Browsing by Subject "stage"

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  • Holm, Matilda; Joenväärä, Sakari; Saraswat, Mayank; Mustonen, Harri; Tohmola, Tiialotta; Ristimäki, Ari; Renkonen, Risto; Haglund, Caj (2019)
    Abstract Colorectal cancer (CRC) stands for 10% of the worldwide cancer burden and has recently become the second most common cause of cancer death. The 5-year survival rate depends mainly on stage at diagnosis. Mass spectrometric proteomic analysis is widely used to study the plasma proteome, which is complex and contains multitudes of proteins. In this study, we have used Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Ultra Definition Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-UDMSE)-based proteomics to analyze plasma samples from 76 CRC patients. We identified several plasma proteins, such as CP, TVP23C, FETUB, and IGFBP3, of which altered levels led to significant differences in survival, as seen by Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Additionally, during Cox regression analysis, samples were adjusted for age and/or tumor stage, enabling stringent analysis. These proteins, although in need of further validation, could be of use during patient follow-up, as their levels can non-invasively be measured from blood samples, and could be of use in predicting patient outcome. Several of these proteins additionally have roles in metabolism and inflammation, two processes central to the development and progression of cancer, further indicating their importance in cancer.
  • Patomäki, Heikki (2020)
    The question I raise is whether the basic features of mind, social categories, and society are unchanging or changing. Some understandings of ontology would seem to suggest that social ontology is a branch of metaphysics. However, as the history of concepts such as metaphysical and ontology indicate, our concepts and knowledge are historical. It is widely held that society is concept‐ and activity‐dependent. I examine critically two strands of social ontology in terms of their answers to this problematic: (1) John Searle’s theory of the construction of social reality and (2) critical realist theory of mind and society as interlaced emergent layers of reality. Apart from emergence in natural systems, there is also emergence beyond nature as consciousness, agency and society cannot be completely explained in terms of biological realities; but how and when did this emergence occur? We need an account of the emergent order of language, reflectively conscious mind, and institutions not only for its own sake, but also because the process whereby new objects and properties emerge may be on‐going, path‐dependent, diverse, and open‐ended. The main argument is that the object of study of social theorists is geo‐historically specific, liable to diversity within any given world‐historical epoch, and open to further changes and new forms of emergence in the future.