Browsing by Subject "spectroscopy"

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  • Patomäki, Sofia (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    In a quantum computer, the information carriers, which are bits in ordinary computers, are implemented as devices that exhibit coherent superpositions of physical states and entanglement. Such components, known as quantum bits or qubits, can be realized with various different types of two-state quantum systems. Quantum computers will be built for computational speed, with hoped for applications especially in cryptography and in other tasks where classical computers remain inefficient. Circuit quantum electrodynamics (cQED) is a quantum-computer architecture which employs superconducting electronic components and microwave photon fields as building blocks. Compared to cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED), where atoms are trapped in physical cavities, cQED is more attractive in that its qubits are tunable and conveniently integrable with the electronics already in use. This architecture has shown some of the most promising qubit designs, despite their coherence times reaching tens of microseconds, are still below the state of the art with spin qubits, which reach milliseconds. Coherence times are historically the most relevant parameters describing the fitness of a qubit, although these days not necessarily the limiting factor. This thesis presents a comprehensive set of theoretical and experimental methods for measuring the characteristic parameters of superconducting qubits. We especially study transmission-line-shunted plasma oscillation qubits, or transmons, and presents experimental results for a single sample. Transmon capacitively couples a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) with a coplanar waveguide (CPW) resonator, often with added frequency tunability utilizing an external magnet. The number of superconducting charge carriers tunnelled through a junction in the SQUID are used as qubit degrees of freedom. Readout of the qubit state is carried out by measuring transmission through the CPW. A cryogenic setup is employed with measurement and driving pulses delivered from microwave sources. Steady-state spectroscopy is employed to determine the resonance frequencies of the qubit and the resonator, qubit-resonator coupling constants, and the energy parameters of the qubit. Pulse-modulated measurements are employed to determine the coherence times of the qubit. The related analysis- and simulation programs and scripts are collected togithub.com/patomaki.
  • Rojalin, Tatu (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Raman spectroscopy is based on vibrations that occur between the atoms of a compound. The overall structural energy is derived from the electronical energy as well as vibrational, rotational and translational energy. In Raman spectroscopy the vibrational and rotational energies are essential. Usually the excitation energy used in Raman spectroscopy can be either in the region of visible light or NIR. The sample absorbs the energy and energy is also scattered back to all possible directions. Elastic scattering is called the Rayleigh scattering. In that case the back-scattered photons have an equal energy as the original excitation energy. However, some of the scattering happens inelastically and it forms the basis of Raman-phenomena. If the detected photons have smaller energy than the original, it is called the Stokes scattering. If the energy is bigger, it is anti-Stokes scattering. Raman is typically very rare and weak phenomenon. The spectral features in Raman spectra consist of the intensities and energies of the back scattered photons. Raman spectroscopy provides very accurate and detailed structural information on the molecule. It is basically a label-free technique with minimal need for sample preparation and the measurements can also be carried out e.g. through container walls. Further, Raman is quite insensitive to hydrous samples and it is suitable to solutions and biological assessments. However, there are some drawbacks that are formed by the luminescence phenomena i.e. fluorescence. Strong fluorescent backgrounds can mask the relevant Raman features in spectra because Raman and fluorescence are competetive processes. For instance many drug molecules have such structures that they cause strong fluorescence. It is also one of the reasons that pharmaceutical applications and measurements have been partly limited due to this problem. There are applications to improve and enhance a Raman signal. For example resonance phenomena and SERS are favored. To solve the fluorescence-related problems there are also means; one can change the laser wavelenght, photobleach the sample or apply different kinds of data manipulation techniques to the spectral data achieved. There are drawbacks with these methods. They can be slow, complex, damage the samples and still insufficient fluorescence suppression is a problem. In this study a novel time-gated CMOS-SPAD detection technique is applied to non-fluorescent and fluorescent drug measurements. The new detection system has a programmable on-chip delay time and it is synchronized with a picosecond pulsed laser. The scattered photons can be measured in the time scale when they are simultaneously measured in traditional energy and intensity wise. Raman scattering occurs in the timescale of sub-picoseconds while the fluorescence phenomena happen typically in the order of nanoseconds. This time difference can be exploited effectively to suppress the fluorescence. In the literature review of this study the basis of vibrational spectroscopy is introduced - especially Raman spectroscopy. The techniques related, as well as the novel time-resolved technique are covered. Further, different kinds of applications in the field of Raman spectroscopy are reviewed, mainly pharmaceutics-related and biologically relevant applications. In the experimental work the focus was to compare a continuous-wave 785 nm laser setup coupled with the CCD-detector to the pulsed picosecond 523 nm laser coupled with the CMOS-SPAD-detector. The measurements were performed on different kinds of drugs, both non-fluorescent and fluorescent. The aim was to obtain information on the effectiveness of CMOS-SPAD-technique on fluorescence suppression for solid drugs and solutions. Secondary goals were to collect knowledge on the similarities and differences between the Raman setups used for solution measurements, to optimize and discuss the key elements of setups for solids and solutions and to show preliminarily the applicability of the CMOS-SPAD-system on fluorescent drug's solutions as well as find out the requirements related to quantitative assessments using Raman spectroscopy. In drug research there is also constant need for reliable in vitro cell assays. The assessments made in this study may prove useful to the future applications e.g. measurements with living cells. An effective fluorescence suppression was achieved to strong fluorescent backgrounds using the novel time-resolved CMOS-SPAD-detection system coupled with the pulsed picosecond 532 nm laser. The setup is potentially a convenient tool to overcome many fluorescence-related limitations of Raman spectroscopy for laboratory and process analytical technology (PAT) use in the pharmaceutical setting. The results achieved encourage to consider that with careful calibration and method validation there is potential for quantitative analysis, biopharmaceutical and biological applications e.g. in vitro cell studies where most Raman techniques suffer from strong fluorescence backgrounds. Other potential fields for future applications can be also considered.
  • Penttilä, Antti; Martikainen, Julia; Gritsevich, Maria; Muinonen, Karri (2018)
    Meteorite samples are measured with the University of Helsinki integrating-sphere UV-vis-NIR spectrometer. The resulting spectra of 30 meteorites are compared with selected spectra from the NASA Planetary Data System meteorite spectra database. The spectral measurements are transformed with the principal component analysis, and it is shown that different meteorite types can be distinguished from the transformed data. The motivation is to improve the link between asteroid spectral observations and meteorite spectral measurements. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Bendig, Juliane; Chang, C. Y.; Wang, N.; Atherton, Jon; Malenovsky, Zbynek; Rascher, Uwe (IEEE, 2021)
    IGARSS
    Demand for high spatial and temporal resolution measurements has triggered a rapid development of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) for plant phenotyping and precision farming purposes. Similarly, recent progress in low-altitude remote sensing of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) resulted in several studies aiming at the development of SIF proximal sensing approaches. Although first experimental results are promising, the requirements for reliable and repeatable measurements in agricultural experiments still constrain applicability of these platforms. In this study, we analyze current capabilities and potentials of SIF measuring UAS for operational use. We highlight existing challenges and outline how UAS SIF sensing could be used more frequently and reliably in precision agriculture applications in the near future.
  • Asamoah, Benjamin O.; Salmi, Pauliina; Räty, Jukka; Ryymin, Kalle; Talvitie, Julia; Karjalainen, Anna K.; Kukkonen, Jussi V. K.; Roussey, Matthieu; Peiponen, Kai-Erik (MDPI, 2021)
    Polymers 13: 6
    The abundance of microplastics (MPs) in the atmosphere, on land, and especially in water bodies is well acknowledged. In this study, we establish an optical method based on three different techniques, namely, specular reflection to probe the medium, transmission spectroscopy measurements for the detection and identification, and a speckle pattern for monitoring the sedimentation of MPs filtrated from wastewater sludge and suspended in ethanol. We used first Raman measurements to estimate the presence and types of different MPs in wastewater sludge samples. We also used microscopy to identify the shapes of the main MPs. This allowed us to create a teaching set of samples to be characterized with our optical method. With the developed method, we clearly show that MPs from common plastics, such as polypropylene (PP), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polystyrene (PS), and polyethylene (PE), are present in wastewater sludge and can be identified. Additionally, the results also indicate that the density of the plastics, which influences the sedimentation, is an essential parameter to consider in optical detection of microplastics in complex natural environments. All of the methods are in good agreement, thus validating the optics-based solution.
  • Zhou, Zhipeng; Kyritsakis, Andreas; Wang, Zhenxing; Li, Yi; Geng, Yingsan; Djurabekova, Flyura (2020)
    Vacuum breakdown (also known as arc or discharge) occurs when a sufficiently high electric field is applied between two electrodes in vacuum. The discharge is driven by the formation of an intensively glowing plasma at the cathode, which is followed by the ignition of an anode flare that gradually expands and fills the gap. Although it has been shown that the anode electrode does not play a significant role in the breakdown initiation, the nature of the anodic glow is of paramount importance for understanding the breakdown evolution. In this work, we use time- and space-resolved spectroscopy to study the anode flare. By using different anode and cathode materials, we find that excitations from both anode and cathode ions and neutrals contribute to the anodic glow. This implies that the cathodic plasma expands towards the anode without emitting any detectable light and starts glowing only when it reaches and interacts with the anode electrode. This interaction causes the introduction of anodic species in the plasma. The latter starts producing an expanding glow which contains spectra from both the cathode and anode materials and gradually fills the gap as the plasma equilibrates. Finally, we observe that after a breakdown, cathode material deposits on the anode electrode, gradually coating it. After hundreds of breakdowns, this coating covers the anode, resulting in the decay and possible elimination of the anode material signal in the spectra.