Browsing by Subject "stroke"

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  • Vuori, Matti A.; Harald, Kennet; Jula, Antti; Valsta, Liisa; Laatikainen, Tiina; Salomaa, Veikko; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Jousilahti, Pekka; Niiranen, Teemu J. (2020)
    Aims: The objective was to evaluate whether sodium intake, assessed with the gold standard 24-h urinary collections, was related to long-term incidence of death, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods:A cohort of 4630 individuals aged 25-64 years collected 24-h urine samples in 1979-2002 and were followed up to 14 years for the incidence of any CVD, coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, heart failure (HF) and DM event, and death. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the association between the baseline salt intake and incident events and adjusted for baseline age, body mass index, serum cholesterol, prevalent DM, and stratified by sex and cohort baseline year. Results: During the follow-up, we observed 423 deaths, 424 CVD events (288 CHD events, 142 strokes, 139 HF events) and 161 DM events. Compared with the highest quartile of salt intake, persons in the lowest quartile had a lower incidence of CVD (hazard ratio [HR] 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51-0.95,p = .02), CHD (HR 0.63 [95% CI 0.42-0.94],p = .02) and DM (HR 0.52 [95% CI 0.31-0.87],p = .01). The results were non-significant for mortality, HF, and stroke. Conclusion: High sodium intake is associated with an increased incidence of CVD and DM.
  • Bricknell, Ryan A. T.; Ducaud, Christobal; Figueroa, Alejandra; Schwarzman, Logan S.; Rodriguez, Pura; Castro, Grettel; Zevallos, Juan Carlos; Barengo, Noel C. (2021)
    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are growing in use and many of the health implications with these devices remain unknown. This study aims to assess, using a survey representative of the USA general population, if an association exists between a history of ENDS use and a history of stroke. This cross-sectional study was a secondary data analysis using the 2016 behavioral risk factor surveillance system survey. The main exposure variable of the study was a self-reported history of ENDS use. The main outcome was a self-reported history of stroke. Covariates included sex, race, traditional cigarette use, smokeless tobacco use, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, myocardial infarction, and coronary artery disease. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression analyses were done. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Of the 486,303 total behavioral risk factor surveillance system survey participants, 465,594 met the inclusion criteria for this study of ENDS use and stroke. This study shows that current ENDS use was positively associated with a history of stroke. AOR of some daily ENDS use with stroke was 1.28 (95% CI: 1.02-1.61) and AOR of current daily ENDS use with stroke was 1.62 (95% CI: 1.18-2.31). The majority (55.9%) of current daily ENDS users reported former traditional cigarette smoking. Female sex, non-white ethnicity, elderly age, chronic kidney disease, coronary artery disease, diabetes, and traditional cigarette use characteristics were all also associated with increased odds of reporting a stroke. This study found a statistically significant and positive association between ENDS use and a history of stroke. Further research is warranted to investigate the reproducibility and temporality of this association. Nevertheless, this study contributes to the growing body of knowledge about the potential cardiovascular concerns related to ENDS use and the need for large cohort studies.
  • Klijn, Catharina J. M.; Paciaron, Maurizio; Berge, Eivind; Korompoki, Eleni; Korv, Janika; Lal, Avtar; Putaala, Jukka; Werring, David J. (2019)
    Patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack and non-valvular atrial fibrillation have a high risk of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. The aim of this guideline is to provide recommendations on antithrombotic medication for secondary prevention of stroke and other vascular outcomes in these patients. The working group identified questions and outcomes, graded evidence, and developed recommendations according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach and the European Stroke Organisation (ESO) standard operating procedure for guidelines. The guideline was reviewed and approved by the ESO guideline board and the ESO executive committee. In patients with atrial fibrillation and previous stroke or transient ischemic attack, oral anticoagulants reduce the risk of recurrence over antiplatelets or no antithrombotic treatment. Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants are preferred over vitamin K antagonists because they have a lower risk of major bleeding and death. Recommendations are weak regarding timing of treatment, (re-)starting oral anticoagulants in patients with previous intracerebral haemorrhage, and treatment in specific patient subgroups of those of older age, with cognitive impairment, renal failure or small vessel disease, because of a lack of strong evidence. In conclusion, for patients with atrial fibrillation and ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack, non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants are the preferred treatment for secondary prevention of recurrent stroke or thromboembolism. Further research is required to determine the best timing for initiating oral anticoagulants after an acute ischemic stroke, whether or not oral anticoagulants should be (re)started in patients with a history of intracerebral haemorrhage, and the best secondary preventive treatment in specific subgroups.
  • Laakso, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Objective: Cognitive impairment as a consequence of a stroke is common. Advanced age increases the frequency of poststroke cognitive deficits. Particularly executive dysfunction has an important role in poststroke disability. Complex by their nature, however, measuring executive function is difficult. The Hayling test, Design fluency task and Questioning task are some of the less common assessment methods of executive functions, and thus, they are not widely studied. The aim of the present study was to assess the feasibility of these tests in elderly patients three months after ischemic stroke. Performances on these tests were compared to conventional assessment methods of executive functions, and their predictive value on functional disability in follow-up was examined. Methods: 62 stroke patients and 39 control subjects, aged 55-85, underwent comprehensive neurological and neuropsychological examinations three months after the index stroke. Executive functions were studied with the Trail Making test, Stroop test, Wisconsin card sorting test, Verbal fluency task as well as with the Hayling test, Design fluency task and Questioning task. The modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and the Lawton's Instrumental activities of daily living -scale (IADL) were used to assess functional abilities at three months, and the mRS after 15 months follow-up. Results and conclusions: The Hayling test and Questioning task and the four conventional tests of executive functions differentiated stroke patients from healthy controls. Furthermore, the executive functions predicted functional dependence in the elderly stroke patients. The Hayling test was most consistently associated with functional disability as evaluated with mRS and IADL three months after the stroke, and predicted functional disability as evaluated with mRS at 15 months follow-up. Of all executive functions tests, the Hayling test proved to be the most constant predictor of functional abilities in elderly stroke patients. However, there is no golden standard for measuring executive functions, and in the future, more sensitive methods are needed. Nevertheless, the present study confirms the importance of assessing executive functions in clinical populations, when predicting functional disability even in the long-term.
  • Pokorney, Sean D.; Piccini, Jonathan P.; Stevens, Susanna R.; Patel, Manesh R.; Pieper, Karen S.; Halperin, Jonathan L.; Breithardt, Gunter; Singer, Daniel E.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Hacke, Werner; Becker, Richard C.; Berkowitz, Scott D.; Nessel, Christopher C.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Fox, Keith A. A.; Califf, Robert M.; ROCKET AF Steering Comm; Kaste, Markku (2016)
    Background-Atrial fibrillation is associated with higher mortality. Identification of causes of death and contemporary risk factors for all-cause mortality may guide interventions. Methods and Results-In the Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF) study, patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation were randomized to rivaroxaban or dose-adjusted warfarin. Cox proportional hazards regression with backward elimination identified factors at randomization that were independently associated with all-cause mortality in the 14 171 participants in the intention-to-treat population. The median age was 73 years, and the mean CHADS(2) score was 3.5. Over 1.9 years of median follow-up, 1214 (8.6%) patients died. Kaplan-Meier mortality rates were 4.2% at 1 year and 8.9% at 2 years. The majority of classified deaths (1081) were cardiovascular (72%), whereas only 6% were nonhemorrhagic stroke or systemic embolism. No significant difference in all-cause mortality was observed between the rivaroxaban and warfarin arms (P=0.15). Heart failure (hazard ratio 1.51, 95% CI 1.33-1.70, P= 75 years (hazard ratio 1.69, 95% CI 1.51-1.90, P Conclusions-In a large population of patients anticoagulated for nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, approximate to 7 in 10 deaths were cardiovascular, whereas
  • Moliis, Henrik (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Background and purpose: Cognitive impairment is a common and well-known consequence of supratentorial infarct, but its prevalence and severity after infratentorial infarct is unclear. We compared the frequency and prognostic value of domain-specific cognitive deficits after supratentorial and infratentorial infarct. Methods: In a consecutive cohort of first-ever stroke patients (N=244) admitted to Helsinki University Hospital, 37 patients had an infratentorial infarct. Patients were assessed by a neuropsychologist 3 months post-stroke in 9 cognitive domains, and functional disability was assessed at 15 months. Frequencies of cognitive deficits were compared using the Pearson chi-square test. The association between cognitive deficits and functional disability at the 15-month follow-up was analysed using logistic regression. Results: There was no significant difference between the frequency of cognitive deficits in patients with infratentorial vs supratentorial infarct. Altogether 73% of patients with infratentorial infarct and 82.1% of patients with supratentorial infarct had impairment in at least one cognitive domain, and 42.3% in the infratentorial group and 47.3% in the supratentorial group had deficits in 3 or more cognitive domains. In the infratentorial group, only visuoconstructional and spatial functions showed at least a convincing trend of association with functional disability at 15 months (OR 9.0, 95%CI 1.3-62.5, p=0.027). In the supratentorial group, both executive functions and attention (OR 2,9, 95%CI 1.5-5.8, p=0.002) and visuoconstructional and spatial functions (OR 2.9, 95%CI 1.5-5.7, p=0.001) showed this association. Conclusion: Cognitive deficits are as common in infratentorial as in supratentorial infarct, and it is important to recognize them to meet the needs of rehabilitation.
  • TRISP Collaboration (2018)
    Purpose The ThRombolysis in Ischemic Stroke Patients (TRISP) collaboration aims to address clinically relevant questions about safety and outcomes of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) and endovascular thrombectomy. The findings can provide observational information on treatment of patients derived from everyday clinical practice. Participants TRISP is an open, investigator-driven collaborative research initiative of European stroke centres with expertise in treatment with revascularisation therapies and maintenance of hospital-based registries. All participating centres made a commitment to prospectively collect data on consecutive patients with stroke treated with IVT using standardised definitions of variables and outcomes, to assure accuracy and completeness of the data and to adapt their local databases to answer novel research questions. Findings to date Currently, TRISP comprises 18 centres and registers >10000IVT-treated patients. Prior TRISP projects provided evidence on the safety and functional outcome in relevant subgroups of patients who were excluded, under-represented or not specifically addressed in randomised controlled trials (ie, pre-existing disability, cervical artery dissections, stroke mimics, prior statin use), demonstrated deficits in organisation of acute stroke care (ie, IVT during non-working hours, effects of onset-to-door time on onset-to-needle time), evaluated the association between laboratory findings on outcome after IVT and served to develop risk estimation tools for prediction of haemorrhagic complications and functional outcome after IVT. Future plans Further TRISP projects to increase knowledge of the effect and safety of revascularisation therapies in acute stroke are ongoing. TRISP welcomes participation and project proposals of further centres fulfilling the outlined requirements. In the future, TRISP will be extended to include patients undergoing endovascular thrombectomy.
  • Ritvonen, Juhani; Sairanen, Tiina; Silvennoinen, Heli; Virtanen, Pekka; Salonen, Oili; Lindsberg, Perttu J.; Strbian, Daniel (2021)
    Background: Around 30-60% of patients with basilar artery occlusion (BAO) present with coma, which is often considered as a hallmark of poor prognosis. Aim: To examine factors that will help predict outcomes in patients with BAO comatose on admission. Methods: A total of 312 patients with angiography-proven BAO were analyzed. Comas were assessed as Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of Results: In total, 103/259 (39.8%) of BAO patients were comatose on admission. Factors associated with acute coma were higher age, coronary artery disease, convulsions, extent of early ischemia by posterior circulation Acute Stroke Prognosis Early CT Score (pc-ASPECTS) < 8, absence of patent posterior collateral vasculature, and occlusion over multiple segments of BA. A total of 21/103 (20.4%) of comatose patients had a favorable outcome (mRS 0-3), and 12/103 (11.7%) had a good outcome (mRS 0-2). Factors associated with a favorable outcome in comatose BAO patients were younger age (p = 0.010), less extensive baseline ischemia (p = 0.027), recanalization (p = 0.013), and avoiding symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) (p = 0.038). Factors associated with the poorest outcome or death (mRS 5-6) were older age (p = 0.001), diabetes (p = 0.022), atrial fibrillation (p = 0.016), lower median GCS [4 (IQR 3.6) vs. 6 (5-8); p = 0.006], pc-ASPECTS < 8 (p = 0.003), unsuccessful recanalization (p = 0.006), and sICH (p = 0.010). Futile recanalization (mRS 4-6) was significantly more common in comatose patients (49.4 vs. 18.5%, p < 0.001). Conclusions: One in five BAO patients with acute coma had a favorable outcome. Older patients with cardiovascular comorbidities and already existing ischemic lesions before reperfusion therapies tended to have a poor prognosis, especially if no recanalization is achieved and sICH occurred.
  • Pirinen, Jani; Eranti, Antti; Knekt, Paul; Lehto, Mika; Martinez-Majander, Nicolas; Aro, Aapo L.; Rissanen, Harri; Heliövaara, Markku; Kaste, Markku; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Huikuri, Heikki; Putaala, Jukka (2017)
    Introduction: Certain electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities are associated with ischemic stroke (IS), especially cardioembolic subtype. Besides atrial fibrillation, markers of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) or atrial pathology also reflect elevated risk. We studied the association of ECG markers with IS in young adults. Methods: We performed a case-control study including 567 consecutive IS patients aged 15-49 years (inclusion period: 1994-2007) and one or two age-and sex-matched control subjects enrolled during 1978-1980 (n = 1033), and investigated also the stroke aetiologic subgroups. We studied ECGs of all participants for markers of atrial abnormality, i.e. P-terminal force (PTF) on lead V1, interatrial blocks (IAB; P-wave duration >= 110ms), and LVH. Conditional logistic regression analyses were used. Results: IAB (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.57, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16-2.13) and PTF combined with LVH (HR: 6.83, 95% CI: 1.65-28.31), were independently associated with IS. LVH, abnormal P-wave (HR: 6.87, 95% CI: 1.97-135.29), PTF, IAB, and combinations of these P-wave abnormalities with LVH - were associated with cardioembolic subtype. Abnormal P-wave and IAB were associated with cryptogenic stroke subtype. In unadjusted analysis, LVH was associated with small-vessel disease subtype. Conclusion: P-wave abnormalities on ECG were associated with cardioembolic but also with a cryptogenic subtype of IS.
  • Fuentes, Blanca; Ntaios, George; Putaala, Jukka (2021)
  • Thrombolysis Stroke Patients TRISP; Altersberger, Valerian L.; Kellert, Lars; Martinez-Majander, Nicolas; Tiainen, Marjaana; Räty, Silja; Sibolt, Gerli; Curtze, Sami; Gensicke, Henrik (2020)
    Introduction Alterations in haemoglobin levels are frequent in stroke patients. The prognostic meaning of anaemia and polyglobulia on outcomes in patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis is ambiguous. Patients and methods In this prospective multicentre, intravenous thrombolysis register-based study, we compared haemoglobin levels on hospital admission with three-month poor outcome (modified Rankin Scale 3-6), mortality and symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage (European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study II-criteria (ECASS-II-criteria)). Haemoglobin level was used as continuous and categorical variable distinguishing anaemia (female: 15.5 g/dl; male: >17 g/dl). Anaemia was subdivided into mild and moderate/severe (female/male:
  • Abdollahi, Anna M.; Virtanen, Heli E. K.; Voutilainen, Sari; Kurl, Sudhir; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Salonen, Jukka T.; Virtanen, Jyrki K. (2019)
    Background: Epidemiologic studies suggest inverse associations between consumption of egg, a major source of dietary cholesterol, and stroke. However, the evidence of the relation remains limited, especially among carriers of apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4), which influences cholesterol metabolism. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate associations of egg and cholesterol intakes with risk of stroke and with the major stroke risk factor, blood pressure, inmiddle-aged and older men from eastern Finland and whether apoE phenotype could modify these associations. Methods: A total of 1950 men aged 42-60 y in 1984-1989 were included at the baseline examinations of the prospective population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. Data on apoE phenotype were available for 1015 men. Dietary intakes were assessed with 4-d food records at baseline and incident stroke events were assessed by record linkage to hospital discharge registries. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to estimate associations with stroke risk. Associations with baseline blood pressure were evaluated with ANCOVA. Results: During the mean +/- SD follow-up of 21.2 +/- 7.2 y, there were 217 incidences of any stroke: 166 of ischemic stroke and 55 of hemorrhagic stroke. Comparing the highest egg intake quartile with the lowest, the multivariable-adjusted HRs were 0.81 for total stroke (95% CI: 0.54, 1.23; P-trend = 0.32), 0.84 for ischemic stroke (95% CI: 0.53, 1.34; P-trend = 0.44), and 0.75 for hemorrhagic stroke (95% CI: 0.32, 1.77; P-trend = 0.40). The respective HRs for the highest cholesterol intake quartile compared with the lowest were 0.86 (95% CI: 0.57, 1.32; P-trend = 0.42), 0.74 (95% CI: 0.46, 1.20; P-trend = 0.32), and 1.10 (95% CI: 0.45, 2.66; P-trend = 0.75). Diastolic blood pressure was 1.6 mm Hg (P-trend = 0.04) lower in the highest egg intake quartile compared with the lowest, but there were no associations with systolic blood pressure or with cholesterol intake. ApoE phenotype (32% had apoE4 phenotype) did not modify the associations. Conclusion: Neither egg nor cholesterol intakes were associated with stroke risk in this cohort, regardless of apoE phenotype. This trial was registered at as NCT03221127.
  • Chaudhry, Shafqat Rasul; Kahlert, Ulf Dietrich; Kinfe, Thomas Mehari; Lamprecht, Alf; Niemelä, Mika; Hänggi, Daniel; Muhammad, Sajjad (2020)
    Background: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a highly complex disease with very high mortality and morbidity. About one-third of SAH patients suffer from systemic infections, predominantly pneumonia, that can contribute to excess mortality after SAH. Immunodepression is probably the most important mechanism leading to infections. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a master regulator of immunodepression, but it is still not clear if systemic IL-10 levels contribute to immunodepression, occurrence of infections and clinical outcome after SAH. Methods: This explorative study included 76 patients with SAH admitted to our neurointensive care unit within 24 h after ictus. A group of 24 patients without any known intracranial pathology were included as controls. Peripheral venous blood was withdrawn on day 1 and day 7 after SAH. Serum was isolated by centrifugation and stored at -80 degrees C until analysis. Serum IL-10 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Patient characteristics, post-SAH complications and clinical outcome at discharge were retrieved from patients' record files. Results: Serum IL-10 levels were significantly higher on day 1 and day 7 in SAH patients compared to controls. Serum IL-10 levels were significantly higher on day 7 in patients who developed any kind of infection, cerebral vasospasm (CVS) or chronic hydrocephalus. Serum IL-10 levels were significantly higher in SAH patients discharged with poor clinical outcome (modified Rankin Scale (mRS) 3-6 or Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) 1-3). Conclusion: Serum IL-10 might be an additional useful parameter along with other biomarkers to predict post-SAH infections.
  • CLOTBUST-ER Trial Investigators; Alexandrov, Andrei V.; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Köhrmann, Martin; Soinne, Lauri; Schellinger, Peter D. (2019)
    Background: Results of our recently published phase III randomized clinical trial of ultrasound-enhanced thrombolysis (sonothrombolysis) using an operator-independent, high frequency ultrasound device revealed heterogeneity of patient recruitment among centers. Methods: We performed a post hoc analysis after excluding subjects that were recruited at centers reporting a decline in the balance of randomization between sonothrombolysis and concurrent endovascular trials. Results: From a total of 676 participants randomized in the CLOTBUST-ER trial we identified 52 patients from 7 centers with perceived equipoise shift in favor of endovascular treatment. Post hoc sensitivity analysis in the intention-to-treat population adjusted for age, National Institutes of Health Scale score at baseline, time from stroke onset to tPA bolus and baseline serum glucose showed a significant (p <0.01) interaction of perceived endovascular equipoise shift on the association between sonothrombolysis and 3 month functional outcome [adjusted common odds ratio (cOR) in centers with perceived endovascular equipoise shift: 0.22, 95% CI 0.06-0.75; p = 0.02; adjusted cOR for centers without endovascular equipoise shift: 1.20, 95% CI 0.89-1.62; p = 0.24)]. After excluding centers with perceived endovascular equipoise shift, patients randomized to sonothrombolysis had higher odds of 3 month functional independence (mRS scores 0-2) compared with patients treated with tPA only (adjusted OR: 1.53; 95% CI 1.01-2.31; p = 0.04). Conclusion: Our experience in CLOTBUST-ER indicates that increasing implementation of endovascular therapies across major academic stroke centers raises significant challenges for clinical trials aiming to test noninterventional or adjuvant reperfusion strategies.
  • EVA-TRISP Investigators; Nordanstig, Annika; Curtze, Sami; Gensicke, Henrik; Lappalainen, Kimmo; Strbian, Daniel; Tatlisumak, Turgut (2021)
    Purpose The Thrombolysis in Ischemic Stroke Patients (TRISP) collaboration was a concerted effort initiated in 2010 with the purpose to address relevant research questions about the effectiveness and safety of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). The collaboration also aims to prospectively collect data on patients undergoing endovascular treatment (EVT) and hence the name of the collaboration was changed from TRISP to EVA-TRISP. The methodology of the former TRISP registry for patients treated with IVT has already been published. This paper focuses on describing the EVT part of the registry. Participants All centres committed to collecting predefined variables on consecutive patients prospectively. We aim for accuracy and completeness of the data and to adapt local databases to investigate novel research questions. Herein, we introduce the methodology of a recently constructed academic investigator-initiated open collaboration EVT registry built as an extension of an existing IVT registry in patients with acute ischaemic stroke (AIS). Findings to date Currently, the EVA-TRISP network includes 20 stroke centres with considerable expertise in EVT and maintenance of high-quality hospital-based registries. Following several successful randomised controlled trials (RCTs), many important clinical questions remain unanswered in the (EVT) field and some of them will unlikely be investigated in future RCTs. Prospective registries with high-quality data on EVT-treated patients may help answering some of these unanswered issues, especially on safety and efficacy of EVT in specific patient subgroups. Future plans This collaborative effort aims at addressing clinically important questions on safety and efficacy of EVT in conditions not covered by RCTs. The TRISP registry generated substantial novel data supporting stroke physicians in their daily decision making considering IVT candidate patients. While providing observational data on EVT in daily clinical practice, our future findings may likewise be hypothesis generating for future research as well as for quality improvement (on EVT). The collaboration welcomes participation of further centres willing to fulfill the commitment and the outlined requirements.
  • Biancari, Fausto; Mariscalco, Giovanni; Mariani, Silvia; Saari, Petri; Satta, Jari; Juvonen, Tatu (2016)
    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) for degenerative aneurysm involving only the descending thoracic aorta (DTAA). Methods: An English-language literature review was performed through PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar to identify any study evaluating the outcomes of TEVAR for DTAA. The main endpoints of this analysis were all-cause 30-day and late postoperative mortality. Secondary outcome measures were procedure success, vascular access complications, paraplegia, stroke, early endoleaks during the index hospitalization, aneurysm-related death, reinterventions, and conversion to open repair. To control for the anticipated heterogeneity among small observational studies, absolute values and means were pooled using random effects models; the results are expressed as pooled proportions, means, or risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Eleven studies reporting on 673 patients (mean age 72.6 years, mean aneurysm diameter 62.9 cm) with DTAA were selected for the analysis. Technical success was reported in 91.0% of patients, and vascular access complications requiring repair were encountered in 9.7% of cases. Pooled overall 30-day, 1-year, 2-year, and 3-year survival rates were 96.0%, 80.3%, 77.3%, and 74.0%, respectively. Five studies compared the results of TEVAR after elective (n=151) and urgent/emergent procedure (n=77); the latter was a predictor of 30-day mortality (17.1% vs 1.8%, RR 3.83, 95% CI 1.18 to 12.40, p=0.025). Paraplegia occurred in 3.2% of patients and was permanent in 1.4% of patients. The stroke rate was 2.7%. Early type I endoleak was observed in 7.3%, type II endoleak in 2.0%, and type III in 1.2% of patients. The mean follow-up of 9 studies was 22.3 months. At 3 years, freedom from reintervention was 90.3%. Death secondary to aneurysm rupture and/or fistula was reported in 3.2% of patients. Conclusion: Current results indicate that TEVAR for DTAA can be performed with rather high technical success, low postoperative morbidity, and good 3-year survival.
  • Wardlaw, Joanna M; Debette, Stephanie; Jokinen, Hanna; De Leeuw, Frank-Erik; Pantoni, Leonardo; Chabriat, Hugues; Staals, Julie; Doubal, Fergus; Rudilosso, Salvatore; Eppinger, Sebastian; Schilling, Sabrina; Ornello, Raffaele; Enzinger, Christian; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Taylor-Rowan, Martin; Lindgren, Arne G. (2021)
    'Covert' cerebral small vessel disease (ccSVD) is common on neuroimaging in persons without overt neurological manifestations, and increases the risk of future stroke, cognitive impairment, dependency, and death. These European Stroke Organisation (ESO) guidelines provide evidence-based recommendations to assist with clinical decisions about management of ccSVD, specifically white matter hyperintensities and lacunes, to prevent adverse clinical outcomes. The guidelines were developed according to ESO standard operating procedures and Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. We prioritised the clinical outcomes of stroke, cognitive decline or dementia, dependency, death, mobility and mood disorders, and interventions of blood pressure lowering, antiplatelet drugs, lipid lowering, lifestyle modifications, glucose lowering and conventional treatments for dementia. We systematically reviewed the literature, assessed the evidence, formulated evidence-based recommendations where feasible, and expert consensus statements. We found little direct evidence, mostly of low quality. We recommend patients with ccSVD and hypertension to have their blood pressure well controlled; lower blood pressure targets may reduce ccSVD progression. We do not recommend antiplatelet drugs such as aspirin in ccSVD. We found little evidence on lipid lowering in ccSVD. Smoking cessation is a health priority. We recommend regular exercise which may benefit cognition, and a healthy diet, good sleep habits, avoiding obesity and stress for general health reasons. In ccSVD, we found no evidence for glucose control in the absence of diabetes or for conventional Alzheimer dementia treatments. Randomised controlled trials with clinical endpoints are a priority for ccSVD.
  • Zheng, Danni; Sato, Shoichiro; Arima, Hisatomi; Heeley, Emma; Delcourt, Candice; Cao, Yongjun; Chalmers, John; Anderson, Craig S.; INTERACT2 Investigators; Scheperjans, Filip; Kaste, Markku (2016)
    Background: The kidney-brain interaction has been a topic of growing interest. Past studies of the effect of kidney function on intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) outcomes have yielded inconsistent findings. Although the second, main phase of the Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage Trial (INTERACT2) suggests the effectiveness of early intensive blood pressure (BP) lowering in improving functional recovery after ICH, the balance of potential benefits and harms of this treatment in those with decreased kidney function remains uncertain. Study Design: Secondary analysis of INTERACT2, which randomly assigned patients with ICH with elevated systolic BP (SBP) to intensive (target SBP <140 mm Hg) or contemporaneous guideline-based (target SBP, 180 mm Hg) BP management. Setting & Participants: 2,823 patients from 144 clinical hospitals in 21 countries. Predictors: Admission estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) of patients were categorized into 3 groups based on the CKD-EPI (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration) creatinine equation: normal or high, mildly decreased, and moderately to severely decreased (>90, 60-90, and Outcomes: The effect of admission eGFR on the primary outcome of death or major disability at 90 days (defined as modified Rankin Scale scores of 3-6) was analyzed using a multivariable logistic regression model. Potential effect modification of intensive BP lowering treatment by admission eGFR was assessed by interaction terms. Results: Of 2,623 included participants, 912 (35%) and 280 (11%) had mildly and moderately/severely decreased eGFRs, respectively. Patients with moderately/severely decreased eGFRs had the greatest risk for death or major disability at 90 days (adjusted OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.28-2.61). Effects of early intensive BP lowering were consistent across different eGFRs (P = 0.5 for homogeneity). Limitations: Generalizability issues arising from a clinical trial population. Conclusions: Decreased eGFR predicts poor outcome in acute ICH. Early intensive BP lowering provides similar treatment effects in patients with ICH with decreased eGFRs. Am J Kidney Dis. 68(1): 94-102. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the National Kidney Foundation, Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.
  • Laakso, H. M.; Hietanen, M.; Melkas, S.; Sibolt, G.; Curtze, S.; Virta, M.; Ylikoski, R.; Pohjasvaara, T.; Kaste, M.; Erkinjuntti, T.; Jokinen, H. (2019)
    Background and purposeImpairment of executive functions (EFs) is a common cognitive symptom post-stroke and affects independence in daily activities. Previous studies have often relied on brief cognitive tests not fully considering the wide spectrum of EF subdomains. A detailed assessment of EFs was used to examine which of the subdomains and tests have the strongest predictive value on post-stroke functional outcome and institutionalization in long-term follow-up. MethodsA subsample of 62 patients from the Helsinki Stroke Aging Memory Study was evaluated with a battery of seven neuropsychological EF tests 3 months post-stroke and compared to 39 healthy control subjects. Functional impairment was evaluated with the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) scale at 3 months, and with the mRS at 15 months post-stroke. Institutionalization was reviewed from the national registers of permanent hospital admissions in up to 21-year follow-up. ResultsThe stroke group performed more poorly than the control group in multiple EF tests. Tests of inhibition, set shifting, initiation, strategy formation and processing speed were associated with the mRS and IADL scale in stroke patients. EF subdomain scores of inhibition, set shifting and processing speed were associated with functional outcome. In addition, inhibition was associated with the risk for earlier institutionalization. ConclusionsExecutive function was strongly associated with post-stroke functional impairment. In follow-up, poor inhibition was related to earlier permanent institutionalization. The results suggest the prognostic value of EF subdomains after stroke.
  • Int Stroke Genetics Consortium; NINDS-SiGN Consortium; Maguire, Jane M.; Bevan, Steve; Stanne, Tara M.; Strbian, Daniel; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Lindgren, Arne (2017)
    Introduction: Genome-wide association studies have identified several novel genetic loci associated with stroke risk, but how genetic factors influence stroke outcome is less studied. The Genetics of Ischaemic Stroke Functional outcome network aims at performing genetic studies of stroke outcome. We here describe the study protocol and methods basis of Genetics of Ischaemic Stroke Functional outcome. Methods: The Genetics of Ischaemic Stroke Functional outcome network has assembled patients from 12 ischaemic stroke projects with genome-wide genotypic and outcome data from the International Stroke Genetics Consortium and the National Institute of Neurological Diseases Stroke Genetics Network initiatives. We have assessed the availability of baseline variables, outcome metrics and time-points for collection of outcome data. Results: We have collected 8831 ischaemic stroke cases with genotypic and outcome data. Modified Rankin score was the outcome metric most readily available. We detected heterogeneity between cohorts for age and initial stroke severity (according to the NIH Stroke Scale), and will take this into account in analyses. We intend to conduct a first phase genome-wide association outcome study on ischaemic stroke cases with data on initial stroke severity and modified Rankin score within 60-190 days. To date, we have assembled 5762 such cases and are currently seeking additional cases meeting these criteria for second phase analyses. Conclusion: Genetics of Ischaemic Stroke Functional outcome is a unique collection of ischaemic stroke cases with detailed genetic and outcome data providing an opportunity for discovery of genetic loci influencing functional outcome. Genetics of Ischaemic Stroke Functional outcome will serve as an exploratory study where the results as well as the methodological observations will provide a basis for future studies on functional outcome. Genetics of Ischaemic Stroke Functional outcome can also be used for candidate gene replication or assessing stroke outcome non-genetic association hypotheses.