Browsing by Subject "sukupuolen moninaisuus"

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  • Korhonen, Iiris (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Objectives. The aim of this study is to describe, what kind of understanding students have about gender and its diversity. I am interested in how student teachers talk about gender. In addition, I examine what student teachers think about how well student education has prepared them for facing gender diversity in school. Previous studies have shown that heteronormativity and gendered practices are common in school. This leads to discrimination of gender minorities. According to the research, the situation for gender minorities would improve if teachers had more information about gender diversity. However, teacher education hardly includes any gender issues in their curriculums. Methods. This study is a qualitative study with a dialogical approach. The data was collected mainly using focus groups. There were two groups and in total four student teachers. Both groups had an hour to discuss about gender issues. The data was transcribed and it was analyzed by content analysis and dialogical analysis of multivoicedness. Questionnaire was used as an additional data. It was sent to all student teachers in the University of Helsinki. 29 replies were received to the questionnaire. Results and conclusions. Three main understandings emerged from discussions: Gender is a complex phenomenon, school is a gendered environment in which gender roles and expectations are common, Finland is lagging behind in gender related issues. Gendered practices were recognized by students. In conceptions that emerged from the survey data, gender was seen also as two-parted. Most of the students felt like gender diversity is not being discussed enough in teacher education. Gender related content is discussed only in a few courses. Students also felt that dealing with gender related issues is up to the students themselves.
  • Talvitie, Daniel (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tässä pro gradu -tutkielmassa analysoidaan Matteuksen evankeliumissa (Matt.19:12) mainittuja eunukkeja queer-teoreettisesta viitekehyksestä käsin. Tutkimusmateriaalin avulla pyritään muodostamaan näkemys siitä, millaiseksi jakeessa mainittujen eunukkien sukupuoli tulkittiin siinä kontekstissa, jossa Matteuksen evankeliumi on tuotettu kirjalliseen muotoonsa. Tutkielman tarkoituksena on ottaa kantaa myös siihen, millaisena näiden eunukkien sukupuoli on mahdollista tulkita tänä päivänä. Teologisesta näkökulmasta se ottaa kantaa sukupuolen moninaisuuteen nykypäivän kristillisessä kontekstissa. Tutkimuskysymyksiä tarkastellaan niiden kulttuurien näkökulmasta, joiden vaikutusta Matteuksen evankeliumin kirjoittajaan voidaan pitää merkittävimpinä. Näitä ovat varhainen juutalaisuus, antiikin kreikkalainen kulttuuri sekä antiikin Rooman kulttuuri. Lisäksi tutkielmassa käydään läpi jakeen varhaisinta kristillistä tulkintahistoriaa. Queer-teoreettisesta viitekehyksestä käsin tarkasteltuna eunukkien sukupuoli näyttäytyy lähdetekstien kuvauksissa ambivalenttina, normeja rikkovana ja binääriset sukupuolikategoriat kyseenalaistavana. He eivät näytä mahtuneen sen enempää naisen kuin miehenkään määritelmään. Näin heitä voidaan perustellusti luonnehtia termillä ”queer”. Myös antiikissa vallinneet käsitykset sukupuolesta paljastuvat lähdeaineiston perusteella oletettua moninaisemmiksi ja muuntuvammiksi. Kulttuuriin sidonnaisina antiikin sukupuolirakennelmat erosivat merkittävästi muun muassa länsimaisessa kulttuurissa yhä tänä päivänä vallalla olevasta dikotomisesta, heteronormatiivisesta binääristä sukupuolijärjestelmästä. Antiikin kulttuureissa eunukit näyttäytyivät kummajaisina, joiden sukupuoli edusti jonkinlaista kolmatta kategoriaa. Etenkin Roomalaisessa kontekstissa he edustivat runsaslukuisena vähemmistönä eksoottista, mutta yhteisön sisällä olevaa toiseutta. Heitä halveksittiin ja säälittiin, mutta heidän olemassaoloaan ei kyseenalaistettu. Tällaisina hahmoina eunukit olivat osa Matteuksen evankeliumissa kuvattua taivasten valtakuntaa, jossa väheksytyt ja parjatut saavat viimein ansaitsemansa arvon. Mallina näille eunukeille toimivat erityisesti Kybelen kulttiin kuuluneet gallit, jotka kastroivat itsensä vapaaehtoisesti uskonnollisista syistä.
  • Jern, Virpi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tiedekunta - Fakultet - Faculty Educational Sciences Laitos - Institution - Department Teacher Education Tekijä - Författare - Author Virpi Jern Työn nimi - Arbetets titel Title Qualitative attitude study of PE teachers gender awareness Oppiaine - Läroämne - Subject Educational Sciences Työn laji/ Ohjaaja - Arbetets art/Handledare - Level/Instructor Master’s Thesis / Liisa Tainio Aika - Datum - Month and year 06/2020 Sivumäärä - Sidoantal - Number of pages 104 pp.+ 1 appendices Tiivistelmä - Referat – Abstract Aim In 2015 in Finland was released new equality law. First time in the history of the legislation of a gender equality discrimination based on gender identity and/or expression of sex was mentioned in the law. The changes in law were also considered in the national curriculum of comprehensive school (POPS 2014) and upper secondary school (LOPS 2015). Despite that fact both gender and sexual minorities experience discrimination at school environment even now (Lehto 2010; Kankkunen, Harinen, Nivala & Tapio 2010). Especially bad situation has revealed in PE lessons where reproduction of heteronormativity is according to previous research no exception (Berg & Lahelma 2010; Huotari, Törmä & Tuokkolan 2011; Alanko 2014; Kokkonen 2017). According to Syrjäläinen and Kujala (2010) situation is mainly caused by a result of gender neutrality of teacher education and lacking knowledge of gender awareness. For those reasons mentioned above, this study examines mainly gender awareness of Finnish PE teachers, but also PE teachers attitudes towards gender and sexual diversity. Method This study is a feminist educational research. The data was collected by interviewing eight qualified PE teachers. The teachers took a stand on 25 claims acceded to the research theme. The data was analyzed by using discourse analysis. A discourse analysis was con-ducted, based on the interviewer’s questions and comments and the interviewees’ responses and possible counter-questions. Particular interest was directed towards linguistic regularities relating to norms and ideas about gender and sexuality. Results As a result of the study it was revealed that PE teachers’ knowledge and percep-tions of gender and sexual diversity were updated. PE teachers’ attitudes towards gender and sexual minorities were highly positive. Teachers also appreciated and valued equality as a desirable status. A discourse analysis was conducted that PE teacher speech mainly took into account the diversity but in some interviewees’, responses were interpreted as heter-onormative. PE teachers gender awareness in this study was better to prior research but full equality of students has not been achieved yet. in PE lessons. Therefore, teacher training should include more opportunities to discuss about the strategies and practices to take the diversity better account in teaching PE. Avainsanat - Nyckelord Keywords Physical Education, gender awareness, gender diversity, sexual diversity, Säilytyspaikka - Förvaringsställe - Where deposited City Centre Campus Library, Helda/E-thesis Muita tietoja - Övriga uppgifter - Additional information
  • Vartiainen, Essi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Objectives. The purpose of this research was to describe the conceptions of 34 kindergarten teachers' of gender diversity and gender sensitive education. My own observations and previous research show that the everyday practices of early childhood education are gendered. The new National Core Curriculum for Early Childhood Education and Care (2016) defines early childhood education as gender sensitive education, which is why the subject is topical in the field of education right now. Another purpose of this research was to increase the general knowledge of gender diversity and gender sensitive education and to help making early childhood education more equal for all children. The research questions of this thesis were: 1. What kind of conceptions do kindergarten teachers have of gender diversity? 2. What kind of conceptions do kindergarten teachers have of gender sensitive education? Methods. The research was a qualitative study based on the written answers collected from 34 kindergarten teachers. The data collection method was online survey and data analysis method used was phenomenographical analysis. Results and conclusions. The main result of the research suggested that the interviewed kindergarten teachers held two different conceptions of gender diversity which seemed to affect their conceptions of gender sensitive education. Gender diversity was understood either as two different biological sexes or as more diverse including also non-binary identities. In this research, the conceptions of kindergarten teachers' of gender sensitive education were divided into three categories of description. The conceptions were shown in phenomenographical categories of description, which were A) conception that opposed gender sensitive education, B) conception that saw gender sensitive education through gender binary and C) conception that understood gender sensitive education through gender diversity. Based on categories B and C teachers found gender sensitive education a meaningful part of early childhood education.
  • Salo, Lyydia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Objectives. Previous research shows that gender variant children and youth experience more challenges in their growing environments like family, peer relationships and school. In this study the construction of gender identity is understood to be a staged process where social environment can either support or block the construction of diverse gender identity. The mission of this study was to examine the staged construction of gender identity of five gender variant persons in their growing environments of childhood and youth. The aim of this study is to support and expand previous knowledge and to produce more information about the construction of variant identities and the factors that have an influence on them. Methods. Five gender minority representatives between the age of 25–38 years took part in this study. The empirical part of the study is highlighted by the qualitative and narrative methods. The data was collected by semi-structured theme interview that included both open and specific questions about the selected themes. The analysis of the data was carried out by narrative analysis about the storylines of the interviews. Results and conclusions. The narrative construction of the gender identity of the subjects consisted of seven stages: 1. the stage of carefree gender, 2. the stage of gendering, 3. the stage of learned role, 4. the stage of adversity and coping mechanisms, 5. the stage of testing the boundaries, 6. the stage of questioning gender, and 7. the stage of finding and fulfilling gender. The meaning of growing environments of childhood and youth, family, peers and school, were emphasized differently as enabler and challenger of the identity in different stages. The meaning of family was emphasized especially in the stages 1, 6 and 7 and the meaning of peers was emphasized especially in the stages 1-5. School strengthened the challenges of the identity process particularly in the stages 2 and 4. Children and youth compare themselves, experience pressures and difference but also the experience of approval especially in the context of peers. Therefore, we should try to affect the attitudes about gender diversity of the peers by education.
  • Hyle, Aino (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The aim of this master’s thesis was to focus into the discoursive significances of gender and its diversity produced in interviews of four teacher students. This master’s thesis is a part of the national SetSTOP-project (2018-2019). The aim of the project was to recognize the problems linked to equality on the field of teacher education. Definitions of gender and its representations of Judith Butler and Teresa de Lauretis have affected this master’s thesis and its discoursive analysis. I interviewed four teacher students in the end of their studies in this research. As a method, I used theme focused interview attached to stimulative interview. I analyzed the inteviews data with discoursive analysis with the concept’s of representation, paranoid and reparative reading as well as nomadic research. Gender and its variety were signified in my research most of all as change of the world and the future. The skills of handling the variety of gender in the profession of a teacher were represented as poor in my research material. The students longed for a wider understanding of the themes of gender and its variety. In this master’s thesis, I have named discoursive significances linked to the gender that I have discovered from my research material. I have evaluated how they returned to the context of school and teacher education and how the contexts affected the discourses. The results of this study can be utilized in the further re-search and development of equality work.
  • Kotiharju, Emilia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Objectives. The National Core Curriculum for Basic Education 2014 obliges teachers to implement a gender-aware approach in their teaching. An integral component of gender-aware teaching is recognizing gender and sexual diversity, as well as questioning gendernormativity and heteronormativity in education and learning materials. This study examines the ways in which elementary school teachers can recognize and acknowledge gender and sexual diversity in education and investigates the experiences teachers have had of discussing issues of gender and sexual diversity in elementary education. The purpose of this study is to identify ways and possibilities of gender-aware teaching in elementary education. Methods The research approach of this study was qualitative. The material was collected with an online questionnaire made up of open-ended questions The research material consisted of answers from twenty primary school teachers who were of different ages, had varying amounts of work experience, and worked in several different cities and schools. The analysis method used was material-driven content analysis. Results and conclusions. By performing content analysis on the material, I developed five categories, which represent ways of recognizing and acknowledging gender and sexual diversity in education. These categories were the following: to have a positive attitude towards diversity, to intervene on homophobic name-calling, to avoid separating students by gender, to have critical conversations about gender and sexual norms, and to offer diverse models of identity. The results offer teacher’s information on how to recognize and acknowledge gender and sexual diversity in education and point out some issues that should be taken into consideration when dealing with these topics.
  • Haikonen, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tutkielman tavoitteena oli selvittää, kuinka peruskoulussa on onnistuttu tukemaan translapsia ja -nuoria sekä tuomaan näkyviin niitä tapoja, joilla peruskoulussa voidaan tukea myös jatkossa heitä. Tranlasten ja -nuorten vanhemmat ovat kokeneet tarvetta saada opettajille ajantasaista tietoa translasten ja -nuorten huomioimisesta peruskoulussa ja siitä, kuinka translapsia ja -nuoria voitaisiin tukea koulussa parhaalla mahdollisella tavalla. Tutkielman kirjoitushetkellä ei ole olemassa valtakunnallisia suosituksia tai virallista ohjeistusta kouluihin trans-lasten ja -nuorten koulupolun tukemisesta konkreettisin keinoin. Tutkielmaani varten pyysin translasten ja -nuorten vanhempia vastaamaan sähköiseen kyselylomakkeeseen, kuinka peruskoulussa on tuettu heidän lapsiaan ja nuoriaan. Kyselyyn vastasi 23 vanhempaa. Yksi vastauksista oli asiaton. Hyödyntämistäni 22 vastauksesta kahdeksan vastaajan nuori oli yläkouluikäinen ja 14 vastaajan lapsi oli alakoulussa. Tarkastelen tutkielmani tuloksia Foucault’n (1975) vallananalyysin kautta sekä cis- ja hete-ronormatiivisuuden vaikutuksia translasten ja -nuorten vanhempien kokemuksiin koulun antamasta tuesta heidän lapsilleen ja nuorilleen. Translasten ja -nuorten huomioiminen peruskouluissa on pääosin onnistunutta tutkielmani tulosten perusteella. Huolestuttavaa kuitenkin on se, että osa opettajista oli loukannut tai mitätöinyt lapsen tai nuoren sukupuolikoke-muksen ja tasa-arvolain tavoitteet jäivät toteutumatta. Tutkielmani tuloksista kävi ilmi, että noin 36 % vastaajien lapsista koki, ettei heidän sukupuolikokemuksensa tullut nähdyksi koulussa. Joidenkin opettajien asenteet ja tietotaito sukupuolivähemmistöjen kohtaamisesta eivät olleet tasa-arvo- ja yhdenvertaisuuslain mukaisia. Erityi-nen huomio aineistostani oli, että translapsia ja -nuoria tukevat käytänteet ovat mahdollisia toteuttaa ilmaiseksi tai hyvin pienellä taloudellisella panostuksella. Sukupuolivähemmistöjen huomioiminen ja tasa-arvoisen sekä yhdenvertaisen koulupolun mahdollistaminen kouluissa on jäänyt tutkielmani perusteella osittain toteutumatta. Tutkielmani perusteella voidaan todeta, että translapset ja -nuoret saavat epätasa-arvoista kohtelua koulussa riippuen koulusta ja opettajasta. Yhtenäistä linjaa sukupuolivähemmistöjen huomioimiseen kouluissa ei vielä ole. Opettajien ja muun henkilökunnan akateemiseen tutkimukseen pohjaavalle koulutukselle on selkeästi tarvetta. Myös asennekasvatusta ja tietoisuuden lisäämistä sukupuolen moninaisuudesta tarvitaan. Normikriittistä työtä on tehtävä järjestelmällisesti, jotta cisnormatiiviset rakenteet saadaan näkyviksi ja niitä voidaan alkaa muuttamaan. Kouluterveyskyselyt 2017 ja 2019 tukevat tut-kielmani tuloksia translasten ja -nuorten tuen tarpeesta peruskoulussa ja kertovat karua kieltä sukupuolivähem-mistöön kuuluvien nuorten hyvinvoinnista.
  • Kamula-Enqvist, Emmi (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    This study examines early childhood gender identity development, gender diversity in early childhood and the nature of gender perspectives in Western society. The study also examines how individual's own internal gender identity becomes visible and how the definition of gender in society and individual's own experience encounter. The aim is to specify how the gender diversity in early childhood has been encountered and how it should be encountered in the early childhood education settings. The study shows that individual's gender identity is formed in a process interacting with the environment, and science does not offer only one explanation for gender identity development. The data consists of a systematic literature review, blog texts from a gender diversity blog, and interviews carried out in writing. The systematic literature review contains 14 articles that approached gender from the perspective of early childhood and early childhood educational settings. The data contains 30 citations from the blog and six interviews. The data was analyzed using content analysis. The analysis consisted three main categories. The First category is Individual's self-defined gender identity based on internal experience which is the strongest gender identity element. Social pressure or the individual's physical body don't have any effect on this internal experience. The study found out the desire of being part of group of peers and the feeling of left out have strong impact in children's lives. The Second category is Society as a determiner in individual's collection of gender roles. This study shows that society is strongly based on a binary gender system, and this system shuts out individuals who are part of gender diversity. The Third category is Gender diversity in early childhood educational settings. This category shows that early childhood educators' awareness of gender diversity should be increased and gender-sensitive pedagogy must still be actively developed and considered as a standard in early childhood educational settings. It will benefit all children equally.
  • Uutaniemi, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Sukupuolivähemmistöt vähemmistöryhmänä ovat aiempaa enemmän esillä yhteiskunnassa ja keskusteluissa. Sukupuolivähemmistöihin kuuluvat henkilöt saattavat kuitenkin usein kohdata esimerkiksi sukupuoli-identiteettiin perustuvaa syrjintää, eikä heidän asemaansa tunnusteta vielä täysin kattavasti. Sosiaalityö tasa-arvoisuuteen pyrkivänä työnä on velvollinen kunnioittamaan monimuotoisuutta sekä taistelemaan syrjintää vastaan. Tämän vuoksi sosiaalityöntekijältä odotetaan sekä sukupuolen moninaisuuden tunnistamista, tunnustamista sekä riittävää tietoa kyseisestä vähemmistöryhmästä. Tämä maisterintutkielma käsittelee sosiaalityön opiskelijoiden käsityksiä sukupuolivähemmistöistä. Fenomenografisella lähestymistavalla toteutettu tutkielma pyrkii kuvaamaan opiskelijoiden käsityksiä sukupuolivähemmistöistä sisältäen muun muassa heidän ajatuksensa, tietonsa ja mielipiteensä sekä sukupuolivähemmistöihin että sukupuolen moninaisuuteen liittyen. Käsitysten ja niiden kontekstin analyysi rakentuivat fenomenografisen tutkimusotteen mukaisesti niin, että ne muodostivat mahdollisimman aidon ja todenmukaisen kuvan haastateltujen opiskelijoiden sen hetkisistä käsityksistä, kuitenkaan ilman pyrkimystä yleistettävyyteen. Tutkimusta varten on haastateltu seitsemää sosiaalityön yliopisto-opiskelijaa. Haastattelut on toteutettu tammi- ja helmikuussa 2020 yksilöhaastatteluina, ja niiden pohjalta tehdyt litteraatit muodostavat tutkimuksen aineiston. Haastateltavien puheen pohjalta piirtyy melko yhdenmukainen viesti siitä, ettei sukupuolivähemmistöjä ja esimerkiksi niihin liitettyjä termejä tunneta tarpeeksi hyvin. Tämä vaikeuttaa aiheesta keskustelemista, ja useamman haastateltavan mukaan jopa estää siitä puhumista. Tämän ilmiön haastateltavat tunnistivat sekä itsessään että muissa. Samalla he toivoivat myös vähemmistöryhmältä ymmärrystä, sillä aiheen koettiin vasta hakevan paikkaansa keskusteluissa. Vaikka aiheesta puhuminen koettiin osittain hankalaksi jopa haastattelutilanteissa, oli opiskelijoilla kuitenkin melko kattava kuva sukupuolivähemmistöistä. Huomioitavaa kuitenkin on, että yksikään opiskelija ei esimerkiksi tunnistanut transvestisuutta osaksi sukupuolivähemmistöjä. Keskustelun vaikeuden lisäksi opiskelijat ilmaisivat turhautuneisuutensa sukupuolittuneeseen yhteiskuntaan, aiempaa jyrkempien sukupuoliroolien asettamiin paineisiin sekä sukupuoleen perustuviin käytänteisiin myös sosiaalityössä. Aiheen haastavuuden lisäksi esiin nousee sosiaalityön koulutuksen rooli sukupuolivähemmistöteemoissa. Jokainen tutkimukseen osallistunut haastateltava oli sitä mieltä, ettei sosiaalityön koulutus käsittele sukupuolivähemmistöaiheita joko tarpeeksi tai ollenkaan. Koulutuksen puutteellisuuden myötä osa opiskelijoista oli esimerkiksi sukupuolivähemmistöasiakkaan töissä tavatessaan joutunut etsimään itsenäisesti lisää tietoa verkosta tai osallistumaan sukupuolivähemmistöjä käsittelevään lisäkoulutukseen. Osa opiskelijoista ei kuitenkaan kokenut yliopiston sukupuolivähemmistökoulutusta tarpeelliseksi aiheen marginaalisuuden vuoksi; heidän käsityksensä mukaan tieto tulee välttämättömäksi vasta silloin, kun esimerkiksi kohtaa sukupuolivähemmistöön kuuluvan asiakkaan. Tiedon puute, vaiettu keskusteluilmapiiri sekä moninaisuuden vajavainen huomiointi vaikeuttavat sukupuolivähemmistöön kuuluvien aseman parantamista. Lisäksi sosiaalityön koulutuksen vähäisen sukupuolivähemmistöpuheen myötä tulevilla sosiaalityöntekijöillä ei välttämättä ole niitä valmiuksia, joita kunnioittavaan kohtaamiseen ja luottamukselliseen vuorovaikutussuhteeseen vaaditaan. Jatkotutkimuksen kannalta olisi tärkeää tutkia lisää esimerkiksi sosiaalityön koulutuksen roolia sukupuolivähemmistöteemojen esiintuomisessa.
  • Virtakoski, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tiivistelmä - Referat - Abstract Objectives. Previous research has shown that considerable challenges can be found regarding gender within physical education in schools. These challenges can be especially problematic for people who struggle with strong gender incongruence. The mission of this thesis is to describe, analyse and interpret gender dysphoria experiences during physical education in school. The goal of this thesis was to increase awareness and discussion regarding gender diversity and gender dysphoria within the educational field. In addition, this thesis endeavoured to shine light on the experiences of those dealing with gender dysphoria in physical education. The goal was that PE -teachers could learn to acknowledge this group of students to further allow for better equality and gender awareness within physical education. Methods. The research material was provided by interviewing five individuals aged 18-49 who had experienced gender dysphoria during primary and middle school. The research material was gathered during the Fall of 2019 using the semi-structured thematic interview method. The gathered interview material was analysed with an interpreted phenomenological analyse method. Results and conclusion. The results showed that those interviewed had various participation roles with their physical education experiences. Part of those interviewed actively participated during PE -class, whilst others tried their best to stay unnoticed. In addition, those interviewed felt the heightened emphasis of the body problematic, due to the exposure of one’s figure. Experiences during physical education were strongly tied to others participating during class, who were one’s peers and the PE -teacher. Peers could possibly have a positive or negative affect on one’s experiences during PE -class. The research results also showed that the majority of those interviewed suffered from either verbal or physical abuse and/or discrimination during physical education lessons. The results also showed that locker rooms and differentiating teaching practices were central themes when those interviewed reflected on practices that emphasized binary gender roles. Those interviewed experienced locker rooms to be problematic due to feelings of not belonging, revealing one’s body and teasing. Segregated PE -classes proved to be problematic among those interviewed due to the emphasize on binary gender roles, which could be seen in what sports were chosen for physical education, what pedagogical choices were made and what material was used.
  • Neffling, Eva (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Gender and sex are the most common criteria to classify people in our society. Along with legal and national core curriculum changes perceptions of gender and sex and their diversity has changed. This change is also reflected in learning materials. Learning materials play an important role in teaching and in the perceptions that students form about the role of gender and ability of different genders to influence society and professions. Gender inequality for men has been evident according to previous textbook studies. Gender stereotypes are also explicit. In this research the research material are human biology textbooks for secondary students during the past three national core curriculums. The purpose of this research is to examine how the gender, sex and their diversity are represented in human biology textbooks. Temporal variation is also examined. The qualitative content analysis was used as a principal method to analyse the data. Based on that method citations have been collected from textbooks. To compress the collected data the citations have been classified into different classes that explain the differences between sexes. The final classification has been made based on whether the differences between sexes appear in anatomy and physiology or behaviour and whether they are explained by biological or non-biological factors. Besides this, the collected data has been quantified and prototypes of male and female has been compiled. In quantitative analysis the textbooks visual representation and gendered words are also counted and analysed by simple quantitative methods. Based on this study the sex and gender are seen as a biological feature in human biology books. The differences between sexes are mainly affected by hormones whether the difference is in behaviour or anatomy and physiology. Genes also play an important role when differences in anatomy and physiology are explained between sexes. Psychological and cultural factors also explain a lot of differences in behaviour. Feminine characters and words were overrepresented in the textbooks compared to masculine characters. These are the result of the major role of motherhood and pregnancy in biology textbooks. The word mother was also used widely. In older textbooks the gender is represented more in texts and the differences between sexes are brought out more than in later textbooks. The gender stereotypes are also more evident in older textbooks and the stereotypical features are linked more to sexes, like conscientiousness in women and competitiveness in men. The gendered terms like “feminine” or “masculine” are also more present in older textbooks. Gender diversity is more talked about in later books, which is expected, as it is present in the latest national core curriculums. Otherwise the gender diversity is not very visible. Heteronormativity is present in all books, but for example the sexuality is treated more subtly than in older books. The temporal variation can be explained by the social change that is reflected in curriculums and textbooks. The textbooks should provide the most diverse picture possible of gender and its diversity. Therefore, images representing non-stereotypical and heteronormative gender roles should also be selected for books, and gendered expressions should be used deliberately in texts. However, it is important for gender equality that gender is not completely erased from textbooks. In gender-sensitive teaching, it is important that gender differences are not considered the norm, but they are also not hidden, but learn to identify gender stereotypes and their effects on one's own actions. There is no wrong way to be a boy or a girl. This material could be expanded by exploring the gender roles described in the textbooks as well. In addition, the research material could be compared to health information textbooks or other aspects of equality could be considered.
  • Pihlaja, Henrietta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This research is focused on the schooling experiences of non-binary transgender people. The aim of the study is to produce information on how gender variation has been taken into consideration while the 1994 and 2004 reforms of the Finnish national core curriculums for basic education were in effect. Based on these data, the aim is to speculate how gender variation is considered in schools today. The analysis was focused on how interviewees created subjectivity in their narratives and how (gender normative forms of) the hidden curriculum appears in these narratives. The results can be used to help develop the school institution into a more sensitive direction, and to be aware of different genders and the dynamics between them. The theoretical base examines the concepts of non-binary transgender and gender variation. Secondly it provides an overview of the power of gender norms. Thirdly the theoretical base introduces some of the relevant topics of the Finnish national core curriculums for basic education established in the years 1994 and 2004. It then offers some information on the invisible power of the hidden curriculum. The final section of the theoreti-cal base addresses discourses, discursive practices and subjectivities, which are essential in the analysis of gender norms, the hidden curriculum and the interviews. The research was conducted by interviewing seven non-binary transgender adults. They had attended basic education while the 1994 and/or 2004 Finnish national core curriculums were in effect. The interviews were conducted using an adaptation of the autobiographical narrative interview method. The data were analyzed with a data-based discourse analysis. The results were construed using a critical feminist perspective. The analysis produced three hegemonic discourses: outsider, gender normative school, and non-normative gender. Based on these discourses, the results showed six strong subjectivity positions: an outsider and different, an illegitimate woman or a man, nonexistent, agender or feminine-masculine, an agonist against norms, and a victim. The presence of the (gender normative) hidden curriculum occurred especially when the interviewees spoke about the support and safety of school, school control and teaching/learning situations, students’ responsibilities, and school environmental issues. The findings of this research indicate that non-binary transgender people must form a self-image mostly with-out any existing discourses. They become positioned as oppressed or as agonists against oppression. The control of the hidden curriculum was proved strong and very gender normative. Based on that, there is a major paradox between actual school policies and the national core curriculums. The findings would imply that the situation may not be any better nowadays despite the core curriculum reforms. The knowledge of gender variations and gender sensitivity must increase in the future. It is also necessary to offer teachers support and information on how they should meet and treat students of any gender.