult social work and immigration services and an employee from the Centre of Expertise on Social Welfare in SouthEast Finland (Socom). The study material included memos and project documents, questionnaire surveys, a group interview, an individual interview, a final survey conducted for the working group and a research diary. The theoretical framework consisted of professions, multidisciplinary collaboration, case management and social rights. The study explored what kind challenges were involved in cooperation and case management at the beginning of the project. Based on these were developed collaboration and case management models. Good models included getting to know the work of others, information for Kela employees, regular service at another organization’s premises, Kela information for immigrants, and case management service. The development of multidisciplinary cooperation and case management between Kela and the municipalities can increase the knowledge and appreciation of each other’s work. One of the most important goals of the cooperation is to ensure that customers who need social services are identified. For those who need special support, a targeted service can support the holistic perception of the customers’ situation and guide them toward the required services. Keywords: multisectorality, cooperation (general), income support, action research, social work, development projects, customers, direction (instruction and guidance), social rights, social services, professions, hospital districts, municipalities, Social Insurance Institution of Finland
  • Kaasik-Krogerus, Sigrid (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The longitudinal research "Normative Stories of the Formative Moment. Construction of Estonian National Identity in Postimees during the EU Accession Process" analyzes how Estonian national identity is constructed in country s largest and oldest daily newspaper in relation to the European Union (EU) during 1997-2003. The study combines media studies with political science, EU studies and nationalism studies to scrutinize this period as an example of a formative moment . During this formative moment the EU became the new official Other in relation to which a new temporary community, Estonia as a candidate country, was imagined in the opinion articles of the paper. The study is based on the assumption that national identity as a normative process of making a distinction between 'us' and 'Others' occurs in societal texts, such as the media. The overall framework consists of critical discourse analysis in three phases, text, discourse practice and sociocultural practice. The empirical data consists of 1780 opinion articles of Postimees. First, in the text level a characteristic feature of this formative moment is the open normativity of identity. In three discourses formed on the basis of the empirical data, European Estonia, Independent Estonia and Humble Estonia, the question of who we are is challenged both internally and externally by who we should become . Second, the analysis shows that in the beginning of the accession process only a limited group of people, mostly journalists and political decision makers, wrote about the EU. By 2003, however, both the number of articles as well as the variety of authors had multiplied several times. This shows, how a new community, Estonia as a candidate country, is first imagined by a small number of people and then expands into the wider public. Last but not least, this formative moment can be seen as a disciplining sociocultural practice. Here a link between normative public discussion and critical public opinion towards the EU during country s accession process can be drawn. Even though the newspaper tried to bring the EU closer to the people this attempt was accompanied by top-down discussions downplaying everyday problems. This study also shows the paradox of how a necessity to improve 'us' is communicated in the public discussion in parallel to claiming that Estonia as an EU member does not have to change .
  • Hämäläinen, Hans (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This doctoral dissertation explores the provision of financial aid and time transfers (care, childcare and practical help) by Finnish baby boomers (born 1945 - 1950) to their elderly parents and adult children. The research questions are: Do baby boomers provide more help to their adult children than elderly parents? How are the opportunities and needs associated with the help given by baby boomers to their elderly parents and adult children? How do the baby boomers reason their support to elderly parents and adult children? To answer these questions, the study utilizes three datasets: theme interview data and two nationally representative postal questionnaires which were all collected from Finnish baby boomers as a part of General transmissions in Finland project. The dissertation consists of four articles and a summary chapter. Articles I and II explore the direction of intergenerational support provided by baby boomers who are in the position of a middle generation. Article I shows that the financial aid given by baby boomers is directed almost entirely to adult children while only a few supports their parents financially. According to article II, baby boomers are also more likely to offer childcare help to their adult children (i.e. grandparental care) than care to their own elderly parents. However, baby boomers provide more practical help to their parents than children. Article III investigates how opportunities and needs are associated with the intergenerational time transfers. According to the results, care and practical help to elderly parents are primarily associated with the parents needs for support. In contrast, the childcare as well as practical help to adult children are positively associated, along with the needs, more widely with the baby boomers opportunities to help. Respectively, according to article I the opportunities and needs are related in the same way to the financial aid provided to adult children. Article IV explores how baby boomers reason the intergenerational support they provide. The results indicate that baby boomers reason the help they give to their parents with their parents needs for support. Needs are also an essential reason to support children. However, in addition baby boomers emphasize their willingness to help their children as much as possible, regardless of needs. The results are interpreted in the contexts of family sociology and evolutionary theory. These fields of research are perceived as complementary to each other. Sociological and evolutionary family studies often investigate the same subjects from different viewpoints. Therefore, combining these approaches is both necessary and productive.
  • Weiste, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The quality of the therapeutic relationship is highly significant for treatment outcomes in mental healthcare. While the value of the relationship has been clearly documented, the various aspects of how the relationship is actualized in clinical practice have remained unclear. This dissertation breaks new ground in understanding how the therapeutic relationship is manifested in three forms of therapeutic interaction: psychoanalysis, cognitive psychotherapy and resource-centred counselling. The method of conversation analysis is applied to compare these approaches and reveal how specific aspects of the therapeutic relationship are managed in interaction: 1) how therapists express empathy and respond to clients talk on their subjective emotional experiences, 2) how therapists work with experiences that belong to clients personal domains of knowledge, and 3) how disagreements are expressed and relational stress managed in therapeutic interaction. The data comprise audio- and video-recorded encounters from each therapeutic approach (86 encounters in total). The data analysis reveals the fine-grained interactional practices used in the management of the therapeutic relationship. In all the therapeutic approaches, formulating the client s emotional experience allowed the therapists to display empathic understanding, and prosodic features were important for marking the formulation as either empathic or challenging. In psychoanalysis and cognitive psychotherapy, the client s emotional experiences were typically validated, interpreted or challenged. In the resource-centred approach, the clinicians sought to focus on successful experiences and praised clients agency and competence, while shifting the focus away from their difficult emotional experiences. The data analysis also highlights the complex relationship between emotions and epistemics and describes how a delicate balance between empathic and challenging interventions is manifested in therapists supportive and unsupportive moves during extended disagreement sequences. This dissertation contributes to three areas of research: 1) clinical research, as it underlines the importance of investigating the actions of the therapist and client in a relational way, furthering comprehension of how the processes associated with the therapeutic relationship appear in the context of interaction between therapist and client; 2) sociological studies on mental health, as this study illustrates some important institutional differences between psychotherapy and psychiatric outpatient care; 3) conversation analysis, as this research provides the first broader systematic comparison of interactional practices in different therapeutic approaches.
  • Sinnemäki, Aino (2003)
    Tutkielman aihepiirinä on ajassa ja paikassa rakentunut ajattelun, kirjoittamisen, puhumisen ja toimimisen tapa: akateeminen suomalainen sosiologia. Punaisena lankana ovat sosiologian rajaamisen, määrittelemisen ja määrittymisen institutionaaliset, tekstuaaliset, poliittiset ongelmat. Tarkempi rajaus syntyy siitä, että varsinaisena tutkimuskohteena on akateemikko Erik Allardtin yhä jatkuva elämäntyö. Allardtin työ vaikuttaa suomalaista akateemista sosiologiaa laajemmin ja tätä kautta mukaan tulevat yliopistolaitos ja tiedepolitiikka. Tutkielman käsitteistölle tärkeät teoreetikot ovat Pierre Bourdieu, Steven Shapin ja Helga Nowotny. Aineistona on ensinnäkin suomalaista sosiologiaa tuottaneet ja tulkinneet tekstit, toiseksi arkistodokumentit, tärkeimpänä HY:n valtiotieteellisen tiedekunnan pöytäkirjat, lisäksi mm. muiden yliopistojen arkistoista löytyviä lausuntoja ja tieteen keskustoimikunnan pöytäkirjat vuosilta 1986-1990, kolmanneksi erilaiset puhutut ja kirjoitetut muistikuvat. Menetelmänä työssä on kohteena olevien tekstien keskeisten katkelmien yhteen liittäminen käsitteiden avulla suomalaisen sosiologian tähänastisen, jo varsin runsaan historiankirjoituksen pinnalle. Menetelmän avulla enemmänkin näytetään kuin selitetään asioita. Työn kolmen osaston otsikot ovat 'habitus ja pääomat', 'kentät' ja 'käytännöt'. Ensimmäisen osaston luvussa 2 kuvataan Allardtin taustaa ja niitä eväitä, joiden turvin hän lähti uraansa rakentamaan. Toisen osaston luku 3 on yleiskuva sodanjälkeisen suomalaisen sosiologian kentästä. Luvussa 4 analysoidaan yliopistollisten pääomien eri lajien mukaan jäsennettynä Allardtin toimintaa akateemisena vaikuttajana. Luku 5 käsittelee Allardtin poliittisen toiminnan ei-akateemisia aspekteja ja väläyttää hänen yhteyksiään talouden kenttiin. Kolmannen osaston luku 6 käsittelee Allardtin toimintaa erilaisen arkisto- ja muistitiedon valossa. Seitsemännessä luvussa on kysymys akateemisen toiminnan ytimestä, kirjoittamisesta. Kahdeksannessa luvussa käsitellään suomalaisen sosiologian historiallista itseymmärrystä. Työn tuloksena syntyy kuva siitä, miten Allardtin urassa yhdistyvät harvinaisella ja tasapainoisella tavalla ohjelmallinen näkemys sosiologian tehtävistä yhteiskunnassa ja pyrkimys realisoida tämä näkemys toiminnan joka tasolla, niin tutkimuksen teossa kuin osallisuudessa yhteiskunnan elämään. Kyseessä on toimiminen kehällä, jolla tutkimus tuottaa yleisöjensä vakuuttavaksi ja tarpeelliseksi kokemaa tietoa, joka luo ja muokkaa näkemystä yhteiskunnasta, joka 'tarvitsee' lisää tuota tietoa ja tukee sen syntyedellytyksiä. Allardtin elämäntyö on osa aikaa, jolloin tällä kehällä ainakin hetkittäin vallitsi jonkinlainen 'tasapaino'. Hän on ollut keskeisesti mukana seuraavissa suomalaisessakin yhteiskunnassa tunnistettavissa kehityskuluissa: Tieteen ammatillistuminen on tuonut sen harjoittajat lähemmäksi muita korkeasti koulutettuja ammattiryhmiä. Toisaalta yliopistokoulutuksen massoittuminen on tuottanut hyvin monelle elämänalueelle 'tieteellisesti' kouliintuneita työntekijöitä, mikä saattaa kyseenalaistaa aikaisempaa tieteen erityistä auktoriteettiasemaa. Sama ilmiö on kuitenkin myös luonut tieteelle 'massayleisön', joka on kykenevä kuuntelemaan tieteellä argumentointia.
  • Kara, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Latin American women represent an emblematic group in contemporary South to North labour migration. The Spanish immigration boom from the 1990s up to the time of the economic crisis has also shown a high propensity of women migrants from this region. While it is important to recognise women migrants as economically active workers and breadwinners, paying attention only to the work that migrants do, excludes a vast diversity of desires and trajectories. Migrants are often granted positions not connected with full subjectivity. This study creates knowledge collaboratively with Latin American migrant women on their everyday lives in Barcelona and studies their subjectivities as transnational migrants. Subjectivity is understood as formed and exercised in relation to individual life course, generational attachments and the larger fabric of intersecting structural hierarchies in a certain time-space context. The empirical phase was conducted in Barcelona between March and May 2012 in a collaborative process with fifteen participants from nine different Latin American and Caribbean countries. The empirical method consisted of two loosely-structured thematic interviews with each participant, complemented by the participative use of creative research methods which offered the participants the possibility to explore the research topics through different creative means. The ontological and epistemological framework draws from critical realism and postcolonial feminism. The main theoretical tools are found in: 1) migration theorising, specifically transnational migration research, 2) the notion of time in migration, 3) an intersectional approach on migration. The experiences and consequences of migration and migration status are analysed inside intersecting social hierarchies, namely the ones referring to country or region of origin, ethnic origin, social class, age and life course and gender. The results shed light to the ways in which time-space autonomy , migrancy and belonging are conditioned and yet negotiable. Irregular migration status often represented restricted movement in the city, insecurity and lack of information. Migration regulations were linked with time experiences of suspension, uncontrollability and liminality . Yet migration may also stand for an increase in time-space autonomy, even in a situation of migration status irregularity, as the consequences of migration status are relational, contextual and intersectional. The (in)visibility of certain intersectional locations is turned into (in)visibility of migrancy. The idea of detached, planned and informed migration does not hold, but risk-taking, surprises and uncertainty prevail. Liminality and unpredictability may also be desired consequences of migration. This addresses the complex intersectional contexts of privilege and disadvantage in which people move. Belonging was also connected with (in)visibility. The results point to a nexus between origin, language and belonging and emphasise the intersectional and contextual nature of belonging. The results also challenge interpretations in which economic downturn is automatically considered to lead to return migration, and question the persistent image of the economic migrant reflected in them. Often neglected in previous research, women s transnational daughterhood became salient, highlighting the multiple intergenerational caring roles of migrant women. The quantity as well as the quality of transnational contacts varied, due, for instance, to economic resources. This shaped the ways transnational affective ties and support were lived. Migrancy became synonymous with not belonging here yet nor there anymore. Yet the accounts were not only of loss and yearning, but importantly also of adaptation, reformulation and creation of new rhythms, routines and ways to be . Keywords: transnational migration, Latin American women migrants, Spain s immigration boom, subjectivity, intersectionality, time, (in)visibility, critical realism, postcolonial feminism, creative research methods, collaborative research methods, multi-language research.
  • Junna, Liina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    It is a well-established finding that compared to the employed, the unemployed have poorer health and higher mortality. Even so, it is unclear whether unemployment causes poor health. The association may also be due to direct health-related selection if poor health increases the risk of becoming or remaining unemployed. The association could also be a product of indirect selection if some other characteristics such as prior life experiences increase both the risk of unemployment and poor health. It is widely recognised that adequately controlling for selection is challenging. Additionally, the role of causality and selection in the association between unemployment and health may vary depending on which aspect of health is considered. While the causal evidence is stronger for self-reported mental well-being, it is less consistent for objective mental health outcomes and physical health. The purpose of this study was to contribute to our current understanding of the role of causality and selection in the health and mortality differences between the employed and the unemployed. Quasi-experimental designs that more strongly control for selection were utilised to explore various aspects of health among working-age Finnish men and women. The specific aims of the study were 1) to assess differences in cause-specific mortality between the unemployed and the employed using a workplace downsizing and closure design; 2) to evaluate the causes of mental health-related morbidity among the unemployed by adjusting for time-invariant confounding in a fixed effects regression; and 3) to quantify the contribution of direct selection in transitions from unemployment to employment. Two of the four sub-studies were based on large-scale, general population samples, and two on full population data. The longitudinal data combined individual-level information from various administrative registers. Health was measured using a wide range of objective health outcomes: reimbursement rights for drugs for specific health conditions, visits to specialised care, hospitalisations, and causes of death. Differences in pre-existing health conditions and other individual and contextual factors fully explained the small increase in non-alcoholic disease mortality associated with unemployment, and some of the increase in psychiatric, alcohol-related and external-cause mortality. Moreover, mental health and alcohol-related conditions may be particularly important predictors of both becoming unemployed and remaining there. Having an alcohol-related condition halved the chances of finding employment among the unemployed, while mental health conditions decreased the chances by 30%. And while currently unemployed men and women were approximately two percentage points more likely to have a mental health-related visit to specialised care than those in employment, 70% of that association was due to confounding from time-invariant characteristics such as past experiences and personality. Controlling for all time-invariant confounding also explained a substantial share of the poorer mental health of those exposed to repeated or extended periods of unemployment, particularly among women. Even with the extensive controls for unmeasured confounding with the quasi-experimental designs, unemployment was associated with certain aspects of health. It is therefore possible that these associations are causal. Most notably, men who are unemployed following workplace closures (that is, the unemployment estimate the least affected by confounding) had a 2.2-fold risk of alcohol-related mortality when compared to the employed. The risk was 1.5-fold among the respective women. Furthermore, unemployment was associated with an elevated mental health-related morbidity among both men and women as well as an increased risk in external-cause mortality among men. This study suggests that health-related selection is likely to contribute both to the health differentials between employed and unemployed people, and to the differences in labour-market attachments between those people with and without health problems. Controlling for both measured and unmeasured confounders using a strong study design, unemployment does not appear to be a risk factor for non-alcoholic disease mortality, but may be harmful to certain aspects of health, in particular mental health, and alcohol-related conditions.
  • Lehtonen, Irma (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    English abstract This dissertation deals with the development process of bisexuality, identifying oneself as bisexual, acknowledging bisexuality in a heterosexual relationship, and the disclosure of bisexuality in a relationship assumed to be heterosexual. Bisexuality as a phenomenon is, to a large extent, both unacknowledged and invisible, and has been largely ignored in studies of relationships. Within the context of social work, customers who identify themselves as bisexuals often experience feelings of fear and anxiety because of their sexual orientation especially in terms of interacting with the social workers, being labelled as something different, and hence having to conceal their sexual orientation. Because of these anxieties, social workers need more diverse models and practices that enable them to help their customers with empathy and respect regardless of their sexual orientation. This dissertation is based on three main research questions: first, through what kind of a process does an individual disclose and identify bisexuality, second, what kind of phases does an individual go through when acknowledging bisexuality in someone close to them, and third, what happens in a relationship when it turns out that a person who identifies as bisexual has a relationship with a third party of the same gender. In addition to these, I am also interested in what emotions are experienced in a relationship when an individual´s bisexuality is disclosed to the partner, and how relationships are influenced and shaped by heteronormativity. One of the key concepts in this dissertation is heteronormativity, which describes a process dividing individuals into two separate genders and assuming romantic emotions to take place only between individuals of different genders. Heteronormative practices are experienced by and limited mostly to individuals whose sexuality deviates from the norm. For them, heteronormativity is regarded as imposing a set of norms regarding what is the status quo, natural, normative, and the only way to live a meaningful life. Within the public domain, heteronormativity is seldom questioned or challenged, and it is closely related to issues such as power and secrecy. Heteronormativity aims at shaping and maintaining our collective understanding of relationships in contemporary societies as something taking place between a man and a woman. As a counterforce to this, queer theories aim at challenging and questioning our norms and assumptions related to relationships by broadening the scope of relationships outside theas purely heterosexual. Methodologically, this dissertation approaches bisexuality from the narrative point of view. This dissertation thus assumes that bisexuality can be investigated through data collected from individual life stories. Life stories enable us to identify events and stories that shape an individual s understanding of bisexuality and relationships. The narrative approach served as a window to the authors of the life stories, their lives, as well as their life stories. Through the stories, the authors discussed their feelings and how they experienced the disclosure of bisexuality in their relationships. The data for this dissertation consists of sixty such life stories that deal with experiences related to bisexuality, its impact on the heterosexual relationship, and emotions and feelings closely related to bisexuality. This data was qualitatively analysed by means of both narrative and content analysis. Stories about bisexuality blend together numerous overlapping stories about relationships, emotions, memories, social relations, fears, secrecy, acknowledging and identifying bisexuality, as well as being bisexual. The authors narrate their stories through interactive processes by inviting the listener to be an active participant. Storytelling is inherently not only about making sense, but also about identity building and peer support. Within this context, narratives can either support or inhibit the emergence of stories. The main finding of this dissertation is that bisexuality develops over time. This development can be seen as a trajectory with separate, yet overlapping, phases. Bisexuality is seldom easily voiced or revealed to others, which is why secrecy closely shadows it. This is partially explained by flexibility: the ability to portray oneself either as heterosexual or homosexual. Bisexuality, then, seems to be something that is seldom publicly shared with other members of the society. People who identify themselves as bisexual often conceal it from their spouses and loved ones mostly because they are afraid of rejection and of being cast in the pariah class. However, it seems that a change is taking place in the Finnish society: especially younger generations especially are more open about their bisexuality, and it is becoming more common to share it with a prospective partner in the beginning of a relationship. Keywords: sexuality, bisexuality, heteronormativity, emotions, narratives
  • Kapanen, Liia; Kokko, Anna (Venäjän ja Itä-Euroopan tutkimuksen seura, 2003)
    Idäntutkimus