Browsing by Subject "strength"

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  • McGowan, Catherine Marie; Hyytiäinen, Heli Katariina (2017)
    Athletic performance or the kinematics of locomotion is ultimately the result of the actions of muscles. Muscular actions differ depending on the muscle group involved with anatomical and functional properties depending on the primary roles of the muscle; from stabilisation to powering locomotion. The functional (contractile and metabolic) properties of a muscle are determined by its fibre type or relative fibre type proportions in the muscle. The actions of muscle require the coordination of the nervous system with muscle contraction to produce movement or resist movement to avoid unwanted motion and tissue damage. The coordination of muscular action with the nervous system is termed neuromotor control and it requires precise proprioceptive input from the periphery, processing and input from the central nervous system (including learned or trained movements) and involves timing of muscle recruitment as well as muscle contraction. Training of muscles involves training for strength (or force generation) and stamina with measureable physiological changes with training including increased fibre size, alterations in fibre type, alterations in glycogen concentrations and lactate transport and alterations in mitochondrial and capillary density. As well as standard athletic training, skills training can make the difference in athletic performance and injury prevention in the equine athlete. This involves training of neuromotor control; training motor skills by motor relearning and conditional learning. Practical specific training techniques can be used in injury prevention, rehabilitation post injury and maintenance of the athlete. In this review we will focus on the thoracolumbar and hindlimb areas of the horse and review the importance of muscular control of locomotion, neuromotor control, the physiological effects of training and practical ways to maximise performance potential by specific physiotherapy skills training.
  • Billot, Maxime; Calvani, Riccardo; Urtamo, Annele; Sanchez-Sanchez, Juan Luis; Ciccolari-Micaldi, Cecilia; Chang, Milan; Roller-Wirnsberger, Regina; Wirnsberger, Gerhard; Sinclair, Alan; Vaquero-Pinto, Nieves; Jyväkorpi, Satu; Öhman, Hanna; Strandberg, Timo; Schols, Jos M. G. A.; Schols, Annemie M. W. J.; Smeets, Nick; Topinkova, Eva; Michalkova, Helena; Bonfigli, Anna Rita; Lattanzio, Fabrizia; Rodriguez-Manas, Leocadio; Coelho-Junior, Helio; Broccatelli, Marianna; D'Elia, Maria Elena; Biscotti, Damiano; Marzetti, Emanuele; Freiberger, Ellen (2020)
    One of the most widely conserved hallmarks of aging is a decline in functional capabilities. Mobility loss is particularly burdensome due to its association with negative health outcomes, loss of independence and disability, and the heavy impact on quality of life. Recently, a new condition, physical frailty and sarcopenia, has been proposed to define a critical stage in the disabling cascade. Physical frailty and sarcopenia are characterized by weakness, slowness, and reduced muscle mass, yet with preserved ability to move independently. One of the strategies that have shown some benefits in combatting mobility loss and its consequences for older adults is physical activity. Here, we describe the opportunities and challenges for the development of physical activity interventions in people with physical frailty and sarcopenia. The aim of this article is to review age-related physio(patho)logical changes that impact mobility in old age and to provide recommendations and procedures in accordance with the available literature.