Browsing by Subject "spatial variation"

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  • Kivekäs, Niku; Carpman, Jimmie; Roldin, Pontus; Leppa, Johannes; O'Connor, Ewan; Kristensson, Adam; Asmi, Eija (2016)
    Field observations of new particle formation and the subsequent particle growth are typically only possible at a fixed measurement location, and hence do not follow the temporal evolution of an air parcel in a Lagrangian sense. Standard analysis for determining formation and growth rates requires that the time-dependent formation rate and growth rate of the particles are spatially invariant; air parcel advection means that the observed temporal evolution of the particle size distribution at a fixed measurement location may not represent the true evolution if there are spatial variations in the formation and growth rates. Here we present a zero-dimensional aerosol box model coupled with one-dimensional atmospheric flow to describe the impact of advection on the evolution of simulated new particle formation events. Wind speed, particle formation rates and growth rates are input parameters that can vary as a function of time and location, using wind speed to connect location to time. The output simulates measurements at a fixed location; formation and growth rates of the particle mode can then be calculated from the simulated observations at a stationary point for different scenarios and be compared with the 'true' input parameters. Hence, we can investigate how spatial variations in the formation and growth rates of new particles would appear in observations of particle number size distributions at a fixed measurement site. We show that the particle size distribution and growth rate at a fixed location is dependent on the formation and growth parameters upwind, even if local conditions do not vary. We also show that different input parameters used may result in very similar simulated measurements. Erroneous interpretation of observations in terms of particle formation and growth rates, and the time span and areal extent of new particle formation, is possible if the spatial effects are not accounted for.
  • Atashi, Nahid; Rahimi, Dariush; Al Kuisi, Mustafa; Jiries, Anwar; Vuollekoski, Henri; Kulmala, Markku; Vesala, Timo; Hussein, Tareq (2020)
    In this study, we performed model simulations to investigate the spatial, seasonal, and annual dew yield during 40 years (1979-2018) at ten locations reflecting the variation of climate and environmental conditions in Jordan. In accordance with the climate zones in Jordan, the dew formation had distinguished characteristics features with respect to the yield, seasonal variation, and spatial variation. The highest water dew yield (an overall annual mean cumulative dew yield as high as 88 mm) was obtained for theMountains Heights Plateau, which has a Mediterranean climate. The least dew yield (as low as 19 mm) was obtained inBadia, which has an arid climate. The dew yield had a decreasing trend in the past 40 years due to climate change impacts such as increased desertification and the potential of sand and dust storms in the region. In addition, increased anthropogenic air pollution slows down the conversion of vapor to liquid phase change, which also impacts the potential of dew formation. The dew yield showed three distinguished seasonal patterns reflecting the three climates in Jordan. TheMountains Heights Plateau(Mediterranean climate) has the highest potential for dew harvesting (especially during the summer) thanBadia(semi-arid climate).
  • Oker-Blom, Pauline (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1986)
    In modeling canopy structure, a statistical approach is applied to assign the location and orientation of plant parts; the radiation field is described in terms of random variables and their distributions. A comparison of horizontally homogeneous stands and grouped forest stands showed that grouping reduced interception of radiation and increased spatial variation. In conifers, the grouping of needles into shoots and the effect of penumbra had an important influence on the distribution of radiation on the needle area.
  • Reverte Saiz, Sara; Reverte Saiz, Sara; Arnan, Xavier; Roslin, Tomas; Stefanescu, Constanti; Antonio Calleja, Juan; Molowny-Horas, Roberto; Hernández-Castellano, Carlos; Rodrigo, Anselm (2019)
    Large-scale spatial variability in plant-pollinator communities (e.g. along geographic gradients, across different landscapes) is relatively well understood. However, we know much less about how these communities vary at small scales within a uniform landscape. Plants are sessile and highly sensitive to microhabitat conditions, whereas pollinators are highly mobile and, for the most part, display generalist feeding habits. Therefore, we expect plants to show greater spatial variability than pollinators. We analysed the spatial heterogeneity of a community of flowering plants and their pollinators in 40 plots across a 40-km(2) area within an uninterrupted Mediterranean scrubland. We recorded 3577 pollinator visits to 49 plant species. The pollinator community (170 species) was strongly dominated by honey bees (71.8% of the visits recorded). Flower and pollinator communities showed similar beta-diversity, indicating that spatial variability was similar in the two groups. We used path analysis to establish the direct and indirect effects of flower community distribution and honey bee visitation rate (a measure of the use of floral resources by this species) on the spatial distribution of the pollinator community. Wild pollinator abundance was positively related to flower abundance. Wild pollinator visitation rate was negatively related to flower abundance, suggesting that floral resources were not limiting. Pollinator and flower richness were positively related. Pollinator species composition was weakly related to flower species composition, reflecting the generalist nature of flower-pollinator interactions and the opportunistic nature of pollinator flower choices. Honey bee visitation rate did not affect the distribution of the wild pollinator community. Overall, we show that, in spite of the apparent physiognomic uniformity, both flowers and pollinators display high levels of heterogeneity, resulting in a mosaic of idiosyncratic local communities. Our results provide a measure of the background of intrinsic heterogeneity within a uniform habitat, with potential consequences on low-scale ecosystem function and microevolutionary patterns.
  • Shamsuzzaman, Md (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Soil respiration (Rs), especially from drained peatland, has a significant role in the global carbon cycle. Drained peatland adds more CO2 effluxes due to the aerobic condition and fast decomposition rate of organic matter. In such condition, peatlands are no more carbon sink rather than a source. However, soil respiration (Rs) is known to be markedly variable with time and space. Many ecological studies showed an exact measurement of Rs is critical. Even a spatial variability of Rs is less known at a plot scale. This study investigated the spatial variation of Rs and its relationship with some explanatory factors (soil temperature, water-table level, moss cover, drainage ditch distance, and vegetation cover) in Lettosuo-peatland, Tammela, Finland. Soil respiration (Rs), soil temperature (Ts), and water-table level (WTL) were measured at 98 sampling plots during May to August 2017. A closed chamber system is known as Environmental Gas Monitor (EGM) was used to measure soil respiration. Once at the end of the measurement in August, vegetation site type (St), ditch distance (Dd), field layer vegetation (FLV), and ground layer vegetation (peat moss (Mp), forest moss (Mf)) were measured. The results showed that the mean rate of CO2 efflux was 0.49 ± 0.1 ( ± Std) g CO2 m-2 h-1 at 13.51 ± 0.8 ( ± Std) °C (at 5 cm depth) ranging from 0.15 to 0.98 g CO2 m-2 h-1. A multiple linear model indicated (R2 =0.18) that about 18% of the spatial variation of Rs could be explained by Ts, WTL, and Dd collectively, but only WTL (R2 = 0.12) could explain 12% variation alone. The spatial variability of soil respiration was mainly driven by the variability in WTL.
  • Ordax Sommer, Nicolás (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Trace element analysis is a useful tool for the study of migration and migratory connectivity in birds. Trace elements are present in the environment and, through the food chain, can be incorporated into tissues such as growing feathers. Since the concentrations of elements remain stable after the feather has stopped growing, and trace element abundances can vary at very small geographical scales, the concentration of trace elements in feathers can provide information on the location where a feather was moulted. Trace element analysis is still rarely used and there are important gaps in our understanding of how trace elements can vary at different organizational levels such as within a feather, between individuals or even between species. It is also not clear if large-scale geographical patterns can be detected by the method, as trace element concentrations can vary a lot even at small scales, which could make it impossible to see larger-scale patterns. To address that, my objectives were (1) analysing the variability of trace element concentrations within feathers, between individuals and between species and (2) determining whether trace element levels differed in feathers grown in Africa compared to feathers grown in Europe. This would shed insight on the suitability of trace element analysis for the study of migration and migratory connectivity. I analysed the concentration of 18 trace elements in the rachis of feathers from willow warblers (Phylloscopus trochilus) and barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) collected in Finland. I plucked three belly feathers from willow warblers collected in spring, whose feathers had grown in Africa. These feathers were used to analyse variability of trace element concentrations within feathers and between individuals. They were also compared to feathers plucked from barn swallows collected in spring (two feathers per bird) to analyse variability between the feathers of two species that winter in the same region. Finally, African-grown feathers of willow warblers were compared to European-grown feathers of willow warblers collected in autumn (two feathers per bird) to look for differences in trace element concentrations in feathers grown on two different continents. Trace element concentrations were analysed using Laser-Ablation Inductively-Coupled-Plasma Mass-Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), which allowed to measure concentration at hundreds to thousands of points along the feather rachis. The concentration of each of the 18 elements was used as the response variable in linear mixed models (LMM). To model variation in concentration within the feather I used location along the feather rachis as the explanatory variable and explored how well it predicted concentration of each element. To compare variation between feathers and individuals I fit models including and excluding the feather and individual that each measurement belonged to as random effects and compared them using AIC. To compare between willow warbler and barn swallow feathers grown in Africa I included species identity as the explanatory variable and looked at how the concentration of the 18 elements differed between them. Finally, I followed the same approach to compare willow warbler feathers moulted in Africa and in Europe. For most elements there was little variation along the feather rachis, with concentration remaining stable from feather base to tip. Zn and S showed an increase in concentration starting at the feather base until the central part of the feather and then remained constant toward the tip. Feathers belonging to the same individual showed mostly similar trace element concentrations, although there were exceptions and differences between feathers of different willow warbler individuals were also little. 10 out of 18 elements showed significant differences in feathers of willow warblers and barn swallows grown in Africa. Eight of those elements were more abundant in willow warbler feathers, while only two were more abundant in barn swallow feathers.12 out of 18 elements showed significant differences between their level in African-grown feathers and European-grown feathers. Of those, 10 elements showed higher levels in African-grown feathers, while only two were higher in European-grown feathers. My results suggest that trace elements can show variation at different organizational levels. Variability within feathers was important in at least two elements, which could be caused by physiological processes. This means that when designing sample collection for trace element analysis, unless we know that an element does not vary along a feather, it is important to consider which part of feathers we are sampling. Variability between feathers and individuals was lower than within feather variability, but still significant. Future studies should account for possible within and between individual differences in their design. Differences between barn swallows and willow warblers were large, which was expected based on the literature. It is still unknown what drives these differences between species: some explanations suggested have been physiological and dietary differences or differences in their habitats. I also found clear differences between feathers of willow warblers grown in Europe and Africa. While the exact cause is still not known, this means that at least in willow warbler feathers it is possible to study large scale geographical patterns by trace element analysis. LA-ICP-MS has potential to be a powerful tool to study migration and migratory connectivity in birds. It allows to detect variation in trace elements at continental scales while also allowing to control for different levels of variability in the study design. I encourage researchers to adopt its use in their research.
  • Laiho, Raija; Penttilä, Timo; Laine, Jukka (2004)
    The within-site variability of soil characteristics on sites with different soil types remains poorly quantified, although this information is crucial for the success of research on soil properties, and especially for monitoring soil properties over time. We used coefficients of variation and multilevel variance component models to examine the within-site variation of soil (0-30 cm) mineral nutrient concentrations (P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, mg g-1; Mn, Zn, μg g-1) and bulk density (kg m-3) on boreal deep-peat sites. We then evaluated the reliability of the site-level estimates (sample means) obtained using different sampling intensities (numbers of samples per site). Our 11 sites represented a single original site type within the oligotrophic nutrient level. Two of the sites were undrained while the rest had been drained for forestry at different points in time. Overall, P concentrations showed the smallest and Mn concentrations the largest within-site variation. The sampling depth contributed more than 50% of the total variance in all other characteristics except the concentrations of P and Fe, and bulk density. The variance proportions of peatland basin, site (within basin), and sampling location (within site) varied by sampling depth for most soil characteristics. The estimates obtained when using a certain number of samples per site were always more reliable for the 0-30 cm layer’s composite samples than for any single 10-cm layer at any depth sampled. On average, it was found that between 4 (P) and some 200 (Mn) samples per site would be needed for the estimates to have a theoretical 10% maximum deviation.