Browsing by Subject "sourdough"

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  • Rekola, Kristiina (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Chemical composition of oats and its suitability for baking were reviewed in the literature part. The special features of baking without gluten and possibilities to increase the quality of gluten-free bread were also discussed. The aim of the experimental research was to develop high protein gluten-free oat-based bread. The effect of different protein concentration on structural, textural and sensory properties of gluten-free oat bread was studied. Also the effect of processing method on bread quality was studied by using sourdough technology and straight dough technology. Gluten-free oat bread recipe and baking protocol as well as sourdough fermentation conditions were optimized on the basis of preliminary trials. Oat-based breads with varying protein content were baked by using straight dough and sourdough technologies. Reference sample was oat-based bread without added protein. Specific volume, moisture content, texture profile analysis (crumb hardness, chewiness and resilience) and starch retrogradation of gluten-free breads were analysed. For shelf life measurements, breads were stored in plastic bags at room temperature from 1 to 3 days. Sensory profile of bread samples were evaluated on the day of baking by a trained panel. Descriptive analysis method was used. Palatable high protein gluten-free oat-based bread was obtained in this study. Increasing amount of protein improved the crumb structure and shelf life of gluten-free breads. All of the protein supplemented breads had agreeable sensory profile. Sourdough did not further improve the quality of high protein gluten-free bread except for increased aroma intensity. Oats and its fractions can be successfully applied as an ingredient for gluten-free baking to enhance the nutritional quality.
  • Song, Yue (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Highly glycemic index of wheat bread causes rapid increase of blood glucose level which is harmful for people with chronic diseases such as type II diabetes and obesity. Consumption of whole grain bread rather than bread from refined wheat flour is an alternative way to reduce the risk of chronic disease. In Africa, the occurrence of chronic diseases is on the rise and therefore alternative products based on whole grain flour are needed. Furthermore, due to climate change the smart solution would be to utilize flour from cereal grains that are produced locally rather than being imported. Fonio is one of the oldest cereal in West Africa. Gluten-free fonio is always consumed as whole grain flour which is beneficial for digestion and cardiovascular function. Sourdough fermentation is known as a processing that can influence starch and protein digestibility in bread making. Moreover, sourdough is needed to enhance the quality of whole grain fonio bread. Utilization of sourdough fermentation is a potential method to improve the texture, sensory and nutritional qualities of bread. The aim of this thesis work is to evaluate the protein and starch digestibility of wheat bread with 40% whole grain fonio sourdough. In this study, breads were prepared and used for protein and starch digestibility studies. Freeze-dried samples were used for total starch and protein contents analysis. Moisture content of the breads was also analyzed to calculate the weight of samples needed for in vitro starch and protein digestibility. Pancreatic amylase was used to determine the starch in vitro digestibility. Breads with 1g starch were incubated at 37℃ with continuously shaking after which the reducing sugar content was determined. Glycemic index was calculated based on the starch hydrolysis percent. Protein in vitro digestibility was measured by pepsin and pancreatin. Breads were incubated at 37℃ with constantly shaking. The un-digested protein was determined by Dumas method. The protein digestibility was calculated with the total protein content. Phytate content was tested by the phytate content kit from Megazyme. Compared to wheat bread, fonio breads all had lower starch digestibility. This phenomenon was mainly caused by the wholegrain which increases the content of dietary fiber and enzyme inhibitors. For sourdough bread, there was a slight decrease of starch hydrolysis percent compared to control fonio bread. Sourdough enhanced the solubility of dietary fiber which therefore increased viscosity of chyme. Higher viscosity of chyme affects the glucose uptake and enzyme contact which consequently contributed to reduction of starch digestibility. Furthermore, the produced organic acids especially acetic acid may contribute to the lower starch digestibility of sourdough bread. Glycemic index of sourdough fonio bread was the lowest one among all the bread samples. For protein digestibility, fonio breads all had lower protein digestibility compared to wheat bread. However, there was an increase of protein digestibility by sourdough fonio bread. LAB protein metabolism to get enough nitrogen resources may explain this. The lower content of phytate in sourdough fonio bread may also influence the protein digestibility. In conclusion, sourdough fonio bread has lower starch digestibility than wheat bread and can enhance protein digestibility compared to fonio bread without sourdough.
  • Verni, Michela; Wang, Changyin; Montemurro, Marco; De Angelis, Maria; Katina, Kati; Rizzello, Carlo G.; Coda, Rossana (2017)
    This study investigated the metabolic traits of 27 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains belonging to different species, previously isolated from faba bean. The activities assayed, related to technological and nutritional improvement of fermented faba bean, included peptidases, beta-glucosidase, phytase, as well as exopolysaccharides synthesis and antimicrobial properties. In addition, the bacteria performance as starter cultures during faba bean fermentation on proteolysis, antioxidant potential, and degradation of condensed tannins were assessed. Fermentative profiling showed that only 7 out of 27 strains were able to metabolize D-raffinose, particularly Leuc. mesenteroides I01 and I57. All strains of Pediococcus pentosaceus exerted high PepN activity and exhibited beta-glucosidase activity higher than the median value of 0.015 U, while phytase activity was largely distributed among the different strains. All the weissellas, and in lower amount leuconostocs, showed ability to produce EPS from sucrose. None of the strains showed antimicrobial activity toward Staphylococcus aureus, while eight strains of P. pentosaceus exhibited a strong inhibitory activity toward Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes. Generally, the doughs fermented with pediococci exhibited high amount of total free amino acids, antioxidant activity, and condensed tannins degradation. These results allowed the identification of LAB biotypes as potential starter cultures for faba bean bioprocessing, aiming at the enhancement of faba bean use in novel food applications.
  • Suominen, Juulia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Sourdoughs are a natural habitat for microbial communities predominated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts. How microbial communities assemble and function is, to a large extent, determined by inter-species interactions. However, evidence for LAB-yeast interactions in rich environments, such as sourdough, is yet largely unavailable. In this study, a set of LAB and yeast species was isolated from rye and wheat sourdoughs. While mainly typical sourdough species were identified, Pediococcus parvulus was, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time isolated from sourdoughs. The isolates were characterized in rich chemically defined culture conditions and screened for interactions. Potential interactions were discovered where LAB growth was enabled by a yeast, or where stable communities were formed despite competition. These findings, the resource of naturally co-occurring species, and the designed chemically defined growth medium present the grounds for future research for uncovering the underlying mechanisms of LAB-yeast interactions in rich environments. LAB and yeasts commonly co-occur rich environments of fermented food processes and also in human gut and soil microbiomes. Therefore, the outcomes of this study support not only the optimization of food fermentations but provide also model systems for complex communities directly influencing human health.
  • Kianjam, Maryam (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    The literature review deals with faba bean and the important effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation on legumes. Particularly, the information about sourdough and LAB microbiota together with the main factors affecting sourdough microbial community is presented. A brief introduction regarding the methods used for LAB identification is also given. The main aim of the experimental study was to identify LAB microbiota in faba bean sourdoughs of two different varieties during backslopping procedure. Doughs from Italian (I) and Finnish (F) faba bean flours were spontaneously fermented and propagated daily through backslopping on a laboratory scale for 14 days. Samples were taken from selected propagation times (0, 1, 2, 5, 7, and 14) for microbiological and biochemical analyses. The pH values and total titratable acidity (TTA) were monitored throughout the process. Analyses of organic acids and oligosaccharides of selected samples were carried out with HPLC methods at University of Bari, Italy. The identity of the LAB isolates was revealed by sequence analysis of 16S rDNA and the differentiation of LAB strains was analyzed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR. Minor changes occurred between I and F sourdoughs based on microbiological and biochemical analyses. However, several differences were found in LAB diversity between these two sourdoughs. More variety of LAB species and higher strains diversity were found in F faba bean sourdough. Besides Pediococcus pentosaceus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Weissella koreensis identified in both sourdoughs, Enterococcus casseliflavus, Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus sakei, Lactococcus lactis, and Weissella cibaria were only detected in F sourdough. In both sourdoughs, Pediococcus pentosaceus was predominant and persistent. Also, Leuconostoc mesenteroides was found as second frequent species in both sourdoughs. According to all analyses, the maturity of sourdoughs was achieved during 5 days of propagation. This study demonstrated the importance of flour type and composition on establishing microbial ecology of sourdough. The research study encourages exploring the potential of faba bean flour in sourdough-type fermentation and encourages further investigations on the identified isolates as starter cultures for fermented faba beans and faba bean-cereal products.
  • Montemurro, Marco; Coda, Rossana; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe (2019)
    The growing consumers' request for foods with well-balanced nutritional profile and functional properties promotes research on innovation in pasta making. As a staple food and a common component of diet, pasta can be considered as a vector of dietary fiber, vegetable proteins, vitamins, minerals, and functional compounds. The conventional process for pasta production does not include a fermentation step. However, novel recipes including sourdough-fermented ingredients have been recently proposed, aiming at enhancing the nutritional and functional properties of this product and at enriching commercial offerings with products with new sensorial profiles. The use of sourdough for pasta fortification has been investigated under several aspects, including fortification in vitamin B, the reduction of starch digestibility, and gluten content. Sourdough fermentation has also been successfully applied to non-conventional flours, (e.g., from pseudocereals and legumes), in which an overall increase of the nutritional value and health-promoting compounds, such as a significant decrease of antinutritional factors, were observed. Fermented non-conventional flours, obtained through spontaneous fermentation or using selected starters, have been proposed as pasta ingredients. As the result of wheat replacement, modification in textural properties of pasta may occur. Nonetheless, fermentation represents an efficient tool in improving, besides nutritional and functional profile, the sensory and technological features of fortified pasta.
  • Yaqin, Wang (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Faba bean flour is a sustainable and relatively inexpensive way to make protein rich food in comparison with meat products, because it has high proteins content (rich in lysine (30%)) and considerable amounts of vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre. Even rough faba bean is widely cultivated and consumed, few data is available concerning the suitability to be fermented. The objective of this master’s thesis was to study the potential of sourdough fermentation of faba bean with selected lactic acid bacteria for in situ production of dextrans as texture forming components for various food applications. In this study, the growth and dextran formation by Leuconostoc and Weissella in faba bean sourdoughs were investigated. Eight lactic acid bacteria belonging to genera Leuconostoc and Weissella characterized for slime formation were used as starters for in situ formation of exopolysaccharides in faba bean flour. The growth of lactic acid bacteria, pH and acidity, and viscosity of different sourdoughs were analyzed. An enzyme assisted method and acid hydrolysis were used to analyze dextran content with further quantification by HPAEC-PAD. The amount of dextran formed by Leuc. pseudomesenteroides DSM 20193, Leuc. mesenteroides subsp mesenteroides LMG 7939, Leuc. Citreum DSM 5577, W. cibaria LMG 17699, and W. cibaria Sj1b varied from 1.86 to 4.22 g kg-1 (wet weight), which allows the possibilities to use dextran as alternatives for hydrocolloids in food applications. The synthesized dextran increased significantly viscosity of sourdoughs. After fermentation, the amount of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO) were decreased. The results of the sourdough fermented faba bean flours showed that Leuc. pseudomesenteroides DSM 20193 and Leuc. Mesenteroides subsp mesenteroides LMG 7939 were the most potential strains to produce dextrans and increase viscosity properties.
  • Navarro, Andrea (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Mold spoilage is the main cause of bread spoilage. The fungal species that mostly contaminate bakery products belong to the genera Penicillium, Eurotium, Aspergillus, Monilia, Endocymes, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Neurospora and Rhizopus. The aims of the experimental work were: (1) to screen LAB strains previously isolated from bakery and sourdough environment for their antifungal properties and to be used as starters for sourdough with antifungal activity, and (2) to evaluate sourdough effects on the shelf life of white wheat bread, without affecting the textural properties. Three methods were used to determine the antifungal activity of the isolates. First, the mechanism of fungal inhibition was investigated by an agar diffusion assay with P. paneum and P. albocoremium as indicators. The inhibitory activity toward bakery-related fungi was tested with the radial growth rate of fungi measured after seven days with six indicator molds. The isolates L. pentosus/plantarum J42 and L. mesenteroides I21 were tested in the baking trials, which were conducted in the pilot plant. Physicochemical analysis and microbiological observation were performed on bread slices and loaves produced with 30% sourdough, packed and stored in polyethylene plastic bags under natural conditions at a room temperature of ~ 24 ºC in the pilot plant. The water-soluble extracts from L. pentosus/plantarum, L. mesenteroides, P. pentosaceus and W. confusa had the highest inhibition activity. L. plantarum, W. confusa, L. pseudomesenteroides/mesenteroides and L. mindensis/crustorum had low activity toward the indicator molds. Minor inhibitory effect was observed toward P. albocoremium. Overall, the highest antifungal activity toward the indicator molds was shown by L. mesenteroides I21 strain. The pH values of the water-soluble extract and the sourdough did not seem to influence the fungistatic effect observed of the selected strains toward the molds. Addition of sourdough caused no changes in the physical properties of bread. Sourdough breads had less mycelial coverage relative to the control bread. In the conditions of this study, sourdough addition was beneficial to decrease mold contamination in bread.