Browsing by Subject "suolapitoisuus"

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  • Myrberg, Kai (Finnish Institute of Marine Research, 1998)
    Monographs of the Boreal Environment Research 10
  • Camarena‐Gómez, María Teresa; Ruiz‐González, Clara; Piiparinen, Jonna; Lipsewers, Tobias; Sobrino, Cristina; Logares, Ramiro; Spilling, Kristian (American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, 2021)
    Limnology and Oceanography 66: 1, 255-271
    In parts of the Baltic Sea, the phytoplankton spring bloom communities, commonly dominated by diatoms, are shifting toward the co-occurrence of diatoms and dinoflagellates. Although phytoplankton are known to shape the composition and function of associated bacterioplankton communities, the potential bacterial responses to such a decrease of diatoms are unknown. Here we explored the changes in bacterial communities and heterotrophic production during the spring bloom in four consecutive spring blooms across several sub-basins of the Baltic Sea and related them to changes in environmental variables and in phytoplankton community structure. The taxonomic structure of bacterioplankton assemblages was partially explained by salinity and temperature but also linked to the phytoplankton community. Higher carbon biomass of the diatoms Achnanthes taeniata, Skeletonema marinoi, Thalassiosira levanderi, and Chaetoceros spp. was associated with more diverse bacterial communities dominated by copiotrophic bacteria (Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobacteria, and Betaproteobacteria) and higher bacterial production. During dinoflagellate dominance, bacterial production was low and bacterial communities were dominated by Alphaproteobacteria, mainly SAR11. Our results suggest that increases in dinoflagellate abundance during the spring bloom will largely affect the structuring and functioning of the associated bacterial communities. This could decrease pelagic remineralization of organic matter and possibly affect the bacterial grazers communities.
  • Olofsson, Malin; Suikkanen, Sanna; Kobos, Justyna; Wasmund, Norbert; Karlson, Bengt (Elsevier, 2020)
    Harmful Algae
    Almost every summer, dense blooms of filamentous cyanobacteria are formed in the Baltic Sea. These blooms may cause problems for tourism and ecosystem services, where surface accumulations and beach fouling are commonly occurring. Future changes in environmental drivers, including climate change and other anthropogenic disturbances, may further enhance these problems. By compiling monitoring data from countries adjacent to the Baltic Sea, we present spatial and temporal genus-specific distribution of diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacteria (Nostocales) during four decades (1979–2017). While the summer surface salinity decreased with a half up to one unit, the surface temperature in July-August increased with 2–3 °C in most sub-basins of the Baltic Sea, during the time period. The biovolumes of the toxic Nodularia spumigena did not change in any of the sub-basins during the period. On the other hand, the biovolume of the non-toxic Aphanizomenon sp. and the potentially toxic Dolichospermum spp. increased in the northern parts of the Baltic Sea, along with the decreased salinity and elevated temperatures, but Aphanizomenon sp. decreased in the southern parts despite decreased salinity and increased temperatures. These contradictory changes in biovolume of Aphanizomenon sp. between the northern and southern parts of the Baltic Sea may be due to basin-specific effects of the changed environmental conditions, or can be related to local adaptation by sub-populations of the genera. Overall, this comprehensive dataset presents insights to genus-specific bloom dynamics by potentially harmful diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea. Highlights • Biovolumes of bloom-forming cyanobacteria during four decades in the Baltic Sea. • Aphanizomenon sp. has increased with decreased salinity in the Bothnian Sea. • Dolichospermum spp. has increased with temperature in Bothnian Sea. • The total biovolume of Nostocales has decreased in the Southern Baltic Proper. • The biovolume of the toxic Nodularia spumigena has not changed since the 1980s.
  • Alahuhta, Janne; Rosbakh, Sergey; Chepinoga, Victor; Heino, Jani (Springer Link, 2020)
    Aquatic Sciences 82 2 (2020)
    We investigated whether environmental filtering or dispersal-related factors mostly drive helophyte and hydrophyte species richness and community composition in 93 lakes situated in Baikal Siberia. Using partial linear regression and partial redundancy analysis, we studied (1) what are the relative roles of environmental variables, dispersal variables, spatial processes and region identity (i.e., river basins) in explaining variation in the species richness and species composition of helophytes and hydrophytes across 93 Siberian lakes, and (2) what are the differences in the most important explanatory variables driving community variation in helophytes versus hydrophytes? We found that, for both species richness and species composition, environmental variables clearly explained most variation for both plant groups, followed by region identity and dispersal-related variables. Spatial variables were significant only for the species composition of hydrophytes. Nutrient-salinity index, a proxy for habitat trophic-salinity status, was by far the most significant environmental determinant of helophytes and hydrophytes. Our results indicate that environmental factors explained the most variation in both species richness and species composition of helophytes and hydrophytes. Nevertheless, dispersal-related variables (i.e. spatial and dispersal) were also influential but less important than environmental factors. Furthermore, the dispersal-related variables were more important for hydrophytes than for helophytes. Most brackish permanent lakes were mostly located in the steppe biomes of southern Transbaikalia. This characteristic along with the oldest age, the largest distances to both river and settlements and the lowest temperatures in the study region distinguished them from freshwater, drained and more nutrient-rich floodplain lakes.
  • Puntila-Dodd, R.; Bekkevold, D.; Behrens, J. W. (Springer, 2021)
    Hydrobiologia 848: 2
    Species invasions often occur on coasts and estuaries where abiotic conditions vary, e.g. salinity, temperature, runoff etc. Successful establishment and dispersal of non-indigenous species in many such systems are poorly understood, partially since the species tend to show genetic and ecological plasticity at population level towards many abiotic conditions, including salinity tolerance. Plasticity may be driven by shifting expression of heat shock proteins such as Hsp70, which is widely recognized as indicator of physical stress. In this study, we developed a qPCR assay for expression of the hsp70 gene in the invasive round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) and tested the expression response of fish collected from a brackish environment in the western Baltic Sea to three different salinities, 0, 10 and 30. hsp70 expression was highest in fresh water, indicating higher stress, and lower at brackish (ambient condition for the sampled population) and oceanic salinities, suggestive of low stress response to salinities above the population’s current distribution. The highest stress in fresh water was surprising since populations in fresh water exist, e.g. large European rivers and Laurentian Great Lakes. The results have implications to predictions for the species’ plasticity potential and possible range expansion of the species into other salinity regimes.
  • Tsiamis, Konstantinos; Palialexis, Andreas; Stefanova, Kremena; Gladan, Živana Ničević; Skejić, Sanda; Despalatović, Marija; Cvitković, Ivan; Dragičević, Branko; Dulčić, Jakov; Vidjak, Olja; Bojanić, Natalia; Žuljević, Ante; Aplikioti, Marilena; Argyrou, Marina; Josephides, Marios; Michailidis, Nikolas; Jakobsen, Hans H.; Staehr, Peter A.; Ojaveer, Henn; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Massé, Cécile; Zenetos, Argyro; Castriota, Luca; Livi, Silvia; Mazziotti, Cristina; Schembri, Patrick J.; Evans, Julian; Bartolo, Angela G.; Kabuta, Saa Henry; Smolders, Sander; Knegtering, Edo; Gittenberger, Arjan; Gruszka, Piotr; Kraśniewski, Wojciech; Bartilotti, Cátia; Tuaty-Guerra, Miriam; Canning-Clode, João; Costa, Ana C.; Parente, Manuela I.; Botelho, Andrea Z.; Micael, Joana; Miodonski, Joana V.; Carreira, Gilberto P.; Lopes, Vera; Chainho, Paula; Barberá, Carmen; Naddafi, Rahmat; Florin, Ann-Britt; Barry, Peter; Stebbing, Paul D.; Cardoso, Ana Cristina (Elsevier, 2019)
    Marine Pollution Bulletin
    Refined baseline inventories of non-indigenous species (NIS) are set per European Union Member State (MS), in the context of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The inventories are based on the initial assessment of the MSFD (2012) and the updated data of the European Alien Species Information Network, in collaboration with NIS experts appointed by the MSs. The analysis revealed that a large number of NIS was not reported from the initial assessments. Moreover, several NIS initially listed are currently considered as native in Europe or were proven to be historical misreportings. The refined baseline inventories constitute a milestone for the MSFD Descriptor 2 implementation, providing an improved basis for reporting new NIS introductions, facilitating the MSFD D2 assessment. In addition, the inventories can help MSs in the establishment of monitoring systems of targeted NIS, and foster cooperation on monitoring of NIS across or within shared marine subregions. Highlights • Refined MSFD baseline inventories of non-indigenous species (NIS) are set in EU. • The inventories are given per EU Member State (MS) and MSFD subregion up to 2012. • The NIS lists provide a basis for reporting new NIS introductions in EU after 2012. • Our work constitutes a milestone for the MSFD Descriptor 2 implementation.
  • Nieminen, Emmi (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    The aim of the thesis is to assess the fishery of Baltic cod, herring and sprat by simulation over 50 years time period. We form a bioeconomic multispecies model for the species. We include species interactions into the model because especially cod and sprat stocks have significant effects on each other. We model the development of population dynamics, catches and profits of the fishery with current fishing mortalities, as well as with the optimal profit maximizing fishing mortalities. Thus, we see how the fishery would develop with current mortalities, and how the fishery should be developed in order to yield maximal profits. Especially cod stock has been quite low recently and by optimizing the fishing mortality it could get recovered. In addition, we assess what would happen to the fisheries of the species if more favourable environmental conditions for cod recruitment dominate in the Baltic Sea. The results may yield new information for the fisheries management. According to the results the fishery of Baltic cod, herring and sprat are not at the most profitable level. The fishing mortalities of each species should be lower in order to maximize the profits. By fishing mortality optimizing the net present value would be almost three times higher in the simulation period. The lower fishing mortality of cod would result in a cod stock recovery. If the environmental conditions in the Baltic Sea improved, cod stock would recover even without a decrease in the fishing mortality. Then the increased cod stock would restrict herring and sprat stock remarkably, and harvesting of these species would not be as profitable anymore.
  • Olli, Kalle; Ptacnik, Robert; Klais, Riina; Tamminen, Timo (The University of Chicago Press, 2019)
    American Naturalist
    The high number of freshwater species at low salinity and the correspondingly high number of marine species at high salinity enveloping a conspicuous richness minimum at intermediate salinities has shaped our basic understanding of biodiversity along a coastal salinity gradient for almost 80 years. Visualized as the Remane curve, this iconic concept was originally based on sedentary macroinvertebrates in the Baltic Sea. To what extent the concept can be generalized, particularly to free-drifting organisms, is currently debated. Here we use approximately 16,000 phytoplankton samples from two large coastal ecosystems—the Baltic Sea and Chesapeake Bay—to analyze the relationship between salinity and phytoplankton species richness. Alpha diversity showed a consistent variation along the salinity gradient, with a minimum at mesohaline salinities of around 7–9. Rarefied species pools at narrow salinity intervals also showed reduced diversity at intermediate salinities, surrounded by high richness toward both ends of the gradient. The cumulative likelihood of species presence validated the minimum at intermediate salinities. Community composition changed abruptly at the α diversity minimum in the Baltic Sea, while it changed gradually along the salinity gradient in Chesapeake Bay. We conclude that the Remane concept is in every respect valid for phytoplankton.
  • Pitkänen, Heikki (Vesihallitus, 1979)
    Vesihallitus. Tiedotus 175
  • Ruuskanen, Ari (University of Helsinki, 1993)
  • Luangjame, Jesada (The Society of Forestry in Finland - The Finnish Forest Research Institute, 1990)
    In a study of two salt-tolerant tree species, Combretum quadrangulare and Eucalyptus camaldulensis, results from a greenhouse experiment with NaCl salinity of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% were compared with those of a field study on non-saline and saline soils in north-eastern Thailand. Determination of optimum gas exchange and development and evaluation of photosynthetic models with and without water deficit were included. Shoot height and diameter growth, shoot internode length, root length/biomass, leaf width and length, leaf area, number and biomass, and shoot:root and leaf:root ratios decreased with salinity, while leaf thickness increased with salinity. More growth occurred in roots than in the leaf canopy. In the laboratory, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and water potential decreased with salinity, while CO2 compensation point increased with salinity. Transpiration, dark respiration and photorespiration increased at low salinity but decreased at high salinity. In the field study, however, there were no significant differences in stomatal conductance and opening between saline and non-saline soils. Model predictions supported results of the field measurements. Adaptation of salinity was reflected in an acclimatization of tree structure in the field study. There were both functioning and structural changes of seedlings in the greenhouse experiment. In terms of ecophysiological and morphological characteristics, E. camaldulensis showed better salt tolerance than C. quadrangulare in both the greenhouse experiment and field study.
  • Elovaara, Samu; Degerlund, Maria; Franklin, Daniel J.; Kaartokallio, Hermanni; Tamelander, Tobias (Springer Link, 2020)
    Hydrobiologia 847 11 (2020)
    Cell death drives the magnitude and community composition of phytoplankton and can result in the conversion of particulate organic carbon to dissolved organic carbon (DOC), thereby affecting carbon cycling in the aquatic food web. We used a membrane integrity probe (Sytox Green) to study the seasonal variation in the percentage of viable cells in the phytoplankton population in an estuary in the northern Baltic Sea for 21 months. The associated dissolved and particulate organic matter concentrations were also studied. The viable fraction of phytoplankton cells varied from < 20% to almost 100%, with an average of 62%. Viability was highest when a single phytoplankton group (diatoms or dinoflagellates) dominated the community. Viability of sinking phytoplankton cells, including some motile species, was in general as high as in surface water. Changes in viability were not closely related to nutrient concentrations, virus-like particle abundance, seawater temperature or salinity. There was a weak but significant negative correlation between viability and DOC, although at this location, the DOC pool was mainly influenced by the inflow of riverine water. This study demonstrates that cell viability, and its relationship with carbon export, is highly variable in the complex microbial populations common within estuarine and coastal marine ecosystems.
  • Vuoristo, Mikko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Eliölajit ovat jatkuvassa vuorovaikutuksessa niin fysikaalisen ympäristönsä, kuin muiden eliölajienkin kanssa. Nämä vuorovaikutukset voivat olla osapuolille negatiivisia, neutraaleja tai positiivisia. Fasilitaatio tarkoittaa sitä, että joku laji edesauttaa toisen lajin selviytymistä. Äärimmäinen esimerkki fasilitaatiosta on perustajalaji. Perustajalaji on laji, joka pelkällä läsnäolollaan tarjoaa muille eliöille kriittisiä resursseja, joita ilman muut lajit eivät voi selviytyä. Nämä resurssit voivat olla esimerkiksi ravintoa, suojaa tai elintilaa. Alustaansa kiinnittyvät simpukat ovat perustajalajeja, joita tavataan kaikilta maailman merialueilta. Esiintyessään tiheinä kasvustoina kalliorannoilla ne tarjoavat lukuisille selkärangattomille eläimille suojaa aallokon voimalta ja pedoilta, ravintoa ja elintilaa lisääntyneen sedimentaation myötä, sekä runsaasti sekundaarista kiinnittymispintaa. Alustaansa kiinnittyvät simpukat muodostavat perustan habitaatille, joka lopulta muotoutuu simpukoiden ja muiden lajien yhteisvaikutuksella. Vähäsuolaisessa ja -lajisessa Itämeressä sinisimpukka (Mytilus trossulus x edulis) on alustaansa kiinnittyvänä simpukkana erittäin tärkeässä roolissa. Sinisimpukkaa esiintyy pinnan läheltä aina kymmenien metrien syvyyteen asti, kunhan kiinnittymiseen sopivaa alustaa vain on tarjolla. Simpukoiden esiintymiseen Itämeressä vaikuttavat monet tekijät, joista tärkeimpinä ovat aallokko joka aiheuttaa fysikaalista stressiä, ja alhainen, itää ja pohjoista kohti pienentyvä suolapitoisuus joka aiheuttaa fysiologista stressiä. Paikoin erittäin runsaina esiintyvät sinisimpukat edesauttavat sedimentin kertymistä muodostamansa kolmiulotteisen matriisin onkaloihin mikä mahdollistaa myös pehmeän pohjan lajien esiintymisen kalliorannoilla. Sinisimpukkayhteisössä onkin piirteitä sekä pehmeistä, että kovista pohjista, mikä tekee niistä edullisia elinympäristöjä runsaalle määrälle erilaisia selkärangattomia eläimiä. Tässä tutkimuksessa tutkittiin sisäsaaristosta ulkosaaristoon voimistuvan aallokon vaikutusta sinisimpukka-rakkohauru -yhteisön rakenteeseen kolmella lähellä toisiaan sijaitsevilla merialueilla läntisellä Suomenlahdella, missä suolapitoisuus laskee läntisimmän ja itäisimmän tutkimusalueen välillä ainoastaan muutamilla promillen kymmenyksillä. Näytteitä noudettiin sukeltamalla 36:sta eri pisteestä kolmen metrin syvyydeltä rakkohauruvyöhykkeeltä, neljältä eri avoimuusvyöhykkeeltä. Näytteistä havaitut eläintaksonit tunnistettiin ja eläinten yksilömäärät laskettiin, ja sinisimpukoiden sekä rakkohaurun (Fucus vesiculosus) kuivapaino määritettiin. Tilastollisilla menetelmillä selvitettiin eliöyhteisön rakenteen eroja näillä kolmella alueella, sekä kasvavan avoimuuden vaikutusta. Lisäksi selvitettiin korreloivatko tavattujen eläinlajien yksilömäärät sinisimpukan tai rakkohaurun biomassan kanssa. Sinisimpukka oli kaikilla näytepisteillä runsain tavattu laji, ja jäljessä yksilömääristä puhuttaessa sinisimpukkayksilöitä ei huomioida. Alueet eivät eronneet toisistaan taksonien tai eläinyksilöiden kokonaismäärien osalta, mutta yksittäisillä taksoneilla eroja kuitenkin havaittiin. Avoimuudella havaittiin olevan merkittävä vaikutus eliöyhteisön rakenteeseen. Avoimuuden kasvaessa havaittujen taksonien määrä laski ja runsaimmat taksonit vaihtuivat sedimenttiä suosivista nilviäisistä vapaasti uiviin äyriäisiin, sen sijaan eläinten kokonaisyksilömäärissä merkitseviä eroja ei havaittu. Merkittävä osuus tavatuista yksittäisistä taksoneista korreloi negatiivisesti kasvavan avoimuuden kanssa, avoimuuden kanssa positiivisesti korreloivia taksoneita oli vähemmän. Sinisimpukoiden biomassan kanssa havaittiin korrelaatiota usealla taksonilla, kaikki positiivisia, sen sijaan rakkohaurun biomassan kanssa korrelaatiota havaittiin ainoastaan yhdellä taksonilla. Tämä tutkimus osoittaa, että avoimuudella on selkeä vaikutus perustajalajina toimivan sinisimpukan ympärille muotoutuneeseen eliöyhteisöön ja sen rakenteeseen. Suolapitoisuuden vähäinen lasku tutkimusalueiden välillä sen sijaan ei vielä merkitsevästi vaikuta sinisimpukkayhteisön rakenteeseen, vaikka yksittäisillä lajeilla - merkittävimpänä juuri sinisimpukka - viitteitä vaikutuksista havaittiinkin. Sinisimpukan merkitys muuhun lajistoon on merkittävä, rakkohaurun merkitys on sen sijaan varsin vähäinen.