Browsing by Subject "stomata"

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  • Rufelt, Henry; Wiese, Björn (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1981)
  • Wang, Fang; Robson, T Matthew; Casal, Jorge J; Aphalo, Pedro J. (2020)
    The UV-A/blue photoreceptors phototropins and cryptochromes are both known to contribute to stomatal opening (∆gs) in blue light. However, their relative contributions to maintenance of gs in blue light through the whole photoperiod remains unknown. To elucidate this question, Arabidopsis phot1 phot2 and cry1 cry2 mutants (MTs) and their respective wild types (WTs) were irradiated with 200 μmol m-2 s-1 of blue-, green- or red-light (BL, GL or RL) throughout a 11-hour photoperiod. Stomatal conductance (gs) was higher under BL, than under RL or GL. Under RL, gs was not affected by either of the photoreceptor mutations, but under GL gs was slightly lower in cry1 cry2 than its WT. Under BL, the presence of phototropins was essential for rapid stomatal opening at the beginning of the photoperiod, while maximal stomatal opening beyond 3 h of irradiation required both phototropins and cryptochromes. Time courses of whole-plant net carbon assimilation rate (Anet) and the effective quantum yield of photosystem II photochemistry (ΦPSII) were consistent with an Anet-independent contribution of BL on gs both in phot1 phot2 and cry1 cry2 mutants. The changing roles of phototropins and cryptochromes through the day may allow more flexible coordination between gs and Anet.
  • Johansson, Karin S. L.; El-Soda, Mohamed; Pagel, Ellen; Meyer, Rhonda C.; Toldsepp, Kadri; Nilsson, Anders K.; Brosche, Mikael; Kollist, Hannes; Uddling, Johan; Andersson, Mats X. (2020)
    Background and Aims The stomatal conductance (g(s)) of most plant species decreases in response to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration. This response could have a significant impact on plant water use in a future climate. However, the regulation of the CO2 induced stomatal closure response is not fully understood. Moreover, the potential genetic links between short-term (within minutes to hours) and long-term (within weeks to months) responses of g(s) to increased atmospheric CO2 have not been explored. Methods We used Arabidopsis thaliana recombinant inbred lines originating from accessions Col-0 (strong CO2 response) and C24 (weak CO2 response) to study short- and long-term controls of g(s) Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was used to identify loci controlling short- and long-term g(s) responses to elevated CO2 as well as other stomata-related traits. Key Results Short- and long-term stomatal responses to elevated CO2 were significantly correlated. Both short-and long-term responses were associated with a QTL, at the end of chromosome 2. The location of this QTL was confirmed using near-isogonic lines and it was fine-mapped to a 410-kb region. The QTL did not correspond to any known gene involved in stomatal closure and had no effect on the responsiveness to abscisic acid. Additionally, we identified numerous other loci associated with stomatal regulation. Conclusions We identified and confirmed the effect of a strong QTL corresponding to a yet unknown regulator of stomatal closure in response to elevated CO2 concentration. The correlation between short- and long-term stomatal CO2 responses and the genetic link between these traits highlight the importance of understanding guard cell CO2 signalling to predict and manipulate plant water use in a world with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. This study demonstrates the power of using natural variation to unravel the genetic regulation of complex traits.
  • Khazaei, Hamid; Santanen, Arja; Street, Kenneth; Stoddard, Frederick L. (2019)
    Among grain legumes, faba bean is reputed to be relatively sensitive to drought stress. Epicuticular wax (ECW) quantity is considered as an important drought adaptation strategy in plant species. This study aimed to define variation in leaf ECW concentration as a drought-adaptive trait in 197 faba bean accessions under well-watered conditions. The relationship between ECW and stomatal characteristics was also investigated. Highly significant differences were found in the ECW concentration, which ranged from 0.680 to 2.104 mg/dm(2). No relationships were found between ECW and any measure of stomatal morphology and function. This study provides evidence of the wide variation in ECW in faba bean germplasm, which is independent of stomatal characteristics and leaf water content. This variation may allow the genetic improvement of ECW as a drought-adaptive character in faba bean breeding programs aiming at the economical use of water.
  • Deger, Aysin Guzel; Scherzer, Sönke; Nuhkat, Maris; Kedzierska, Justyna; Kollist, Hannes; Brosche, Mikael; Unyayar, Serpil; Boudsocq, Marie; Hedrich, Rainer; Roelfsema, M. Rob G. (2015)
    During infection plants recognize microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs), and this leads to stomatal closure. This study analyzes the molecular mechanisms underlying this MAMP response and its interrelation with ABA signaling. Stomata in intact Arabidopsis thaliana plants were stimulated with the bacterial MAMP flg22, or the stress hormone ABA, by using the noninvasive nanoinfusion technique. Intracellular double-barreled microelectrodes were applied to measure the activity of plasma membrane ion channels. Flg22 induced rapid stomatal closure and stimulated the SLAC1 and SLAH3 anion channels in guard cells. Loss of both channels resulted in cells that lacked flg22-induced anion channel activity and stomata that did not close in response to flg22 or ABA. Rapid flg22-dependent stomatal closure was impaired in plants that were flagellin receptor (FLS2)-deficient, as well as in the ost1-2 (Open Stomata 1) mutant, which lacks a key ABA-signaling protein kinase. By contrast, stomata of the ABA protein phosphatase mutant abi1-1 (ABscisic acid Insensitive 1) remained flg22-responsive. These data suggest that the initial steps in flg22 and ABA signaling are different, but that the pathways merge at the level of OST1 and lead to activation of SLAC1 and SLAH3 anion channels.
  • Ehonen, Sanna; Yarmolinsky, Dmitry; Kollist, Hannes; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko (2019)
    Significance: Stomata sense the intercellular carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration (C-i) and water availability under changing environmental conditions and adjust their apertures to maintain optimal cellular conditions for photosynthesis. Stomatal movements are regulated by a complex network of signaling cascades where reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a key role as signaling molecules. Recent Advances: Recent research has uncovered several new signaling components involved in CO2- and abscisic acid-triggered guard cell signaling pathways. In addition, we are beginning to understand the complex interactions between different signaling pathways. Critical Issues: Plants close their stomata in reaction to stress conditions, such as drought, and the subsequent decrease in C-i leads to ROS production through photorespiration and over-reduction of the chloroplast electron transport chain. This reduces plant growth and thus drought may cause severe yield losses for agriculture especially in arid areas. Future Directions: The focus of future research should be drawn toward understanding the interplay between various signaling pathways and how ROS, redox, and hormonal balance changes in space and time. Translating this knowledge from model species to crop plants will help in the development of new drought-resistant crop species with high yields. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.
  • Kotiranta, Stiina (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Plant growth and morphology can be manipulated with light. Previously light manipulation experiments were mostly conducted by modifying the solar spectrum with light absorbing filters. Today, research can be conducted with modern LED lighting techniques, which enables specific spectrum tailoring. Light can be tailored specifically for a species or a family, and the needs of the farmer can also be taken into consideration. In this study, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv ’Efialto’) seedlings were grown under six different spectra. Plant morphology, stomatal function and drought tolerance were measured. Growth measurements included stem height, plant fresh and dry weight, leaf -area and leaf number. In addition, the effect of light quality on leaf morphology was studied by measuring leaf blade and petiole length. All measurements were conducted on well-watered and water-stressed plants, in order to study the effect of drought on vegetative growth and drought tolerance. Stomata conductance was studied by measuring leaf temperature prior to and during water stress. Leaf surface temperature indicates transpiration rate; thus the higher the conductance the lower leaf temperature. In addition to leaf temperature measurements, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were measured by leaf level infra-red gas analysis. R:FR ratio was the dominant factor for affecting plant morphology. However, the B:G ratio also played a key role; when the B:G ratio was low, it further enhanced the elongation growth, a response caused by low R:FR ratio. Irradiance in green and yellow wavebands regulated stomatal closure. During water stress, the light treatment with the highest green irradiance, induced more rapid stomatal closure which was evident as increased leaf temperature and decreased gas exchange. Light-depenedent stomatal closure and decreased transpiration could explain the improved performance of these seedlings during the drought period. Light spectral quality thus affected the drought tolerance of tomato plants through its effects on plant morphology and stomata function.
  • Jalkanen, Risto; Huttunen, Satu; Väisänen, Teija (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1981)