Browsing by Subject "starch"

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  • Suryanarayanan, Tilak (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    The objective of the thesis was to investigate the effect of carbohydrates on solubility, emulsifying, gelling and water holding properties of proteins. Faba bean is a readily available pulse crop with high protein content similar to soy bean and there is a lot of potential for a novel, high protein fermented gel product to be made from a pulse crop like faba bean. This is mainly due to its remarkable nutritional properties, functional properties and low cost, the demand for faba bean protein ingredients will grow. The current study was an attempt to develop pulse protein based products – emulsion (milk-like) and emulsion gel (yogurt-like) from faba bean. It seeks to expand the field of application of faba bean protein based products. Faba bean was pretreated, dehulled and milled. The flour was made into suspensions and the starch in faba bean was subjected to amylolytic treatments (addition of alpha amylase and glucoamylase) to breakdown the starch into smaller particles. These treated suspensions were then homogenized to obtain emulsion. A protein based gel network was produced with the gelation of amylolytically treated faba bean proteins. The emulsion properties, specifically droplet size, stability and activity were tested by PAMAS Particle Counter System. Light microscopy was applied to reveal the microstructure of emulsion and emulsion gel. Emulsion gel texture properties were studied by texture analysis. The emulsions were relatively stable over a period of a month and had white ‘milk’ like appearance. The emulsion gels prepared (amylolytic treatment) had slightly higher water holding capacities than the control A (entire starch present) and control B (starch removed by filtration) emulsion gels. Texture analysis of the emulsion gels showed that more force was required by probe to penetrate the yogurt produced from amylolytically treated samples and less force was required to penetrate the yogurt produced from controls A and B. The yield of the emulsion gels were higher for the amylolytically treated samples. It can be concluded that amylolytic treatment has increased the water holding capacity and also resulted in stronger gel systems.
  • Kosimov, Yorkin (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    The main goal of this thesis was to examine the effect of the compaction speed on the compressional behaviour of two excipients, microcrystalline cellulose and starch, using an eccentric and rotary presses. First, the average weights of the tablets have changed due to the increasing speed, as the volume of die kept constant. They were grown, for eccentric press, or were reduced, for rotary press. Second, Compression force, needed to obtain tablets with similar strength, was increased during both tableting methods. The eccentric compaction was more stable regarding to the speed increase. Tablets were formed from all of the blends, with more or less success. Additionally, as a result of force increase, resulted tablets were denser and less porous because of speed expansions during eccentric press. However, the blends containing 80% or more starch were not able to form tablets during the rotary press, because of the very poor die filling. Furthermore, blend containing 60% starch has shown very poor tabletability at speeds over 34 rounds per minute. The elastic recovery of tablets was very sensitive to the speed rises and to the concentrations of excipients during the eccentric press. Tablets have demonstrated an increase in their elastic recovery values in all cases. However, the tablets with a higher concentrations of starch were significantly more sensitive to the increasing compaction velocity. According to these results, it can be concluded that the starch exhibit more elasticity than microcrystalline cellulose. The effect of magnesium stearate on tablets' properties, such as the weight and the porosity, and compaction parameters, such as ejection force have also examined. As it expected from boundary lubricants, magnesium stearate has significantly reduced the ejection force values, required for removing the tablet from the die, compared with unlubricated tablets. Additionally, tablets with lubricants were heavier and more porous. The compression force was adjusted according to the crushing strength values in rotary press. This was due to the fracture variations of such tablets during diametrical compression, which would give unreliable values of tensile strength. Moreover, elastic recovery, porosity, density values were not calculated for scored tablet, due to either the lack of punch displacement data from rotational machine or the relative complexity of measuring the volume of such tablets. If these values had been available for both machines, their comparison with respect to these parameters would be possible and the results of this thesis would have been more appropriate.
  • Pohjola, Minna (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) is one of the most important berry crops economically in Finland but the profitability is weakened due to frequent winter injuries and varying yields. Protected berry production has lately become the main cultivation method of raspberries in Europe. Long cane raspberry is a special plant type that has been induced to flower and cold stored to produce a harvest in the year of planting. Specifically designed for protected cropping raspberry long canes have been shown to possess a very high cropping potential. The aim of this study in the first experiment was to examine the effect of growing conditions, primocane and floricane number and storage time on yield of red raspberry long canes. Raspberries were grown in an open field and in a tunnel with varying cane numbers (1 or 2). After cold storage they were forced in a plastic tunnel and new shoots were allowed to grow alongside the floricanes. The canes grown in a tunnel yielded 56 % more compared to those grown outdoors. The plants with two floricanes yielded 39 % more compared to plants with only one floricane but their average berry weight was 0,6 g lower. Presence or absence of primocanes didn’t have an effect on the yield or other growth parameters of the floricanes. In the second experiment plants were grown in an open field and in a tunnel and cold stored for three different periods of 4, 12 or 20 weeks. After storage the plants were forced to flower in a greenhouse. The cropping potential of the plants stored for 20 weeks (977 flowers/plant) was almost three times as high compared to those stored for only 4 weeks (332 flowers/plant). Plants that had been stored for 20 weeks also produced 138 % more laterals that were 14 % longer than plants stored for 4 weeks. Bud break for plants stored for 20 weeks took place 25 days earlier than for those stored for 4 weeks. Carbohydrate content of raspberry cane is related to its ability to produce a harvest. In this experiment the concentration of soluble carbohydrates increased and the concentration of starch decreased during storage. The total carbohydrate content in the whole plant also decreased during storage and it was 12-40 % higher in plants grown in a tunnel compared to the ones grown in an open field. According to this research it is possible to increase raspberry yields with long cane plants. In the two experiments growing conditions and storage time were found to have the biggest influence on cropping potential. The most optimal long cane plant type based on this research would be a plant with two canes that has been grown in a tunnel and cold-stored 20 weeks at the minimum.
  • Aalto, Kaisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Kauran käyttö leivonnassa on kasvattanut suosiotaan viime vuosien aikana. Gluteenittomuuden takia 100 % kauraleivonta on kuitenkin haasteellista, sillä taikinan käsiteltävyys vaikeutuu sitkon puuttuessa. Oikeanlaisen taikinan konsistenssin saavuttamiseksi ja onnistuneen leivonnan kannalta on tärkeää tunnistaa kauran vedensidontakykyyn vaikuttavat tekijät. Tutkimuksessa tarkasteltiin eri kauralajikkeiden beetaglukaanipitoisuuden yhteyttä vedensidontaan. Tavoitteena oli myös vertailla eri kauralajikkeista tehtyjen taikinoiden konsistenssia ja valmiiden leipien rakenteellisia ja aistinvaraisia ominaisuuksia. Kokeellisessa osiossa tutkittiin viidestä eri kauralajikkeesta valmistettujen jauhojen ja hiutaleiden vedensidontaa ja siihen vaikuttavia tekijöitä. Taikinan konsistenssimittauksia ja leivontakokeita varten näytteistä valmistettiin kaksi erilaista taikinaa, joissa toisessa käytettiin pelkästään kaurajauhoja ja toisessa puolet kaurajauhoista korvattiin saman lajikkeen kaurahiutaleilla. Leivonnan onnistumiseksi taikinoissa käytettiin apuna psylliumia. Kaurajauhoista sekä kaurajauhoista ja -hiutaleista valmistettujen taikinoiden konsistenssia tutkittiin aineenkoestuslaitteella (Texture Analyzer) käänteisen ekstruusion avulla. Leivontakokeissa leivottiin palaleipiä, joiden rakenteellisten ominaisuuksien muutoksia seurattiin myös aineenkoestuslaitteen avulla (Texture Profile Analysis). Tulosten perusteella lajikkeen vaikutus kauran vedensidontakykyyn, konsistenssiin ja leivontatuloksiin oli suuri. Beetaglukaanipitoisuuden yhteys kaurajauhojen vedensidontakykyyn ei ollut selkeä, mutta kaurahiutaleiden vedensidonta suureni beetaglukaanipitoisuuden suuretessa. Kauralajikenäytteiden konsistenssi riippui monesta eri tekijästä. Suuri beetaglukaani- ja proteiinipitoisuus näkyi suurena taikinoiden konsistenssina. Kaurahiutaleita sisältävien taikinoiden konsistenssi oli suurempi kuin vain kaurajauhoja sisältävien taikinoiden. Suuri taikinan konsistenssi helpotti taikinan käsittelyä ja muokkaamista. Konsistenssin suuruudella ei ollut suoraa yhteyttä valmiiden leipien rakenteellisiin ominaisuuksiin. Muutokset leipien rakenteessa tapahtuivat kypsymisen aikana ja johtuivat todennäköisesti lajikkeiden erilaisista liisteröitymislämpötiloista ja tärkkelyksen käyttäytymisestä paiston aikana. Liisteröityneen kauran lisääminen taikinan joukkoon paransi leipien rakenteellisia ominaisuuksia ja säilymistä.
  • Männistö, Laura (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    The literature review focused on the basic structure and characteristics of the cereal starches such as the structure of the starch granule, chemical composition and gelatinization properties. Properties of starches from different botanical sources were compared. The objective of the experimental study was to compare the characteristics of native barley starch to other cereal starches and especially to potato starch. Native commercial barley starch was used as testing material which has uniform size distribution (A). This barley starch was compared to commercial wheat, corn and potato starches. Gelatinization properties were measured by RVA (Rapid Visco Analyzer) in acidity range from 3 to 6. Starch granules were observed by light-microscopy. Viscoelastic properties of starch gels were measured reometrically and texture analyzer was used for surface properties. Synersis as diffused amount of liquid was measured of starch gels. Suitability of barley starch in sponge cakes was also investigated. The effect of pH was significant on gelatinization of starches. The maximum viscosity of cereal starches increased when pH decreased, at the same conditions the viscosity of potato starch decreased. The maximum viscosity of potato starch was nearly ten times higher compared to cereal starches. Native cereal starches formed harder gel and during the storage syneresis was stronger than in the potato starch. The potato starch gel was sticky and bright in color. Sponge cake made of potato starch had the highest level of retrogradation and its volume was small. Potato starch may not be applied to confectionary, because it made the crumb structure dry faster than cereal starches. The sponge cake made of corn or potato starch was firmer in crumb structure. Barley starch was more suitable for sponge cake than corn or potato starch. The size distribution of starch granules seemed to have an impact on stability of cake dough. Barley starch was different in many properties compared to potato starch and those applications differ from each other. Based on this research barley starch is suitable for cake baking.
  • Wasonga, Daniel O.; Kleemola, Jouko; Alakukku, Laura; Mäkelä, Pirjo S. A. (2020)
    Water deficit limits cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) productivity in drought-prone areas and alters the nutritive quality of the crop. Potassium (K) may mitigate the effects of water deficit and improve the nutritional content of cassava, which would alleviate malnutrition among the human population in the tropics who depend on cassava as a staple food. Pot experiments were conducted under controlled glasshouse conditions to investigate the influence of deficit irrigation and K fertigation on the nutritive and anti-nutritive quality of biofortified cassava during the early growth phase. Treatments initiated at 30 days after planting were three irrigation doses (30, 60, 100% pot capacity) that were split to five K (0.01, 1, 4, 16, and 32 mM) concentrations. Plants were harvested at 90 days after planting, and the starch, energy, carotenoid, crude protein, fiber, minerals, and cyanide concentration of the leaves and roots were determined. Irrigation and K treatments showed significant (P <0.05) interactions for starch, carotenoid, energy, and cyanide concentration. An irrigation dose of 30% together with 0.01 mM K resulted in the lowest starch, carotenoid, energy, and fiber content, but highest cyanide concentration, relative to full-irrigated (100%) plants together with 16 mM K. When the K application rate was 16 mM the best nutritional quality was obtained, with the lowest cyanide concentration, regardless of irrigation dose. Moreover, nutritional traits showed strong positive associations, whereas cyanide concentration correlated negatively with all the nutritional traits. Notably, an irrigation dose of 60% together with 16 mM K reduced the nutritional content the least and showed minimal increase in cyanide concentration. The results indicate that K fertigation with adjusted irrigation may improve the dietary quality of young cassava and reduce antinutrients, which could enhance the nutrient bioavailability of cassava grown in drought-prone areas.
  • Jokinen, Iina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Oats (Avena sativa L.) are increasing their popularity as a food ingredient since they have excellent nutritional value and great applicability in various food categories. Oats have been mainly used as feed and their food processing properties have not been studied as extensively as of the other cereal grains. Previous studies indicate that oat milling process can cause changes in the carbohydrate quality and properties of raw material. The aim of this Master’s thesis was to understand the impact of oat milling process and dry fractionation on oat ingredient characteristics in 10 samples representing Finnish oat varieties. The selected oat ingredients were non-heated oat groats, oat flour produced by industrial scale milling process and starch-rich fraction obtained from the oat flour by air classification aiming at bran-endosperm separation. The hypothesis was that the oat milling process as well as fractionation affect the physicochemical properties of oat ingredients and that the different oat raw materials may differ regarding their carbohydrate properties and processing behaviour. Dietary fibre, damaged starch and amylose contents of the oat ingredients were analysed. To understand the physicochemical properties of different oat ingredients, the pasting properties were measured with Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA). As expected, oat milling affected both quality and physicochemical properties of the oat raw materials. Milling caused a significant increase in the damaged starch content and caused changes in almost all pasting parameters. Furthermore, sample-dependent behaviour was observed in pasting properties. The oat samples showed differing behaviour during dry fractionation. The pasting properties of the air classified starch-rich fractions were different from the raw material oat flour. These results confirm that different oat raw materials exhibit different behaviour during oat milling process and that the milling process has a significant impact on physicochemical characteristics of oats.