Browsing by Subject "suot"

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  • Kokkonen, P. (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1923)
  • Lindholm, Tapio; Jakovlev, Jevgeni; Kravchenko, Alexey (Finnish Environment Institute, 2015)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 40/2014
    Zaonezhye Peninsula (Zaonezhsky Peninsula; Заонежский полуостров in Russian transcription) is situated on the northwestern coast of Lake Onega in the Republic of Karelia, Russia. The territory of Zaonezhye is unique in that it contains nearly every type of terrain and unconsolidated sediment known in the vast expanses of northwest Russia. It is also eastern part of Fennoscandian shield. It is characterized by a high diversity of basic limestone and carbonate rocks that determine the fertility of local soils as well as the unique diversity of habitats, flora and fauna. Numerous rare calciphile plant and lichen species are found here, as well as rich, eutrophic wetlands. Long-term farming and animal husbandry have led to a large number of grassland communities in the area. As a result, a mosaic structure of diverse habitats has evolved here. Europe’s second largest lake, Lake Onega, with its clear and deep waters also affect the local climate, making it milder. This report provides for the first time detailed species lists of vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens, wood-growing fungi and insects covering the entire Zaonezhye Peninsula, Kizhi archipelago and other adjacent islands. The most important sites for protection were observed, and six new nature monuments in the southern and southerneast parts of Zaonezhye Peninsula are recommended to be established. This publication contents following articles characterizing nature of Zaonezhye area: 1. Geology and physical geography: 1.1.Geological description, 1.2. Geomorphology and Quaternary deposits, 1.3. Hydrological characteristics, 1.4. Soil cover, 1.5. Palaeogeography, 1.6. Existing and planned protected areas; 2. Landscapes and ecosystems: 2.1. Modern landscapes of Zaonezhye, 2.2. Landscape structure, 2.3. Structure of the forest covered land and forest stands, 2.4. Forest structures, 2.5. Mires, 2.6. Meadows; 3. Flora and fauna: 3.1. Vascular plants, 3.2. Bryophyte flora, 3.3 Species list of lichens and allied fungi, 3.4. Red listed and indicator lichens, 3.5. Aphyllophoroid fungi and 3.6. Insect fauna. 3.7. Localities in Zaonezhye area used in species lists of vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens, fungi and insects, and their toponyms.
  • Rajakallio, Maria; Jyväsjärvi, Jussi; Muotka, Timo; Aroviita, Jukka (Blackwell, 2021)
    Journal of Applied Ecology 58: 7, 1523-1532
    1. Growing bioeconomy is increasing the pressure to clear-cut drained peatland forests. Yet, the cumulative effects of peatland drainage and clear-cutting on the biodiversity of recipient freshwater ecosystems are largely unknown. 2. We studied the isolated and combined effects of peatland drainage and clear-cutting on stream macroinvertebrate communities. We further explored whether the impact of these forestry-driven catchment alterations to benthic invertebrates is related to stream size. We quantified the impact on invertebrate biodiversity by comparing communities in forestry-impacted streams to expected communities modelled with a multi-taxon niche model. 3. The impact of clear-cutting of drained peatland forests exceeded the sum of the independent effects of drainage and clear-cutting, indicating a synergistic interaction between the two disturbances in small streams. Peatland drainage reduced benthic biodiversity in both small and large streams, whereas clear-cutting did the same only in small streams. Small headwater streams were more sensitive to forestry impacts than the larger downstream sites. 4. We found 11 taxa (out of 25 modelled) to respond to forestry disturbances. These taxa were mainly different from those previously reported as sensitive to forestry-driven alterations, indicating the context dependence of taxonomic responses to forestry. In contrast, most of the functional traits previously identified as responsive to agricultural sedimentation also responded to forestry pressures. In particular, taxa that live temporarily in hyporheic habitats, move by crawling, disperse actively in water, live longer than 1 year, use eggs as resistance form and obtain their food by scraping became less abundant than expected, particularly in streams impacted by both drainage and clear-cutting. 5. Synthesis and applications. Drained peatland forests in boreal areas are reaching maturity and will soon be harvested. Clear-cutting of these forests incurs multiple environmental hazards but previous studies have focused on terrestrial ecosystems. Our results show that the combined impacts of peatland drainage and clear-cutting may extend across ecosystem boundaries and cause significant biodiversity loss in recipient freshwater ecosystems. This information supports a paradigm shift in boreal forest management, whereby continuous-cover forestry based on partial harvest may provide the most sustainable approach to peatland forestry.
  • Fronzek, Stefan (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2013)
    Monographs of the Boreal Environmental Research No. 44
    Palsas are mounds with a permafrost core covered by peat. They occur in subarctic palsa mires, which are ecologically valuable mire complexes located at the outer margin of the permafrost zone. Palsas are expected to undergo rapid changes under global warming. This study presents an assessment of the potential impacts of climate change on the spatial distribution of palsa mires in northern Fennoscandia during the 21st century. A large ensemble of statistical climate envelope models was developed, each model defining the relationship between palsa occurrences and a set of temperature- and precipitation-based indicators. The models were used to project areas suitable for palsas in the future. The sensitivity of these models to changes in air temperature and precipitation was analysed to construct impact response surfaces. These were used to assess the behaviour of models when extrapolated into changed climate conditions, so that new criteria, in addition to conventional model evaluation statistics, could be defined for determining model reliability. A special focus has been on comparing alternative methods of representing future climate, applying these with impact models and quantifying different sources of uncertainty in the assessment. Climate change projections were constructed from output of coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models as well as finer resolution regional climate models and uncertainties in applying these with impact models were explored. New methods were developed to translate probabilistic climate change projections to probabilistic estimates of impacts on palsas. In addition to future climate, structural differences in impact models appeared to be a major source of uncertainty. However, using the model judged most reliable according to the new criteria, results indicated that the area with suitable climatic conditions for palsas can be expected to shrink considerably during the 21st century, disappearing entirely for an increase in mean annual air temperature of 4°C relative to the period 1961-1990. The risk of this occurring by the end of the 21st century was quantified to be between 43% (for the B1 low emissions scenario) and 100% (for the A2 high emissions scenario). The projected changes in areas suitable for palsas are expected to have a significant influence on the biodiversity of subarctic mires and are likely to affect the regional carbon budget.
  • Fronzek, Stefan; Johansson, Margareta; Christensen, Torben R.; Carter, Timothy R.; Friborg, Thomas; Luoto, Miska (Finnish Environment Institute, 2009)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 3/2009
  • Bhattacharjee, Joy; Marttila, Hannu; Launiainen, Samuli; Lepistö, Ahti; Kløve, Bjørn (Elsevier, 2021)
    Science of The Total Environment 779 (2021), 146419
    Maintaining and improving surface water quality requires knowledge of nutrient and sediment loads due to past and future land-use practices, but historical data on land cover and its changes are often lacking. In this study, we tested whether land-use-specific export coefficients can be used together with satellite images (Landsat) and/or regional land-use statistics to estimate riverine nutrient loads and concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and suspended solids (SS). The study area, Simojoki (3160 km2) in northern Finland, has been intensively drained for peatland forestry since the 1960s. We used different approaches at multiple sub-catchment scales to simulate TN, TP, and SS export in the Simojoki catchment. The uncertainty in estimates based on specific export coefficients was quantified based on historical land-use changes (derived from Landsat data), and an uncertainty boundary was established for each land-use. The uncertainty boundary captured at least 60% of measured values of TN, TP, and SS loads or concentrations. However, the uncertainty in estimates compared with measured values ranged from 7% to 20% for TN, 0% to 18% for TP, and 13% to 43% for SS for different catchments. Some discrepancy between predicted and measured loads and concentrations was expected, as the method did not account for inter-annual variability in hydrological conditions or river processes. However, combining historical land-use change estimates with simple export coefficients can be a practical approach for evaluating the influence on water quality of historical land-use changes such as peatland drainage for forest establishment.
  • Kortelainen, Pirkko (National Board of Waters and the Environment, Vesi- ja ympäristöhallitus, 1993)
    Publications of the Water and Environment Research Institute 13
  • Saarilahti, Martti (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1988)
  • Bhattacharjee, Joy; Marttila, Hannu; Haghighi, Ali Torabi; Saarimaa, Miia; Tolvanen, Anne; Lepistö, Ahti; Futter, Martyn N.; Kløve, Bjørn (American Society of Civil Engineers, 2021)
    Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 147(4), 04021006
    Spatiotemporal information on historical peatland drainage is needed to relate past land use to observed changes in catchment hydrology. Comprehensive knowledge of historical development of peatland management is largely unknown at the catchment scale. Aerial photos and light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data enlarge the possibilities for identifying past peatland drainage patterns. Here, our objectives are (1) to develop techniques for semiautomatically mapping the location of ditch networks in peat-dominated catchments using aerial photos and LIDAR data, and (2) to generate time series of drainage networks. Our approaches provide open-access techniques to systematically map ditches in peat-dominated catchments through time. We focused on the algorithm in such a way that we can identify the ditch networks from raw aerial images and LIDAR data based on the modification of multiple filters and number of threshold values. Such data are needed to relate spatiotemporal drainage patterns to observed changes in many northern rivers. We demonstrate our approach using data from the Simojoki River catchment (3,160  km2) in northern Finland. The catchment is dominated by forests and peatlands that were almost all drained after 1960. For two representative locations in cultivated peatland (downstream) and peatland forest (upstream) areas of the catchment; we found total ditch length density (km/km2), estimated from aerial images and LIDAR data based on our proposed algorithm, to have varied from 2% to 50% compared with the monitored ditch length available from the National Land survey of Finland (NLSF) in 2018. A different pattern of source variation in ditch network density was observed for whole-catchment estimates and for the available drained-peatland database from Natural Resources Institute Finland (LUKE). Despite such differences, no significant differences were found using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test with a 0.05 significance level based on the samples of pixel-identified ditches between (1) aerial images and NLSF vector files and (2) LIDAR data and NLSF vector files.
  • Finér, Leena (The Society of Forestry in Finland - The Finnish Forest Research Institute, 1991)
    The effects of PK (plus Ca, Mg, S, Cl and B) and NPK (plus Ca, Mg, S, Cl and B) were studied (1984-87) in an 85-yr-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand growing on a drained low-shrub pine bog in E. Finland. Fertilizer was applied in spring 1985. The amounts of elements applied (kg/ha) were: N 150, P 53, K 100, Ca 135, Mg 25, S 28, Cl 95 and B 2.4. The total dry mass of the stand before fertilizer application was 78 t/ha, of which above-ground compartments accounted for 69%. The annual above-ground dry mass production was 6.3 t/ha. The study period was too short to detect any fertilizer response in stems. Foliar and cone dry mass increased after NP or NPK fertilizer application, the dry mass of living branches increased after NPK fertilizer and the dry mass of dead branches decreased after PK or NPK fertilizer. The total dry mass accumulation was not affected. Trees in a control plot (no fertilizer) took up the following nutrient amounts annually from the soil (kg/ha): N 15.6, Ca 12.8, K 4.1, P 1.3, Mg 1.7, S 1.5 and Mn 1.5. The annual uptake of Fe, Zn, Cu and B was 510, 130, 70 and 50 g/ha, respectively. More than 50% of the nutrient uptake (except K and Fe) was released in litterfall. Fertilized stands accumulated more N, P, K and B. Fertilizer application inhibited the uptake of Mn and Ca.
  • Paavilainen, Eero (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1990)
  • Primmer, Eeva; Kopperoinen, Leena; Ratamäki, Outi; Rinne, Janne; Vihervaara, Petteri; Inkiläinen, Elina; Mashkina, Olga; Itkonen, Pekka (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2012)
    Suomen ympäristö 39/2012
    Luonnonvara- ja luonnonsuojelupolitiikkaa on perinteisesti kehitetty toisistaan erillään, mutta kestävän kehityksen politiikan ja vuonna 2005 laaditun YK:n Vuosituhannen ekosysteemiarvion myötä on kiinnitetty aiempaa enemmän huomiota toimivien monimuotoisten ekosysteemien välttämättömyyteen ja ekosysteemien tuottamiin hyötyihin. Ihmisen riippuvuus ekosysteemien tuottamasta ruuasta, raaka-aineista, veden ja ravinteiden pidätyksestä, pienilmaston säätelystä ja virkistyksestä on tunnistettu tutkimuksessa sekä yhä enemmän myös politiikassa ja käytännön päätöksenteossa. Ekosysteemipalvelutarkastelujen tavoitteena on tuoda yhteen tieto ekosysteemien toiminnoista, tuki- ja säätelypalveluista, tuotantopalveluista, kulttuuripalveluista sekä luonnon monimuotoisuudesta, jotta palveluiden keskinäistä riippuvuutta voitaisiin arvioida ja kestävää käyttöä hallita. Ekosysteemipalveluita tarkastellaan ja ohjataan kuitenkin vielä varsin hajanaisesti, eikä uutta lähestymistapaa sovellettaessa aina osata hyödyntää jo olemassa olevia tieto- ja hallintajärjestelmiä. Tämä raportti kokoaa yhteen kansainvälisen tutkimuksen ekosysteemipalvelu-  lähestymistapoja ja käytännön esimerkkejä siitä, miten erilaiset suomalaiset luonnonvarojen ja maankäytön ohjaus- ja hallinta-  järjestelmät käsittelevät ekosysteemipalveluita. Raportin tarkoituksena on tuoda ajankohtainen sovellettava tietämys suomalaisten luonon-  varojen, maankäytön ja luonnonsuojelun päätöksentekijöiden ja asiantuntijoiden käyttöön. Raportin ensimmäisessä osassa tunnistetaan vakiintuneet tarkastelutavat ja nostetaan esiin sellaiset menetelmät, joiden soveltaminen on vasta alkutekijöissään. Kirjallisuuteen pohjaava katsaus esittelee ekosysteemipalveluiden tarkasteluja yhteiskunnan toiminnoissa ja hallinnan kohteena, mallinnuksella, paikkatieto-  tarkasteluilla ja maankäytön suunnittelussa, taloudellisella arvottamisella ja päätöksenteon tuessa. Raportin toisessa osassa havainnollistetaan ekosysteemipalveluiden sisällyttämistä päätöksentekoon ja luonnonvarojen hallintaan suomalaisten esimerkkien avulla. Luonnonvara-alan strategisten ohjelmien tarkastelu, pohjoiskarjalaisen suoalueen ekosysteemipalveluiden vertailu, Lounais-Suomen metsäluonnon monimuotoisuuden turvaamisen ekosysteemipalveluvaikutukset sekä ekosysteemipalvelujen huomioon ottaminen Helsingin Östersundomin ja Lahden Kytölän aluesuunnittelu-  prosessissa havainnollistavat päätöksenteon ja hallinnan keskeisiä kysymyksiä. Suomalaiset tarkastelut osoittavat, miten ekosysteemipalveluita muuttavaa päätöksentekoa voidaan tukea tunnistamalla, arvottamalla ja vertailemalla ekosysteemien tuottamia hyötyjä sekä käyttämällä indikaattoreita, paikkatietoanalyyseja ja niiden perusteella tuotettuja karttoja. Aineistojen ja tarkastelutapojen yhdistäminen vaatii teknistä osaamista ja voimavaroja sekä sektori- ja luonnonvarakohtaisten tiedonhallintajärjestelmien yleistämistä. Uusia tarkastelumenetelmiä tulee kehittää sekä olemassa olevien järjestelmien pohjalta että tarvittaessa kehittämällä uusia yhdentäviä menetelmiä. Samalla, kun osamalleja ja sektorikohtaisiin inventointi- ja seuranta-aineistoihin pohjautuvia tarkasteluja syvennetään ja hienosäädetään, joudutaan ekosysteemi- ja sektorirajat ylittävissä tarkasteluissa tyytymään todennäköisesti totuttua karkeampaan tietoon. Kuitenkin esimerkiksi paikkatietotarkastelut osoittavat yhdentämisen tuoman lisäarvon konkreettisesti. Vuoropuhelu eri mallien tuottajien ja tarkasteluja hyödyntävien päätöksentekijöiden ja osallisten välillä on tässä välttämätöntä.
  • Ollinmaa, Paavo J. (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1960)
  • Heikurainen, Leo (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1951)
  • Hynninen, Pekka; Sepponen, Pentti (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1983)
  • Lindholm, Tapio; Heikkilä, Raimo (Finnish Environment Institute, 2006)
    The Finnish Environment 23/2006
    Finland - Land of mires is a textbook on mires and their ecology in Finland. Totally 27 separate articles of different topics are included in the book. The items dealt with in the book are the following: 1. Unsettled weather and climate of Finland. 2. Climate of Finland and its effect on mires. 3. Bedrock in Finland and its infl uence on vegetation. 4. The landforms of Finland. 5. Glacial and postglacial history of the Baltic Sea and Finland. 6. Postglacial history of Finnish inland waters. 7. Lake and river systems in Finland. 8. Interglacial and interstadial organic deposits in Finland. 9. Mire development history in Finland. 10. Regional distribution of peat increment in Finland. 11. Geobotany of Finnish forests and mires: the Finnish approach. 12. Ecohydrology of Finnish mires. 13. Ecological gradients as the basis of Finnish mire site types. 14. Mire plant species and their ecology in Finland. 15. Land uplift phenomenon and its effects on mire vegetation. 16. Palsa mires in Finland. 17. Cultural land use history in Finland. 18. The use of mires for agriculture and forestry. 19. Destruction of mires in Finland. 20. Environmental impacts of mire utilization. 21. Peatlands and global change - the Finnish case. 22. Ecosystem services provided by Finnish mires. 23. Mire conservation and its short history in Finland. 24. Ramsar areas in Finland. 25. Land birds in Finnish mires and their conservation status. 26. A short introduction to the Finnish language. 27. Etymology of some Finnish words for mire.
  • Lindholm, Tapio; Heikkilä, Raimo; Kuznetsov, Oleg (International Mire Conservation Group and International Peatland Society, 2019)
    Mires and Peat 24 (2019), 12, 1–18
    In this article we compile wartime botanical information about mires in Olonets region (Russian Karelia) and compare it with new data collected as part of the Finnish-Russian cooperation in mire research. We also describe the historical background of both the local economy and the visits of Finnish botanists, which date back to the days of the Grand Duchy of Finland and the Russian Empire but were most active during the Second World War. For Finnish mire research, these excursions have allowed important comparisons between the mostly degraded rich fens of southern Finland and largely pristine examples in Olonets region. In the 2000s, 176 vascular plant and 53 moss species, corresponding to 40–50 % of the Karelian mire flora, have been recorded in this area; more than 20 different mire plant communities (associations) have been identified; and one site has been confirmed as the oldest studied mire in East Fennoscandia (12,700 years). The understanding arising from this research is especially important for nature conservation work in the Republic of Karelia.