Browsing by Subject "subarachnoid hemorrhage"

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  • Takala, Riikka S. K.; Kiviranta, Riku; Olkkola, Klaus T.; Vahlberg, Tero; Laukka, Dan; Kotkansalo, Anna; Rahi, Melissa; Sankinen, Matti; Posti, Jussi; Katila, Ari; Rinne, Jaakko (2017)
    Purpose: The aim was to assess anterior pituitary hormone levels during the acute phase of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and analyze the possible association with the clinical condition and outcome. Material and methods: Forty patients with aSAH whose aneurysm was secured by endovascular coiling were enrolled. Basal secretions of cortisol, testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels were measured up to 14 days after the incident. Results: The main finding was that hypocortisolism was rare whereas testosterone deficiency was common in male patients. Furthermore, various other hormone deviations were frequent and there was wide interindividual variability. We found no association between delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), outcome of the patients or aneurysm location, and hormone abnormalities, while both Hunt & Hess and Fisher grade were associated with low PRL levels. Hunt & Hess 5 was associated with low PRL concentration when compared to grades 1 (OR = 4.81, 95% CI 1.15-20.14, p = 0.03), 3 (OR 7.73, 95% CI 1.33-45.01, p = 0.02), and 4 (OR = 6.86 95% CI 1.28-26.83, p = 0.02). Fisher grade 4 was associated with low PRL concentration when compared to grades 3 (OR 3.37, 95% CI 1.06-10.73, p = 0.03) and 2 (OR 9.71, 95% CI 1.22-77.10, p = 0.04). Conclusion: Deviations from normal and huge interindividual differences are common in hormone levels during the acute phase of aSAH. Routine assessment of anterior pituitary function in the acute phase of aSAH is not warranted. During the follow-up in the outpatient clinic, hormone concentrations were not measured, which would have brought a more long-term perspective into our findings.
  • Salaja, Lauri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Aneurysmaattinen subaraknoidaalivuoto on hengenvaarallinen välitöntä sairaalahoitoa vaativa sairaus, joka johtuu puhjenneesta aivovaltimosta. Aneurysmaattisen vuodon oleellisimmat riskitekijät ovat tupakointi, kohonnut verenpaine ja sukualtistus. Aneurysmaattiseen SAV:n liittyy useita komplikaatioita: uusintavuoto, aivovaltimospasmi ja likvorkierron häiriö eli hydrokefalus. Hydrokefalus voi kehittyä akuutisti ja sitä voi pitää kroonisena, jos se kestää yli kaksi viikkoa. Hydrokefalusta voidaan akuutisti hoitaa väliaikaisella ulkoisella likvordreneerauksella, joita ovat ventrikulostooma ja lumbaalinen spinaalidreeni. Osalla potilaista hydrokefalus vaatii pysyvän likvordreneerauksen eli sunttihoidon, jos likvorkierron häiriö ei hoidosta huolimatta helpota. Helsingissä on perinteisesti luotettu tutkimustuloksiin, joissa SAV:n akuutissa vaiheessa väliaikaisten dreenien kautta likvoria poistamalla vähennetään pysyvän suntin tarvetta. Sunttihoidettujen SAV-potilaiden vointi ja elämänlaatu ovat huonompia kuin ilman sunttia pärjäävien, joten suntin välttämisellä voidaan vaikuttaa potilaan vointiin. Tromssassa on perinteisesti ajateltu varhaisen suntin asentamisen edesauttavan nopeampaa toipumisen ja kuntoutumisen alkamista, ja hoitojakson pituus ja kustannukset yliopistosairaalassa vähenevät. Pysyvän suntin tarvitsevien SAV-potilaiden tunnistaminen ja oikea-aikainen suntin asentaminen on haastavaa. Selkeää näyttöön perustuvaa hoitoprotokollaa ei ole olemassa. Tässä tutkimuksessa tarkasteltiin retrospektiivisesti Helsingin ja Tromssan yhteensä 608 aSAV-potilaan aineistoa aikavälillä 1/2013–6/2018. Helsingin ja Tromssan toisistaan poikkeavat hoitokäytänteet SAV-potilaiden hydrokefalusten hoidossa loivat otollisen tutkimusasetelman sunttihoidon oikea-aikaisuuden ja aiempaan kokemukseen perustuvien käytäntöjen tarkastelun. Helsingissä pysyvä suntti asennettiin 500 potilaasta 130:lle (26 %), Tromssassa 108 potilaasta 50:lle (46 %). Kun Helsingin ja Tromssan potilaisiin käytettiin vastaavuuspistemääriin perustuvaa kaltaistusta (propensity score matching, PSM), voitiin osoittaa, ettei pysyvän suntin laitossa ollut kaupunkien välillä eroa. Primaari hoitojakso yliopistosairaalassa oli Helsingissä merkitsevästi pidempi ja sunttiin liittyviä korjausleikkauksia tehtiin Helsingissä enemmän. Väliaikaisen dreenin käyttö nosti riskiä pysyvän suntin laitolle yli kaksinkertaiseksi. Näyttöön perustuvien hoitoprotokollien luomista varten tarvitaan vielä prospektiivista randomisoitua tutkimusta vahvistamaan tekemämme löydökset.
  • Chaudhry, Shafqat Rasul; Kahlert, Ulf Dietrich; Kinfe, Thomas Mehari; Lamprecht, Alf; Niemelä, Mika; Hänggi, Daniel; Muhammad, Sajjad (2020)
    Background: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a highly complex disease with very high mortality and morbidity. About one-third of SAH patients suffer from systemic infections, predominantly pneumonia, that can contribute to excess mortality after SAH. Immunodepression is probably the most important mechanism leading to infections. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a master regulator of immunodepression, but it is still not clear if systemic IL-10 levels contribute to immunodepression, occurrence of infections and clinical outcome after SAH. Methods: This explorative study included 76 patients with SAH admitted to our neurointensive care unit within 24 h after ictus. A group of 24 patients without any known intracranial pathology were included as controls. Peripheral venous blood was withdrawn on day 1 and day 7 after SAH. Serum was isolated by centrifugation and stored at -80 degrees C until analysis. Serum IL-10 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Patient characteristics, post-SAH complications and clinical outcome at discharge were retrieved from patients' record files. Results: Serum IL-10 levels were significantly higher on day 1 and day 7 in SAH patients compared to controls. Serum IL-10 levels were significantly higher on day 7 in patients who developed any kind of infection, cerebral vasospasm (CVS) or chronic hydrocephalus. Serum IL-10 levels were significantly higher in SAH patients discharged with poor clinical outcome (modified Rankin Scale (mRS) 3-6 or Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) 1-3). Conclusion: Serum IL-10 might be an additional useful parameter along with other biomarkers to predict post-SAH infections.
  • Juvela, Seppo; Poussa, Kristiina; Lehto, Hanna; Porras, Matti (2013)
  • Rautalin, Ilari; Kaprio, Jaakko; Ingebrigtsen, Tor; Jousilahti, Pekka; Lochen, Maja-Lisa; Romundstad, Pal Richard; Salomaa, Veikko; Vik, Anne; Wilsgaard, Tom; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B.; Sandvei, Marie; Korja, Miikka (2022)
    Background: Several population-based cohort studies have related higher body mass index (BMI) to a decreased risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The main objective of our study was to investigate whether the previously reported inverse association can be explained by modifying effects of the most important risk factors of SAH-smoking and hypertension. Methods: We conducted a collaborative study of three prospective population-based Nordic cohorts by combining comprehensive baseline data from 211 972 adult participants collected between 1972 and 2012, with follow-up until the end of 2018. Primarily, we compared the risk of SAH between three BMI categories: (1) low (BMI= 30) BMI and evaluated the modifying effects of smoking and hypertension on the associations. Results: We identified 831 SAH events (mean age 62 years, 55% women) during the total follow-up of 4.7 million person-years. Compared with the moderate BMI category, persons with low BMI had an elevated risk for SAH (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.30 [1.09-1.55]), whereas no significant risk difference was found in high BMI category (HR, 0.91 [0.73-1.13]). However, we only found the increased risk of low BMI in smokers (HR, 1.49 [1.19-1.88]) and in hypertensive men (HR, 1.72 [1.18-2.50]), but not in nonsmokers (HR, 1.02 [0.76-1.37]) or in men with normal blood pressure values (HR, 0.98 [0.63-1.54]; interaction HRs, 1.68 [1.18-2.41], P=0.004 between low BMI and smoking and 1.76 [0.98-3.13], P=0.06 between low BMI and hypertension in men). Conclusions: Smoking and hypertension appear to explain, at least partly, the previously reported inverse association between BMI and the risk of SAH. Therefore, the independent role of BMI in the risk of SAH is likely modest.
  • Juvela, Seppo (2021)
    The purpose was to study the risk of rupture of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) of patients with multiple intracranial aneurysms after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), in a long-term follow-up study, from variables known at baseline. Future rupture risk was compared in relation to outcome after SAH. The series consists of 131 patients with 166 UIAs and 2854 person-years of follow-up between diagnosis of UIA and its rupture, death or the last follow-up contact. These were diagnosed before 1979, when UIAs were not treated in our country. Those patients with a moderate or severe disability after SAH, according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale, had lower rupture rates of UIA than those with a good recovery or minimal disability (4/37 or 11%, annual UIA rupture rate of 0.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.1-1.3%) during 769 follow-up years vs. 27/94 or 29%, 1.3% (95% CI 0.9-1.9%) during 2085 years). Those with a moderate or severe disability differed from others by their older age. Those with a moderate or severe disability tended to have a decreased cumulative rate of aneurysm rupture (log rank test, p = 0.066) and lower relative risk of UIA rupture (hazard ratio 0.39, 95% CI 0.14-1.11, p = 0.077). Multivariable hazard ratios showed at least similar results, suggesting that confounding factors did not have a significant effect on the results. The results of this study without treatment selection of UIAs suggest that patients with a moderate or severe disability after SAH have a relatively low risk of rupture of UIAs. Their lower treatment indication may also be supported by their known higher treatment risks.
  • Chaudhry, Shafqat Rasul; Hafez, Ahmad; Rezai Jahromi, Behnam; Kinfe, Thomas Mehari; Lamprecht, Alf; Niemelä, Mika; Muhammad, Sajjad (2018)
    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) represents only a small portion of all strokes, but accounts for almost half of the deaths caused by stroke worldwide. Neurosurgical clipping and endovascular coiling can successfully obliterate the bleeding aneurysms, but ensuing complications such as cerebral vasospasm, acute and chronic hydrocephalus, seizures, cortical spreading depression, delayed ischemic neurological deficits, and delayed cerebral ischemia lead to poor clinical outcomes. The mechanisms leading to these complications are complex and poorly understood. Early brain injury resulting from transient global ischemia can release molecules that may be critical to initiate and sustain inflammatory response. Hence, the events during early brain injury can influence the occurrence of delayed brain injury. Since the damage associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) might be the initiators of inflammation in the pathophysiology of aSAH, so the aim of this review is to highlight their role in the context of aSAH from diagnostic, prognostic, therapeutic, and drug therapy monitoring perspectives. DAMPs represent a diverse and a heterogenous group of molecules derived from different compartments of cells upon injury. Here, we have reviewed the most important DAMPs molecules including high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), S100B, hemoglobin and its derivatives, extracellular matrix components, IL-1α, IL-33, and mitochondrial DNA in the context of aSAH and their role in post-aSAH complications and clinical outcome after aSAH.
  • Juvela, Seppo (2020)
    The purpose was to obtain a reliable scoring for growth of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) in a long-term follow-up study from variables known at baseline and to compare it with the ELAPSS (Earlier subarachnoid hemorrhage, Location of the aneurysm, Age > 60 years, Population, Size of the aneurysm, and Shape of the aneurysm) score obtained from an individual-based meta-analysis. The series consists of 87 patients with 111 UIAs and 1669 person-years of follow-up between aneurysm size measurements (median follow-up time per patient 21.7, range 1.2 to 51.0 years). These were initially diagnosed between 1956 and 1978, when UIAs were not treated in our country. ELAPSS scores at baseline did not differ between those with and those without aneurysm growth. The area under the curve (AUC) for the receiver operating curve (ROC) of the ELAPSS score for predicting long-term growth was fail (0.474, 95% CI 0.345-0.603), and the optimal cut-off point was obtained at >= 7 vs. = 4 vs.
  • Zuurbier, Charlotte C.M.; Molenberg, Rob; Mensing, Liselore A.; Wermer, Marieke J.H.; Juvela, Seppo; Lindgren, Antti E.; Jääskeläinen, Juha E.; Koivisto, Timo; Yamazaki, Tomosato; Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; van Dijk, J. Marc C.; Aalbers, Marlien W.; Morita, Akio; Tominari, Shinjiro; Arai, Hajime; Nozaki, Kazuhiko; Murayama, Yuichi; Ishibashi, Toshihiro; Takao, Hiroyuki; Gondar, Renato; Bijlenga, Philippe; Rinkel, Gabriel J.E.; Greving, Jacoba P.; Ruigrok, Ynte M. (2022)
    Background and Purpose: In previous studies, women had a higher risk of rupture of intracranial aneurysms than men, but female sex was not an independent risk factor. This may be explained by a higher prevalence of patient- or aneurysm-related risk factors for rupture in women than in men or by insufficient power of previous studies. We assessed sex differences in rupture rate taking into account other patient- and aneurysm-related risk factors for aneurysmal rupture. Methods: We searched Embase and Pubmed for articles published until December 1, 2020. Cohorts with available individual patient data were included in our meta-analysis. We compared rupture rates of women versus men using a Cox proportional hazard regression model adjusted for the PHASES score (Population, Hypertension, Age, Size of Aneurysm, Earlier Subarachnoid Hemorrhage From Another Aneurysm, Site of Aneurysm), smoking, and a positive family history of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Results: We pooled individual patient data from 9 cohorts totaling 9940 patients (6555 women, 66%) with 12 193 unruptured intracranial aneurysms, and 24 357 person-years follow-up. Rupture occurred in 163 women (rupture rate 1.04%/person-years [95% CI, 0.89-1.21]) and 63 men (rupture rate 0.74%/person-years [95% CI, 0.58-0.94]). Women were older (61.9 versus 59.5 years), were less often smokers (20% versus 44%), more often had internal carotid artery aneurysms (24% versus 17%), and larger sized aneurysms (>= 7 mm, 24% versus 23%) than men. The unadjusted women-to-men hazard ratio was 1.43 (95% CI, 1.07-1.93) and the adjusted women/men ratio was 1.39 (95% CI, 1.02-1.90). Conclusions: Women have a higher risk of aneurysmal rupture than men and this sex difference is not explained by differences in patient- and aneurysm-related risk factors for aneurysmal rupture. Future studies should focus on the factors explaining the higher risk of aneurysmal rupture in women.
  • Rautalin, Ilari; Korja, Miikka; Kaprio, Jaakko (2020)
    Background and Purpose: One of the largest twin studies to date suggested that subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is mainly of nongenetic origin, but the causal effect of environmental factors on SAH is yet unknown. We hypothesized that if only one of the twins experience fatal SAH, they do not share the most important environmental risk factor for SAH, namely smoking. If true, such finding would suggest that smoking causes SAH. Methods: Through the nationwide cause-of-death register, we followed 16 282 same-sex twin pairs of Finnish origin from the older Finnish Twin Cohort between 1976 and 2018 and identified all participants who died from SAH. For the baseline, we collected risk factor information about smoking, hypertension, physical activity, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and education. We classified the pairs as monozygotic, dizygotic, or of unknown zygosity. We examined the within-pair risk factor differences in the pairs discordant for SAH, that is, where one twin died from SAH and the other did not. We computed both individual (whole cohort) and pairwise (discordant pair) hazard ratios and 95% CIs. Results: During the 869 469 person-years of follow-up, we identified 116 discordant and 2 concordant (both died from SAH) twin pairs for fatal SAH. Overall, 25 of the discordant twin pairs were monozygotic. For the whole cohort, smoking (occasional/current) was associated with increased risk of SAH death (hazard ratio, 3.33 [CI, 2.24-4.95]) as compared with nonsmokers (never/former). In the pairwise analyses for discordant twin pairs, we found that the twin who smoked had an increased risk of fatal SAH (hazard ratio, 6.33 [CI, 1.87-21.4]) as compared with the nonsmoking twin. The association remained consistent regardless of the twin pairs' zygosity or sex. Conclusions: Our results provide strong evidence for a causal, rather than associative, role of smoking in SAH.
  • Achrén, Alexander; Raj, Rahul; Siironen, Jari; Laakso, Aki; Marjamaa, Johan (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Background: Spontaneous angiogram negative subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is considered a benign illness with little of the aneurysmal SAH-related complications. We describe the clinical course, SAH-related complications and outcome of patients with angiogram negative SAH. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all adult patients admitted to a neurosurgical intensive care unit during 2004–2018 due to spontaneous angiogram negative SAH. Our primary outcome was a dichotomized Glasgow Outcome Scale at three months. We assessed factors that associated with outcome using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results: Of included 108 patients, 84% had a favorable outcome and mortality was 5% within oneyear. Median age was 58 years, 51% were female, and 93% had a low grade SAH (World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grading I-III). The median number of angiograms performed per patient was two. Thirty per cent of patients showed radiological signs of acute hydrocephalus, 28% were acutely treated with an external ventricular drain, 13% received active vasospasm treatment and 17% received a permanent shunt. In the multivariable logistic regression model, only acute hydrocephalus associated with unfavorable outcome (odds ratio 4.05, 95% confidence interval 1.05–15.73). Two patients had a new bleeding episode. One of those patients had already suffered a spontaneous angiogram negative SAH prior to the current hospitalization. Conclusion: SAH-related complications such as hydrocephalus and vasospasm are common after angiogram negative SAH. Still, most patients had a favorable outcome. Only acute hydrocephalus was associated with unfavorable outcome. Our findings stress the importance of specialized neurointensive care for these patients.
  • Hallikainen, Joona; Pyysalo, Mikko; Keränen, Sara; Kellokoski, Jari; Koivisto, Timo; Suominen, Anna Liisa; Pussinen, Pirkko; Pessi, Tanja; Frosen, Juhana (2021)
    Background and purpose Periodontal infections are associated with the formation and rupture of intracranial aneurysms (IAs). This study investigated the role of two key periodontal pathogens, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Methods Immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG antibodies against P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were measured with enzyme immune assay from the serum of 227 IA patients, of whom 64 also underwent clinical oral examination. As a control group, 1096 participants in a cross-sectional health survey, Health 2000, underwent serological studies and oral examination. Logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. Immunohistochemistry was performed to demonstrate bacteria-derived epitopes in the IA wall. Results Widespread gingivitis and severe periodontitis were more common in IA patients than in controls (2x and 1.5x, respectively). IgA antibodies against P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were 1.5x and 3-3.4x higher, respectively, in both unruptured and ruptured IA patients compared to controls (p
  • Muhammad, Sajjad; Chaudhry, Shafqat Rasul; Kahlert, Ulf Dietrich; Lehecka, Martin; Korja, Miikka; Niemelä, Mika; Hänggi, Daniel (2020)
    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a complex and potentially deadly disease. Neurosurgical clipping or endovascular coiling can successfully obliterate ruptured aneurysms in almost every case. However, despite successful interventions, the clinical outcomes of aSAH patients are often poor. The reasons for poor outcomes are numerous, including cerebral vasospasm (CVS), post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus, systemic infections and delayed cerebral ischemia. Although CVS with subsequent cerebral ischemia is one of the main contributors to brain damage after aSAH, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms of brain damage. This review emphasizes the importance of pharmacological interventions targeting high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1)-mediated brain damage after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and CVS. We searched Pubmed, Ovid medline and Scopus for "subarachnoid hemorrhage" in combination with "HMGB1". Based on these criteria, a total of 31 articles were retrieved. After excluding duplicates and selecting the relevant references from the retrieved articles, eight publications were selected for the review of the pharmacological interventions targeting HMGB1 in SAH. Damaged central nervous system cells release damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) that are important for initiating, driving and sustaining the inflammatory response following an aSAH. The discussed evidence suggested that HMGB1, an important DAMP, contributes to brain damage during early brain injury and also to the development of CVS during the late phase. Different pharmacological interventions employing natural compounds with HMGB1-antagonizing activity, antibody targeting of HMGB1 or scavenging HMGB1 by soluble receptors for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE), have been shown to dampen the inflammation mediated brain damage and protect against CVS. The experimental data suggest that HMGB1 inhibition is a promising strategy to reduce aSAH-related brain damage and CVS. Clinical studies are needed to validate these findings that may lead to the development of potential treatment options that are much needed in aSAH.
  • Schenck, Hanna; Netti, Eliisa; Teernstra, Onno; De Ridder, Inger; Dings, Jim; Niemelae, Mika; Temel, Yasin; Hoogland, Govert; Haeren, Roel (2021)
    The glycocalyx is an important constituent of blood vessels located between the bloodstream and the endothelium. It plays a pivotal role in intercellular interactions in neuroinflammation, reduction of vascular oxidative stress, and provides a barrier regulating vascular permeability. In the brain, the glycocalyx is closely related to functions of the blood-brain barrier and neurovascular unit, both responsible for adequate neurovascular responses to potential threats to cerebral homeostasis. An aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) occurs following rupture of an intracranial aneurysm and leads to immediate brain damage (early brain injury). In some cases, this can result in secondary brain damage, also known as delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). DCI is a life-threatening condition that affects up to 30% of all aSAH patients. As such, it is associated with substantial societal and healthcare-related costs. Causes of DCI are multifactorial and thought to involve neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, thrombosis, and neurovascular uncoupling. To date, prediction of DCI is limited, and preventive and effective treatment strategies of DCI are scarce. There is increasing evidence that the glycocalyx is disrupted following an aSAH, and that glycocalyx disruption could precipitate or aggravate DCI. This review explores the potential role of the glycocalyx in the pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to DCI following aSAH. Understanding the role of the glycocalyx in DCI could advance the development of improved methods to predict DCI or identify patients at risk for DCI. This knowledge may also alter the methods and timing of preventive and treatment strategies of DCI. To this end, we review the potential and limitations of methods currently used to evaluate the glycocalyx, and strategies to restore or prevent glycocalyx shedding.
  • Juvela, Seppo (2019)
    Background and Purpose- The purpose was to obtain a reliable treatment score for unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) from variables known at baseline. Methods- The series included 142 patients with UIAs diagnosed between 1956 and 1978 when UIAs were not treated and were followed up until the first aneurysm rupture, death, or the last contact. Previously published UIA treatment score was recorded, and finally, a new treatment score was constructed. Results- The median follow-up time was 21.0 years (interquartile range, 10.4-31.8 years). A total of 34 patients had an aneurysm rupture during 3064 person-years of follow-up. The UIA treatment score differed slightly between those with and without an aneurysm rupture (9.4 +/- 2.8 versus 8.3 +/- 3.1, P=0.082). The receiver operating characteristics curve of the UIA treatment score for predicting rupture showed a modest area under the curve (AUC; 0.618, 95% CI, 0.502-0.733; P=0.059). The best new treatment score consisted of 4 variables: age = 7 mm (3 points), and location (anterior communicating artery, 5 points; internal carotid bifurcation, 4 points; and posterior communicating artery, 2 points). Scores of 5 to 12 points were associated with high cumulative UIA rupture rates (16%-60% at 10 years and 49%-80% at 30 years), favoring UIA treatment. Scores of 1 to 4 points (3% at 10 years and 18% at 30 years) favored conservative treatment and needed additional indications for treatment. Patients with a score of 0 points should not be treated (no ruptures during 513 follow-up years). The area under the curve for this scoring was 0.755 (95% CI, 0.657-0.853; P
  • Muhammad, Sajjad; Chaudhry, Shafqat Rasul; Dobreva, Gergana; Lawton, Michael T.; Niemelä, Mika; Hänggi, Daniel (2021)
    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a highly fatal and morbid type of hemorrhagic strokes. Intracranial aneurysms (ICAs) rupture cause subarachnoid hemorrhage. ICAs formation, growth and rupture involves cellular and molecular inflammation. Macrophages orchestrate inflammation in the wall of ICAs. Macrophages generally polarize either into classical inflammatory (M1) or alternatively-activated anti-inflammatory (M2)-phenotype. Macrophage infiltration and polarization toward M1-phenotype increases the risk of aneurysm rupture. Strategies that deplete, inhibit infiltration, ameliorate macrophage inflammation or polarize to M2-type protect against ICAs rupture. However, clinical translational data is still lacking. This review summarizes the contribution of macrophage led inflammation in the aneurysm wall and discuss pharmacological strategies to modulate the macrophageal response during ICAs formation and rupture.