Browsing by Subject "standards"

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  • Hokkanen, Laura; Barbosa, Fernando; Ponchel, Amelie; Constantinou, Marios; Kosmidis, Mary H.; Varako, Nataliya; Kasten, Erich; Mondini, Sara; Lettner, Sandra; Baker, Gus; Persson, Bengt A.; Hessen, Erik (2020)
    The prevalence and negative impact of brain disorders are increasing. Clinical Neuropsychology is a specialty dedicated to understanding brain-behavior relationships, applying such knowledge to the assessment of cognitive, affective, and behavioral functioning associated with brain disorders, and designing and implementing effective treatments. The need for services goes beyond neurological diseases and has increased in areas of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric conditions, among others. In Europe, a great deal of variability exists in the education and training of Clinical Neuropsychologists. Training models include master's programs, continuing education courses, doctoral programs, and/or post-doctoral specialization depending on the country, with no common framework of requirements, although patients' needs demand equal competencies across Europe. In the past 5 years, the Standing Committee on Clinical Neuropsychology of the European Federation of Psychologists' Association has conducted a series of surveys and interviews with experts in the field representing 30 European countries. The information, along with information from the existing literature, is used in presenting an overview of current and relevant topics related to policy and guidelines in the training and competencies in Clinical Neuropsychology. An option for the way forward is the EuroPsy Specialist Certificate, which is currently offered in Work and Organizational Psychology, and in psychotherapy. It builds upon the basic certificate and complements national standards without overriding them. General principles can be found that can set the basis for a common, solid, and comprehensive specialty education/training, sharpening the Neuropsychologists' competencies across Europe. The requirements in Clinical Neuropsychology should be comparable to those for the existing specialty areas in the EuroPsy model. Despite the perceived challenges, developing a specialist certificate appears a step forward for the development of Clinical Neuropsychology. Recommendations are proposed toward a shared framework of competencies by the means of a common level of education/training for the professionals in Europe. Benchmarking training standards and competencies across Europe has the potential of providing protection against unqualified and ethically questionable practice, creating transparency, raising the general European standard, and promoting mobility of both Clinical Neuropsychologists and patients in Europe, for the benefit of the professional field and the population.
  • Twigg, Marsailidh M.; Berkhout, Augustinus J. C.; Cowan, Nicholas; Crunaire, Sabine; Dammers, Enrico; Ebert, Volker; Gaudion, Vincent; Haaima, Marty; Häni, Christoph; John, Lewis; Jones, Matthew R.; Kamps, Bjorn; Kentisbeer, John; Kupper, Thomas; Leeson, Sarah R.; Leuenberger, Daiana; Lüttschwager, Nils O. B.; Makkonen, Ulla; Martin, Nicholas A.; Missler, David; Mounsor, Duncan; Neftel, Albrecht; Nelson, Chad; Nemitz, Eiko; Oudwater, Rutger; Pascale, Celine; Petit, Jean-Eudes; Pogany, Andrea; Redon, Nathalie; Sintermann, Jörg; Stephens, Amy; Sutton, Mark A.; Tang, Yuk S.; Zijlmans, Rens; Braban, Christine F.; Niederhauser, Bernhard (Copernicus Publications, 2022)
    Atmospheric measurement techniques
    Ammonia (NH3) in the atmosphere affects both the environment and human health. It is therefore increasingly recognised by policy makers as an important air pollutant that needs to be mitigated, though it still remains unregulated in many countries. In order to understand the effectiveness of abatement strategies, routine NH3 monitoring is required. Current reference protocols, first developed in the 1990s, use daily samplers with offline analysis; however, there have been a number of technologies developed since, which may be applicable for high time resolution routine monitoring of NH3 at ambient concentrations. The following study is a comprehensive field intercomparison held over an intensively managed grassland in southeastern Scotland using currently available methods that are reported to be suitable for routine monitoring of ambient NH3. In total, 13 instruments took part in the field study, including commercially available technologies, research prototype instruments, and legacy instruments. Assessments of the instruments' precision at low concentrations (< 10 ppb) and at elevated concentrations (maximum reported concentration of 282 ppb) were undertaken. At elevated concentrations, all instruments performed well and with precision (r2 > 0.75). At concentrations below 10 ppb, however, precision decreased, and instruments fell into two distinct groups, with duplicate instruments split across the two groups. It was found that duplicate instruments performed differently as a result of differences in instrument setup, inlet design, and operation of the instrument. New metrological standards were used to evaluate the accuracy in determining absolute concentrations in the field. A calibration-free CRDS optical gas standard (OGS, PTB, DE) served as an instrumental reference standard, and instrument operation was assessed against metrological calibration gases from (i) a permeation system (ReGaS1, METAS, CH) and (ii) primary standard gas mixtures (PSMs) prepared by gravimetry (NPL, UK). This study suggests that, although the OGS gives good performance with respect to sensitivity and linearity against the reference gas standards, this in itself is not enough for the OGS to be a field reference standard, because in field applications, a closed path spectrometer has limitations due to losses to surfaces in sampling NH3, which are not currently taken into account by the OGS. Overall, the instruments compared with the metrological standards performed well, but not every instrument could be compared to the reference gas standards due to incompatible inlet designs and limitations in the gas flow rates of the standards. This work provides evidence that, although NH3 instrumentation have greatly progressed in measurement precision, there is still further work required to quantify the accuracy of these systems under field conditions. It is the recommendation of this study that the use of instruments for routine monitoring of NH3 needs to be set out in standard operating protocols for inlet setup, calibration, and routine maintenance in order for datasets to be comparable.
  • Dent, E.; Morley, J. E.; Cruz-Jentoft, A. J.; Woodhouse, L.; Rodriguez-Manas, L.; Fried, L. P.; Woo, J.; Aprahamian; Sanford, A.; Lundy, J.; Landi, F.; Beilby, J.; Martin, F. C.; Bauer, J. M.; Ferrucci, L.; Merchant, R. A.; Dong, B.; Arai, H.; Hoogendijk, E. O.; Won, C. W.; Abbatecola, A.; Cederholm, T.; Strandberg, T.; Gutierrez Robledo, L. M.; Flicker, L.; Bhasin, S.; Aubertin-Leheudre, M.; Bischoff-Ferrari, H. A.; Guralnik, J. M.; Muscedere, J.; Pahor, M.; Ruiz, J.; Negm, A. M.; Reginster, J. Y.; Waters, D. L.; Vellas, B. (2019)
    Objective The task force of the International Conference of Frailty and Sarcopenia Research (ICFSR) developed these clinical practice guidelines to overview the current evidence-base and to provide recommendations for the identification and management of frailty in older adults. Methods These recommendations were formed using the GRADE approach, which ranked the strength and certainty (quality) of the supporting evidence behind each recommendation. Where the evidence-base was limited or of low quality, Consensus Based Recommendations (CBRs) were formulated. The recommendations focus on the clinical and practical aspects of care for older people with frailty, and promote person-centred care. Recommendations for Screening and Assessment The task force recommends that health practitioners case identify/screen all older adults for frailty using a validated instrument suitable for the specific setting or context (strong recommendation). Ideally, the screening instrument should exclude disability as part of the screening process. For individuals screened as positive for frailty, a more comprehensive clinical assessment should be performed to identify signs and underlying mechanisms of frailty (strong recommendation). Recommendations for Management A comprehensive care plan for frailty should address polypharmacy (whether rational or nonrational), the management of sarcopenia, the treatable causes of weight loss, and the causes of exhaustion (depression, anaemia, hypotension, hypothyroidism, and B12 deficiency) (strong recommendation). All persons with frailty should receive social support as needed to address unmet needs and encourage adherence to a comprehensive care plan (strong recommendation). First-line therapy for the management of frailty should include a multi-component physical activity programme with a resistance-based training component (strong recommendation). Protein/caloric supplementation is recommended when weight loss or undernutrition are present (conditional recommendation). No recommendation was given for systematic additional therapies such as cognitive therapy, problem-solving therapy, vitamin D supplementation, and hormone-based treatment. Pharmacological treatment as presently available is not recommended therapy for the treatment of frailty.
  • Tummon, Fiona; Bruffaerts, Nicolas; Celenk, Sevcan; Choël, Marie; Clot, Bernard; Crouzy, Benoît; Galán, Carmen; Gilge, Stefan; Hajkova, Lenka; Mokin, Vitalii; O’Connor, David; Rodinkova, Victoria; Sauliene, Ingrida; Sikoparija, Branko; Sofiev, Mikhail; Sozinova, Olga; Tesendic, Danijela; Vasilatou, Konstantina (Pitagora Editrice, 2022)
    Standards for manual pollen and fungal spore monitoring have been established based on several decades of experience, tests, and research. New technological and methodological advancements have led to the development of a range of different automatic instruments for which no standard yet exist. This paper aims to provide an overview of aspects that need to be considered for automatic pollen and fungal spore monitoring, including a set of guidelines and recommendations. It covers issues relevant to developing an automatic monitoring network, from the instrument design and calibration through algorithm development to site selection criteria. Despite no official standard yet existing, it is essential that all aspects of the measurement chain are carried out in a manner that is as standardised as possible to ensure high-quality data and information can be provided to end-users.