Browsing by Subject "stroke"

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  • Vuori, Matti A.; Harald, Kennet; Jula, Antti; Valsta, Liisa; Laatikainen, Tiina; Salomaa, Veikko; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Jousilahti, Pekka; Niiranen, Teemu J. (2020)
    Aims: The objective was to evaluate whether sodium intake, assessed with the gold standard 24-h urinary collections, was related to long-term incidence of death, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods:A cohort of 4630 individuals aged 25-64 years collected 24-h urine samples in 1979-2002 and were followed up to 14 years for the incidence of any CVD, coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, heart failure (HF) and DM event, and death. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the association between the baseline salt intake and incident events and adjusted for baseline age, body mass index, serum cholesterol, prevalent DM, and stratified by sex and cohort baseline year. Results: During the follow-up, we observed 423 deaths, 424 CVD events (288 CHD events, 142 strokes, 139 HF events) and 161 DM events. Compared with the highest quartile of salt intake, persons in the lowest quartile had a lower incidence of CVD (hazard ratio [HR] 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51-0.95,p = .02), CHD (HR 0.63 [95% CI 0.42-0.94],p = .02) and DM (HR 0.52 [95% CI 0.31-0.87],p = .01). The results were non-significant for mortality, HF, and stroke. Conclusion: High sodium intake is associated with an increased incidence of CVD and DM.
  • Rasmus, Enni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Backround Returning to work (RTW) is an essential part of stroke patients’ wellbeing. According to previous literature, severity of stroke is the most consistent predictor of RTW. However, the role of neuropsychological rehabilitation and cognitive deficits in the context of RTW is less clear. Closer examination of the predictors of RTW could enable the identification of stroke patients who are in a greater risk of unsuccessful RTW. Analyzing the connections between rehabilitation and RTW could help to provide better treatment. We studied whether RTW could be predicted by acute cognitive deficits, duration and different elements of neuropsychological rehabilitation. Methods Participants were 79 stroke patients (33% women) who had received outpatient neuropsychological rehabilitation. Prior to stroke, all patients had been either full or part time working or studying. Patients were neuropsychologically assessed in the acute phase. Logistic regression was used to assess variables associated with RTW. Results Of the patients, 49% had returned to work. Deficits in attention and processing speed predicted poorer likelihood to RTW. Fewer outpatient visits and more straightforward content of the rehabilitation were associated with RTW, possibly due to lesser stroke severity. Finally, most of the aspects of neuropsychological rehabilitation were associated with RTW. Conclusions According to this study, RTW of stroke patients can partly be predicted by acute cognitive performance. Results regarding attention and processing speed are in congruence with previous research. Additional research is needed to clarify the relations of cognitive performance and neurorehabilitation to RTW.
  • Bricknell, Ryan A. T.; Ducaud, Christobal; Figueroa, Alejandra; Schwarzman, Logan S.; Rodriguez, Pura; Castro, Grettel; Zevallos, Juan Carlos; Barengo, Noel C. (2021)
    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are growing in use and many of the health implications with these devices remain unknown. This study aims to assess, using a survey representative of the USA general population, if an association exists between a history of ENDS use and a history of stroke. This cross-sectional study was a secondary data analysis using the 2016 behavioral risk factor surveillance system survey. The main exposure variable of the study was a self-reported history of ENDS use. The main outcome was a self-reported history of stroke. Covariates included sex, race, traditional cigarette use, smokeless tobacco use, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, myocardial infarction, and coronary artery disease. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression analyses were done. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Of the 486,303 total behavioral risk factor surveillance system survey participants, 465,594 met the inclusion criteria for this study of ENDS use and stroke. This study shows that current ENDS use was positively associated with a history of stroke. AOR of some daily ENDS use with stroke was 1.28 (95% CI: 1.02-1.61) and AOR of current daily ENDS use with stroke was 1.62 (95% CI: 1.18-2.31). The majority (55.9%) of current daily ENDS users reported former traditional cigarette smoking. Female sex, non-white ethnicity, elderly age, chronic kidney disease, coronary artery disease, diabetes, and traditional cigarette use characteristics were all also associated with increased odds of reporting a stroke. This study found a statistically significant and positive association between ENDS use and a history of stroke. Further research is warranted to investigate the reproducibility and temporality of this association. Nevertheless, this study contributes to the growing body of knowledge about the potential cardiovascular concerns related to ENDS use and the need for large cohort studies.
  • Klijn, Catharina J. M.; Paciaron, Maurizio; Berge, Eivind; Korompoki, Eleni; Korv, Janika; Lal, Avtar; Putaala, Jukka; Werring, David J. (2019)
    Patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack and non-valvular atrial fibrillation have a high risk of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. The aim of this guideline is to provide recommendations on antithrombotic medication for secondary prevention of stroke and other vascular outcomes in these patients. The working group identified questions and outcomes, graded evidence, and developed recommendations according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach and the European Stroke Organisation (ESO) standard operating procedure for guidelines. The guideline was reviewed and approved by the ESO guideline board and the ESO executive committee. In patients with atrial fibrillation and previous stroke or transient ischemic attack, oral anticoagulants reduce the risk of recurrence over antiplatelets or no antithrombotic treatment. Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants are preferred over vitamin K antagonists because they have a lower risk of major bleeding and death. Recommendations are weak regarding timing of treatment, (re-)starting oral anticoagulants in patients with previous intracerebral haemorrhage, and treatment in specific patient subgroups of those of older age, with cognitive impairment, renal failure or small vessel disease, because of a lack of strong evidence. In conclusion, for patients with atrial fibrillation and ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack, non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants are the preferred treatment for secondary prevention of recurrent stroke or thromboembolism. Further research is required to determine the best timing for initiating oral anticoagulants after an acute ischemic stroke, whether or not oral anticoagulants should be (re)started in patients with a history of intracerebral haemorrhage, and the best secondary preventive treatment in specific subgroups.
  • Laakso, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Objective: Cognitive impairment as a consequence of a stroke is common. Advanced age increases the frequency of poststroke cognitive deficits. Particularly executive dysfunction has an important role in poststroke disability. Complex by their nature, however, measuring executive function is difficult. The Hayling test, Design fluency task and Questioning task are some of the less common assessment methods of executive functions, and thus, they are not widely studied. The aim of the present study was to assess the feasibility of these tests in elderly patients three months after ischemic stroke. Performances on these tests were compared to conventional assessment methods of executive functions, and their predictive value on functional disability in follow-up was examined. Methods: 62 stroke patients and 39 control subjects, aged 55-85, underwent comprehensive neurological and neuropsychological examinations three months after the index stroke. Executive functions were studied with the Trail Making test, Stroop test, Wisconsin card sorting test, Verbal fluency task as well as with the Hayling test, Design fluency task and Questioning task. The modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and the Lawton's Instrumental activities of daily living -scale (IADL) were used to assess functional abilities at three months, and the mRS after 15 months follow-up. Results and conclusions: The Hayling test and Questioning task and the four conventional tests of executive functions differentiated stroke patients from healthy controls. Furthermore, the executive functions predicted functional dependence in the elderly stroke patients. The Hayling test was most consistently associated with functional disability as evaluated with mRS and IADL three months after the stroke, and predicted functional disability as evaluated with mRS at 15 months follow-up. Of all executive functions tests, the Hayling test proved to be the most constant predictor of functional abilities in elderly stroke patients. However, there is no golden standard for measuring executive functions, and in the future, more sensitive methods are needed. Nevertheless, the present study confirms the importance of assessing executive functions in clinical populations, when predicting functional disability even in the long-term.
  • Broman, Jenna; Aarnio, Karoliina; But, Anna; Marinkovic, Ivan; Rodriguez-Pardo, Jorge; Kaste, Markku; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Putaala, Jukka (2022)
    Objective We examined the association between initiation of antidepressants within the first year after ischaemic stroke (IS) in young adults and long-term fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events, as well as all-cause mortality. Patients and methods The Helsinki Young Stroke Registry (HYSR) includes patients aged 15-49 years with their first-ever IS occurring 1994-2007. From nationwide registers, we obtained data on prescriptions (1993-2011) and outcomes of interest (1994-2011). Time of initiating post-stroke antidepressants (PSADs) was defined as time of the first filled prescription for antidepressants within the first year from IS. To account for non-random assignment of PSADs, we performed propensity score matching and studied the relationship between PSAD initiation and outcomes using Cox regression models with time-varying coefficients. Results Of all patients (n = 888), 206 (23.2%) initiated PSADs within the first year, of which 203 (98.5%) could be matched to 406 non-initiators. In this matched sample of 609 patients, the median follow-up time was 8.1 (interquartile range [IQR] 5.0-12.6) years and 169 (28.9%) patients had any cardiovascular events, 95 (15.8%) had recurrent ischaemic or haemorrhagic strokes and 106 (17.4%) died. Adjusted for sociodemographics and cardiovascular comorbidities, PSAD initiation was associated with recurrent ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke 5-10 years after IS (hazard ratio [HR] 3.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.32-7.12). No association emerged between PSAD initiation and other outcomes. Conclusions In young adults, PSAD initiation within the first year after IS was associated with a heightened hazard of recurrent ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke in the long term. Future studies are needed to verify the results and to further study the nature of this finding. KEY MESSAGES Initiation of post-stroke antidepressants (PSADs) within the first year after ischaemic stroke (IS) was associated with a heightened hazard of recurrent ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke in the long term. Patients starting antidepressants after IS should be followed up more closely in case of recurrent events. Future studies are needed to verify the results and to further study the nature of this finding.
  • Woock, Malin; Martinez-Majander, Nicolas; Seiffge, David J.; Selvik, Henriette Aurora; Nordanstig, Annika; Redfors, Petra; Lindgren, Erik; Sanchez van Kammen, Mayte; Rentzos, Alexandros; Coutinho, Jonathan M.; Doyle, Karen; Naess, Halvor; Putaala, Jukka; Jood, Katarina; Tatlisumak, Turgut (2022)
    The association between stroke and cancer is well-established. Because of an aging population and longer survival rates, the frequency of synchronous stroke and cancer will become even more common. Different pathophysiologic mechanisms have been proposed how cancer or cancer treatment directly or via coagulation disturbances can mediate stroke. Increased serum levels of D-dimer, fibrin degradation products, and CRP are more often seen in stroke with concomitant cancer, and the clot retrieved during thrombectomy has a more fibrin- and platelet-rich constitution compared with that of atherosclerotic etiology. Multiple infarctions are more common in patients with active cancer compared with those without a cancer diagnosis. New MRI techniques may help in detecting typical patterns seen in the presence of a concomitant cancer. In ischemic stroke patients, a newly published cancer probability score can help clinicians in their decision-making when to suspect an underlying malignancy in a stroke patient and to start cancer-screening studies. Treating stroke patients with synchronous cancer can be a delicate matter. Limited evidence suggests that administration of intravenous thrombolysis appears safe in non-axial intracranial and non-metastatic cancer patients. Endovascular thrombectomy is probably rather safe in these patients, but probably futile in most patients placed on palliative care due to their advanced disease. In this topical review, we discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and prognosis of ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes as well as cerebral venous thrombosis and concomitant cancer. We further summarize the current evidence on acute management and secondary preventive therapy.
  • Pokorney, Sean D.; Piccini, Jonathan P.; Stevens, Susanna R.; Patel, Manesh R.; Pieper, Karen S.; Halperin, Jonathan L.; Breithardt, Gunter; Singer, Daniel E.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Hacke, Werner; Becker, Richard C.; Berkowitz, Scott D.; Nessel, Christopher C.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Fox, Keith A. A.; Califf, Robert M.; ROCKET AF Steering Comm; Kaste, Markku (2016)
    Background-Atrial fibrillation is associated with higher mortality. Identification of causes of death and contemporary risk factors for all-cause mortality may guide interventions. Methods and Results-In the Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF) study, patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation were randomized to rivaroxaban or dose-adjusted warfarin. Cox proportional hazards regression with backward elimination identified factors at randomization that were independently associated with all-cause mortality in the 14 171 participants in the intention-to-treat population. The median age was 73 years, and the mean CHADS(2) score was 3.5. Over 1.9 years of median follow-up, 1214 (8.6%) patients died. Kaplan-Meier mortality rates were 4.2% at 1 year and 8.9% at 2 years. The majority of classified deaths (1081) were cardiovascular (72%), whereas only 6% were nonhemorrhagic stroke or systemic embolism. No significant difference in all-cause mortality was observed between the rivaroxaban and warfarin arms (P=0.15). Heart failure (hazard ratio 1.51, 95% CI 1.33-1.70, P= 75 years (hazard ratio 1.69, 95% CI 1.51-1.90, P Conclusions-In a large population of patients anticoagulated for nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, approximate to 7 in 10 deaths were cardiovascular, whereas
  • Sihvonen, Aleksi J.; Särkämö, Teppo (2021)
    Patients with post-stroke impairments present often significant variation in response to therapeutic interventions. Recent studies have shown that daily music listening can aid post-stroke recovery of language and memory, but reliable predictors of treatment response are unknown. Utilizing data from the music intervention arms of a single-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) on stroke patients (N = 31), we built regression models to predict the treatment response of a two-month music listening intervention on language skills and verbal memory with baseline demographic, clinical and musical data as well as fMRI data from a music listening task. Clinically, greater improvement in verbal memory and language skills after the music listening intervention were predicted by the severity of the initial deficit and educational level. Neurally, greater baseline fMRI activation during vocal music listening in the left parietal cortical and medial frontal areas predicted greater treatment-induced improvement in language skills and greater baseline engagement of the auditory network during instrumental music listening predicted improvement in both verbal memory and language skills. Our results suggest that clinical, demographic, and neuroimaging data predicts music listening treatment response. This data could be used clinically to target music-based treatments.
  • Moliis, Henrik (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Background and purpose: Cognitive impairment is a common and well-known consequence of supratentorial infarct, but its prevalence and severity after infratentorial infarct is unclear. We compared the frequency and prognostic value of domain-specific cognitive deficits after supratentorial and infratentorial infarct. Methods: In a consecutive cohort of first-ever stroke patients (N=244) admitted to Helsinki University Hospital, 37 patients had an infratentorial infarct. Patients were assessed by a neuropsychologist 3 months post-stroke in 9 cognitive domains, and functional disability was assessed at 15 months. Frequencies of cognitive deficits were compared using the Pearson chi-square test. The association between cognitive deficits and functional disability at the 15-month follow-up was analysed using logistic regression. Results: There was no significant difference between the frequency of cognitive deficits in patients with infratentorial vs supratentorial infarct. Altogether 73% of patients with infratentorial infarct and 82.1% of patients with supratentorial infarct had impairment in at least one cognitive domain, and 42.3% in the infratentorial group and 47.3% in the supratentorial group had deficits in 3 or more cognitive domains. In the infratentorial group, only visuoconstructional and spatial functions showed at least a convincing trend of association with functional disability at 15 months (OR 9.0, 95%CI 1.3-62.5, p=0.027). In the supratentorial group, both executive functions and attention (OR 2,9, 95%CI 1.5-5.8, p=0.002) and visuoconstructional and spatial functions (OR 2.9, 95%CI 1.5-5.7, p=0.001) showed this association. Conclusion: Cognitive deficits are as common in infratentorial as in supratentorial infarct, and it is important to recognize them to meet the needs of rehabilitation.
  • TRISP Collaboration (2018)
    Purpose The ThRombolysis in Ischemic Stroke Patients (TRISP) collaboration aims to address clinically relevant questions about safety and outcomes of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) and endovascular thrombectomy. The findings can provide observational information on treatment of patients derived from everyday clinical practice. Participants TRISP is an open, investigator-driven collaborative research initiative of European stroke centres with expertise in treatment with revascularisation therapies and maintenance of hospital-based registries. All participating centres made a commitment to prospectively collect data on consecutive patients with stroke treated with IVT using standardised definitions of variables and outcomes, to assure accuracy and completeness of the data and to adapt their local databases to answer novel research questions. Findings to date Currently, TRISP comprises 18 centres and registers >10000IVT-treated patients. Prior TRISP projects provided evidence on the safety and functional outcome in relevant subgroups of patients who were excluded, under-represented or not specifically addressed in randomised controlled trials (ie, pre-existing disability, cervical artery dissections, stroke mimics, prior statin use), demonstrated deficits in organisation of acute stroke care (ie, IVT during non-working hours, effects of onset-to-door time on onset-to-needle time), evaluated the association between laboratory findings on outcome after IVT and served to develop risk estimation tools for prediction of haemorrhagic complications and functional outcome after IVT. Future plans Further TRISP projects to increase knowledge of the effect and safety of revascularisation therapies in acute stroke are ongoing. TRISP welcomes participation and project proposals of further centres fulfilling the outlined requirements. In the future, TRISP will be extended to include patients undergoing endovascular thrombectomy.
  • Ritvonen, Juhani; Sairanen, Tiina; Silvennoinen, Heli; Virtanen, Pekka; Salonen, Oili; Lindsberg, Perttu J.; Strbian, Daniel (2021)
    Background: Around 30-60% of patients with basilar artery occlusion (BAO) present with coma, which is often considered as a hallmark of poor prognosis. Aim: To examine factors that will help predict outcomes in patients with BAO comatose on admission. Methods: A total of 312 patients with angiography-proven BAO were analyzed. Comas were assessed as Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of Results: In total, 103/259 (39.8%) of BAO patients were comatose on admission. Factors associated with acute coma were higher age, coronary artery disease, convulsions, extent of early ischemia by posterior circulation Acute Stroke Prognosis Early CT Score (pc-ASPECTS) < 8, absence of patent posterior collateral vasculature, and occlusion over multiple segments of BA. A total of 21/103 (20.4%) of comatose patients had a favorable outcome (mRS 0-3), and 12/103 (11.7%) had a good outcome (mRS 0-2). Factors associated with a favorable outcome in comatose BAO patients were younger age (p = 0.010), less extensive baseline ischemia (p = 0.027), recanalization (p = 0.013), and avoiding symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) (p = 0.038). Factors associated with the poorest outcome or death (mRS 5-6) were older age (p = 0.001), diabetes (p = 0.022), atrial fibrillation (p = 0.016), lower median GCS [4 (IQR 3.6) vs. 6 (5-8); p = 0.006], pc-ASPECTS < 8 (p = 0.003), unsuccessful recanalization (p = 0.006), and sICH (p = 0.010). Futile recanalization (mRS 4-6) was significantly more common in comatose patients (49.4 vs. 18.5%, p < 0.001). Conclusions: One in five BAO patients with acute coma had a favorable outcome. Older patients with cardiovascular comorbidities and already existing ischemic lesions before reperfusion therapies tended to have a poor prognosis, especially if no recanalization is achieved and sICH occurred.
  • Hokkinen, Lasse; Mäkelä, Teemu; Savolainen, Sauli; Kangasniemi, Marko (2021)
    Background: Computed tomography perfusion (CTP) is the mainstay to determine possible eligibility for endovascular thrombectomy (EVT), but there is still a need for alternative methods in patient triage. Purpose: To study the ability of a computed tomography angiography (CTA)-based convolutional neural network (CNN) method in predicting final infarct volume in patients with large vessel occlusion successfully treated with endovascular therapy. Materials and Methods: The accuracy of the CTA source image-based CNN in final infarct volume prediction was evaluated against follow-up CT or MR imaging in 89 patients with anterior circulation ischemic stroke successfully treated with EVT as defined by Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction category 2b or 3 using Pearson correlation coefficients and intraclass correlation coefficients. Convolutional neural network performance was also compared to a commercially available CTP-based software (RAPID, iSchemaView). Results: A correlation with final infarct volumes was found for both CNN and CTP-RAPID in patients presenting 6-24 h from symptom onset or last known well, with r = 0.67 (p < 0.001) and r = 0.82 (p < 0.001), respectively. Correlations with final infarct volumes in the early time window (0-6 h) were r = 0.43 (p = 0.002) for the CNN and r = 0.58 (p < 0.001) for CTP-RAPID. Compared to CTP-RAPID predictions, CNN estimated eligibility for thrombectomy according to ischemic core size in the late time window with a sensitivity of 0.38 and specificity of 0.89. Conclusion: A CTA-based CNN method had moderate correlation with final infarct volumes in the late time window in patients successfully treated with EVT.
  • Villarreal, Sanna; Linnavuo, Matti; Sepponen, Raimo; Vuori, Outi; Bonato, Mario; Jokinen, Hanna; Hietanen, Marja (2022)
    Objective: Traditionally, asymmetric spatial processing (i.e., hemispatial neglect) has been assessed with paper-and-pencil tasks, but growing evidence indicates that computer-based methods are a more sensitive assessment modality. It is not known, however, whether simply converting well-established paper-and-pencil methods into a digital format is the best option. The aim of the present study was to compare sensitivity in detecting contralesional omissions of two different computer-based methods: a “digitally converted” cancellation task was compared with a computer-based Visual and Auditory dual-tasking approach, which has already proved to be very sensitive. Methods: Participants included 40 patients with chronic unilateral stroke in either the right hemisphere (RH patients, N = 20) or the left hemisphere (LH patients, N = 20) and 20 age-matched healthy controls. The cancellation task was implemented on a very large format (173 cm × 277 cm) or in a smaller (A4) paper-and-pencil version. The computer-based dual-tasks were implemented on a 15′′ monitor and required the detection of unilateral and bilateral briefly presented lateralized targets. Results: Neither version of the cancellation task was able to show spatial bias in RH patients. In contrast, in the Visual dual-task RH patients missed significantly more left-sided targets than controls in both unilateral and bilateral trials. They also missed significantly more left-sided than right-sided targets only in the bilateral trials of the Auditory dual-task. Conclusion: The dual-task setting outperforms the cancellation task approach even when the latter is implemented on a (large) screen. Attentionally demanding methods are useful for revealing mild forms of contralesional visuospatial deficits.
  • Pirinen, Jani; Eranti, Antti; Knekt, Paul; Lehto, Mika; Martinez-Majander, Nicolas; Aro, Aapo L.; Rissanen, Harri; Heliövaara, Markku; Kaste, Markku; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Huikuri, Heikki; Putaala, Jukka (2017)
    Introduction: Certain electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities are associated with ischemic stroke (IS), especially cardioembolic subtype. Besides atrial fibrillation, markers of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) or atrial pathology also reflect elevated risk. We studied the association of ECG markers with IS in young adults. Methods: We performed a case-control study including 567 consecutive IS patients aged 15-49 years (inclusion period: 1994-2007) and one or two age-and sex-matched control subjects enrolled during 1978-1980 (n = 1033), and investigated also the stroke aetiologic subgroups. We studied ECGs of all participants for markers of atrial abnormality, i.e. P-terminal force (PTF) on lead V1, interatrial blocks (IAB; P-wave duration >= 110ms), and LVH. Conditional logistic regression analyses were used. Results: IAB (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.57, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16-2.13) and PTF combined with LVH (HR: 6.83, 95% CI: 1.65-28.31), were independently associated with IS. LVH, abnormal P-wave (HR: 6.87, 95% CI: 1.97-135.29), PTF, IAB, and combinations of these P-wave abnormalities with LVH - were associated with cardioembolic subtype. Abnormal P-wave and IAB were associated with cryptogenic stroke subtype. In unadjusted analysis, LVH was associated with small-vessel disease subtype. Conclusion: P-wave abnormalities on ECG were associated with cardioembolic but also with a cryptogenic subtype of IS.
  • Fuentes, Blanca; Ntaios, George; Putaala, Jukka (2021)
  • Thrombolysis Stroke Patients TriSP; Altersberger, Valerian L.; Kellert, Lars; Martinez-Majander, Nicolas; Tiainen, Marjaana; Räty, Silja; Sibolt, Gerli; Curtze, Sami; Gensicke, Henrik (2020)
    Introduction Alterations in haemoglobin levels are frequent in stroke patients. The prognostic meaning of anaemia and polyglobulia on outcomes in patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis is ambiguous. Patients and methods In this prospective multicentre, intravenous thrombolysis register-based study, we compared haemoglobin levels on hospital admission with three-month poor outcome (modified Rankin Scale 3-6), mortality and symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage (European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study II-criteria (ECASS-II-criteria)). Haemoglobin level was used as continuous and categorical variable distinguishing anaemia (female: 15.5 g/dl; male: >17 g/dl). Anaemia was subdivided into mild and moderate/severe (female/male:
  • Abdollahi, Anna M.; Virtanen, Heli E. K.; Voutilainen, Sari; Kurl, Sudhir; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Salonen, Jukka T.; Virtanen, Jyrki K. (2019)
    Background: Epidemiologic studies suggest inverse associations between consumption of egg, a major source of dietary cholesterol, and stroke. However, the evidence of the relation remains limited, especially among carriers of apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4), which influences cholesterol metabolism. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate associations of egg and cholesterol intakes with risk of stroke and with the major stroke risk factor, blood pressure, inmiddle-aged and older men from eastern Finland and whether apoE phenotype could modify these associations. Methods: A total of 1950 men aged 42-60 y in 1984-1989 were included at the baseline examinations of the prospective population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. Data on apoE phenotype were available for 1015 men. Dietary intakes were assessed with 4-d food records at baseline and incident stroke events were assessed by record linkage to hospital discharge registries. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to estimate associations with stroke risk. Associations with baseline blood pressure were evaluated with ANCOVA. Results: During the mean +/- SD follow-up of 21.2 +/- 7.2 y, there were 217 incidences of any stroke: 166 of ischemic stroke and 55 of hemorrhagic stroke. Comparing the highest egg intake quartile with the lowest, the multivariable-adjusted HRs were 0.81 for total stroke (95% CI: 0.54, 1.23; P-trend = 0.32), 0.84 for ischemic stroke (95% CI: 0.53, 1.34; P-trend = 0.44), and 0.75 for hemorrhagic stroke (95% CI: 0.32, 1.77; P-trend = 0.40). The respective HRs for the highest cholesterol intake quartile compared with the lowest were 0.86 (95% CI: 0.57, 1.32; P-trend = 0.42), 0.74 (95% CI: 0.46, 1.20; P-trend = 0.32), and 1.10 (95% CI: 0.45, 2.66; P-trend = 0.75). Diastolic blood pressure was 1.6 mm Hg (P-trend = 0.04) lower in the highest egg intake quartile compared with the lowest, but there were no associations with systolic blood pressure or with cholesterol intake. ApoE phenotype (32% had apoE4 phenotype) did not modify the associations. Conclusion: Neither egg nor cholesterol intakes were associated with stroke risk in this cohort, regardless of apoE phenotype. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03221127.
  • Chaudhry, Shafqat Rasul; Kahlert, Ulf Dietrich; Kinfe, Thomas Mehari; Lamprecht, Alf; Niemelä, Mika; Hänggi, Daniel; Muhammad, Sajjad (2020)
    Background: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a highly complex disease with very high mortality and morbidity. About one-third of SAH patients suffer from systemic infections, predominantly pneumonia, that can contribute to excess mortality after SAH. Immunodepression is probably the most important mechanism leading to infections. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a master regulator of immunodepression, but it is still not clear if systemic IL-10 levels contribute to immunodepression, occurrence of infections and clinical outcome after SAH. Methods: This explorative study included 76 patients with SAH admitted to our neurointensive care unit within 24 h after ictus. A group of 24 patients without any known intracranial pathology were included as controls. Peripheral venous blood was withdrawn on day 1 and day 7 after SAH. Serum was isolated by centrifugation and stored at -80 degrees C until analysis. Serum IL-10 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Patient characteristics, post-SAH complications and clinical outcome at discharge were retrieved from patients' record files. Results: Serum IL-10 levels were significantly higher on day 1 and day 7 in SAH patients compared to controls. Serum IL-10 levels were significantly higher on day 7 in patients who developed any kind of infection, cerebral vasospasm (CVS) or chronic hydrocephalus. Serum IL-10 levels were significantly higher in SAH patients discharged with poor clinical outcome (modified Rankin Scale (mRS) 3-6 or Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) 1-3). Conclusion: Serum IL-10 might be an additional useful parameter along with other biomarkers to predict post-SAH infections.
  • CLOTBUST-ER Trial Investigators; Alexandrov, Andrei V.; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Köhrmann, Martin; Soinne, Lauri; Schellinger, Peter D. (2019)
    Background: Results of our recently published phase III randomized clinical trial of ultrasound-enhanced thrombolysis (sonothrombolysis) using an operator-independent, high frequency ultrasound device revealed heterogeneity of patient recruitment among centers. Methods: We performed a post hoc analysis after excluding subjects that were recruited at centers reporting a decline in the balance of randomization between sonothrombolysis and concurrent endovascular trials. Results: From a total of 676 participants randomized in the CLOTBUST-ER trial we identified 52 patients from 7 centers with perceived equipoise shift in favor of endovascular treatment. Post hoc sensitivity analysis in the intention-to-treat population adjusted for age, National Institutes of Health Scale score at baseline, time from stroke onset to tPA bolus and baseline serum glucose showed a significant (p <0.01) interaction of perceived endovascular equipoise shift on the association between sonothrombolysis and 3 month functional outcome [adjusted common odds ratio (cOR) in centers with perceived endovascular equipoise shift: 0.22, 95% CI 0.06-0.75; p = 0.02; adjusted cOR for centers without endovascular equipoise shift: 1.20, 95% CI 0.89-1.62; p = 0.24)]. After excluding centers with perceived endovascular equipoise shift, patients randomized to sonothrombolysis had higher odds of 3 month functional independence (mRS scores 0-2) compared with patients treated with tPA only (adjusted OR: 1.53; 95% CI 1.01-2.31; p = 0.04). Conclusion: Our experience in CLOTBUST-ER indicates that increasing implementation of endovascular therapies across major academic stroke centers raises significant challenges for clinical trials aiming to test noninterventional or adjuvant reperfusion strategies.