Browsing by Subject "survey"

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  • Nygren, Saara (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    A relational database management system’s configuration is essential while optimizing database performance. Finding the optimal knob configuration for the database requires tuning of multiple interdependent knobs. Over the past few years, relational database vendors have added machine learning models to their products and Oracle announced the first autonomous (i.e self-driving) database in 2017. This thesis clarifies the autonomous database concept and surveys the latest research on machine learning methods for relational database knob tuning. The study aimed to find solutions that can tune multiple database knobs and be applied to any relational database. The survey found three machine learning implementations that tune multiple knobs at a time. These are called OtterTune, CDBTune, and QTune. Ottertune uses traditional machine learning techniques, while CDBTune and QTune rely on deep reinforcement learning. These implementations are presented in this thesis, along with a discussion of the features they offer. The thesis also presents an autonomic system’s basic concepts like self-CHOP and MAPE-K feedback loop and a knowledge model to define the knowledge needed to implement them. These can be used in the autonomous database contexts along with Intelligent Machine Design and Five Levels of AI-Native Database to present requirements for the autonomous database.
  • Hagberg-Andersson, Åsa (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2007)
    Economics and Society
    In today’s business one can say that competition does not take place inside the network, but between networks. Change and dynamics are central issues in network studies, and a company, due its changing environment, can identify opportunities and threats and respond to them accordingly. These opportunities are vital, but also complex and demanding for the management. Earlier research has identified a shortcoming in explanations of how the micro-level interactions to macro-level patterns are connected. The IMP-group has been trying to fill this research gap with research on interactions within business networks. In this area of research lies the focus of research on relationships between organizations. Adaptation in cooperation is a central concept within business network research. Adaptation has been dealt with in previous literature, but the focus of the studies has mainly been outside this phenomenon, and it has mostly had a supporting role. Most literature has also described the buyers' point of view in studied supply networks, whereas much less attention has been paid to the suppliers' view on them. This study focuses on this research gap. The results of the study stress that adaptation should be included to a greater extent in the strategy work of companies. The adaptations should be carefully planned and, as far as possible, made consciously. Conscious, well-planned adaptations can be seen as investments into present and future relationships, and resources should be invested into something that does not increase the company’s dependence, but divides the power in the relationship between the companies. Adaptations should be planned so that they result in a more offensive way of responding to the demands that are placed upon the companies. In this way, the actions can be viewed and analyzed in accordance with whether the actions make the company weaker or stronger.
  • Valimaki, Maritta; Kuosmanen, Lauri; Hatonen, Heli; Koivunen, Marita; Pitkanen, Anneli; Athanasopoulou, Christina; Anttila, Minna (2017)
    Purpose: Information and communication technologies have been developed for a variety of health care applications and user groups in the field of health care. This study examined the connectivity to computers and the Internet among patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs). Patients and methods: A cross-sectional survey design was used to study 311 adults with SSDs from the inpatient units of two psychiatric hospitals in Finland. The data collection lasted for 20 months and was done through patients' medical records and a self-reported, structured questionnaire. Data analysis included descriptive statistics. Results: In total, 297 patients were included in this study (response rate =96%). More than half of them (n=156; 55%) had a computer and less than half of them (n=127; 44%) had the Internet at home. Of those who generally had access to computers and the Internet, more than one-fourth (n=85; 29%) used computers daily, and > 30% (n=96; 33%) never accessed the Internet. In total, approximately one-fourth of them (n=134; 25%) learned to use computers, and less than one-third of them (n=143; 31%) were known to use the Internet by themselves. Older people (aged 45-65 years) and those with less years of education (primary school) tended not to use the computers and the Internet at all (P <0.001), and younger people and those with higher education were associated with more active use. Conclusion: Patients had quite good access to use computers and the Internet, and they mainly used the Internet to seek information. Social, occupational, and psychological functioning (which were evaluated with Global Assessment of Functioning) were not associated with access to and frequency of computer and the Internet use. The results support the use of computers and the Internet as part of clinical work in mental health care.
  • Goel, Rahul; Goodman, Anna; Aldred, Rachel; Nakamura, Ryota; Tatah, Lambed; Garcia, Leandro Martin Totaro; Zapata-Diomedi, Belen; de Sa, Thiago Herick; Tiwari, Geetam; de Nazelle, Audrey; Tainio, Marko; Buehler, Ralph; Götschi, Thomas; Woodcock, James (Informa UK Limited, 2021)
    Transport Reviews
    International comparisons of cycling behaviour have typically been limited to high-income countries and often limited to the prevalence of cycling, with lack of discussions on demographic and trip characteristics. We used a combination of city, regional, and national travel surveys from 17 countries across the six continents, ranging from years 2009 through 2019. We present a descriptive analysis of cycling behaviour including level of cycling, trip purpose and distance, and user demographics, at the city-level for 35 major cities (>1 million population) and in urbanised areas nationwide for 11 countries. The Netherlands, Japan and Germany are among the highest cycling countries and their cities among the highest cycling cities. In cities and countries with high cycling levels, cycling rates tend to be more equal between work and non-work trips, whereas in geographies with low cycling levels, cycling to work is higher than cycling for other trips. In terms of cycling distance, patterns in high- and low-cycling geographies are more similar. We found a strong positive association between the level of cycling and women’s representation among cyclists. In almost all geographies with cycling mode share greater than 7% women made as many cycle trips as men, and sometimes even greater. The share of cycling trips by women is much lower in geographies with cycling mode shares less than 7%. Among the geographies with higher levels of cycling, children (<16 years) are often overrepresented. Older adults (>60 years) remain underrepresented in all geographies but have relatively better representation where levels of cycling are high. In low-cycling settings, females are underrepresented across all the age groups, and more so when older than 16 years. With increasing level of cycling, representation of females improves across all the age groups, and most significantly among children and older adults. Clustering the cities and countries into homogeneous cycling typologies reveals that high cycling levels always coincide with high representation of females and good representations of all age groups. In low-cycling settings, it is the reverse. We recommend that evaluations of cycling policies include usage by gender and age groups as benchmarks in addition to overall use. To achieve representation across different age and gender groups, making neighbourhoods cycling friendly and developing safer routes to school, should be equally high on the agenda as cycling corridors that often cater to commuting traffic.
  • Syvähuoko, Jenna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The literature review focused on the chemical properties of Fusarium mycotoxins and their masked forms, analytical methods for their determination and the toxicological and legislative aspects. In the experimental study, a multi-method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of several Fusarium toxins and their masked forms in barley, oats and wheat using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technique. The simple “dilute-and-shoot” sample preparation procedure was applied, where the extraction was performed with a mixture of acetonitrile, water and acetic acid (79:20:1, v/v/v). Moreover, the aim was to obtain new data on the occurrence of the masked mycotoxins in barley, oats and wheat by analysing 95 cereal grain samples. The type A trichothecenes T-2 and HT-2 toxins (T-2 and HT-2) and the type B trichothecenes deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) as well as zearalenone (ZEN), together with 11 masked forms of them, were included based on their importance for the food safety in northern Europe. The analytes were separated on a reversed-phase column and detected in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. Better peak shapes for the early eluting compounds and shorter analysis time were obtained with acetonitrile than methanol as the organic phase, thus it was chosen for the method. The method was validated according to the criteria set in the legislation. The limits of quantification varied from 0.3 to 15.9 ?g/kg. The recoveries were 92?115%, thus being within the tolerable ranges established in the legislation. The inter-day precisions (4?27%) were under the maximum permissible values. Therefore, the method proved to fit for the purpose. In this study, occurrence data on the masked mycotoxins in Finland were obtained for the first time. The presence of ZEN-16-glucoside (ZEN-16-G) and NIV-3-glucoside (NIV-3-G) were reported for the first time worldwide in some of the cereals. The most frequently found toxins were DON, NIV and HT-2. All of the masked mycotoxins included in the method were determined, the most common being DON-3-glucoside (DON-3-G), HT-2-glucoside (HT-2-G) and NIV-3-G.
  • Hyhkö, Simo Heikki (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Otoksen edustavuus on yksi keskeisimpiä asioita kyselytutkimusten hyvyyttä tarkasteltaessa. Edustavuutta voi mitata usealla eri tavalla. Perinteisin mittari on vastausaste. Korkea vastausaste ei kuitenkaan ole yksinään mikään tae otoksen edustavuudesta. Toimivia edustavuusmittareita on pitkään pyritty kehittämään. Yksi näistä on $R$-indikaattori, jota tässä tutkielmassa tarkastellaan. Tilastokeskuksen perinteisen Kuluttajabarometrin sisältöä muutettiin toukokuussa 2019. Keskeisimmät muutokset olivat: 1) siirtyminen yhdistelmätiedonkeruuseen, 2) ikäjakauman kaventaminen 3) osan haastattelukysymyksistä vaihtuminen. Samassa yhteydessä tutkimuksen nimeksi vaihdettiin Kuluttajien luottamus. Tämän tutkielman kannalta keskeisin mainituista muutoksista oli siirtyminen puhelinhaastatteluista yhdistelmätiedonkeruuseen. Tutkielman tarkoituksena on selvittää haastattelutavan muutoksen vaikutusta otoksen edustavuuteen. Edustavuusmittariksi valittiin $R$-indikaattori. Tutkimusaineistona oli kuluttajabarometridata vuoden 2012 tammikuusta vuoden 2019 toukokuuhun. Kuluttajabarometridatan lisäksi käytössä oli Kuluttajien luottamus -tutkimuksen data neljältä ensimmäiseltä kuukaudelta toukokuusta elokuuhun 2019. Tutkimuksen tuloksena oli, että siirtyminen yhdistelmätiedonkeruuseen ei heikentänyt otoksen edustavuutta. Toisaalta kävi kuitenkin ilmi, että $R$-indikaattorin saamat arvot eivät koko tutkimusperiodilla olleet valittujen hyvyysrajojen mukaan riittävän korkealla tasolla. Toinen tarkastelluista muutoksista oli ikäjakauman kaventaminen molemmista päistä. Yläpäästä jätettiin kokonainen ikäluokka pois (75-84 v.). Alapäästä jätettiin pois osa nuorimmasta ikäluokasta (15-17 v.). Vanhin ikäluokka oli aktiivisin vastaajaryhmä ja vastaavasti nuorin ikäluokka oli passiivisin vastaamaan. Ikäjakauman kaventaminen ei kuitenkaan heikentänyt otoksen edustavuutta. Edustavuuden kehityksen lisäksi tarkasteltiin vaihtoehtoisia edustavuusindikaattoreita ja $R$-indikaattorin erilaisia versioita. Suurin osa vaihtoehtoisista indikaattoreista antoi hyvin samankaltaisia tuloksia, kuin $R$-indikaattori. Mikään testatuista vaihtoehtoisista indikaattoreista ei osoittautunut merkittävästi helpommin tulkittavaksi kuin $R$-indikaattori.
  • Fagerholm, Fabian; Pagels, Max Erich Alexander (Springer Science+Business Media, 2014)
  • Peltonen, Laura-Maria; Junttila, Kristiina; Salanterä, Sanna (IOS PRESS, 2018)
    Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
    Day-to-day operations management in hospital units is difficult due to continuously varying situations, several actors involved and a vast number of information systems in use. The aim of this study was to describe front-line physicians' satisfaction with existing information systems needed to support the day-to-day operations management in hospitals. A cross-sectional survey was used and data chosen with stratified random sampling were collected in nine hospitals. Data were analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistical methods. The response rate was 65 % (n = 111). The physicians reported that information systems support their decision making to some extent, but they do not improve access to information nor are they tailored for physicians. The respondents also reported that they need to use several information systems to support decision making and that they would prefer one information system to access important information. Improved information access would better support physicians' decision making and has the potential to improve the quality of decisions and speed up the decision making process.
  • Piispa, Minna (2004)
    This study considers the picture a survey conveys of partnership violence against women and the question why young women particularly experience violence in their partnerships more often than other women do. I approach these questions from the perspective of age, generation and modernisation. I used the data from a survey about male violence against women, conducted among women aged 18 to 74 (n=3,500) in 1997. In my doctoral dissertation I consider first whether women’s experiences of violence are connected with a specific stage in life and whether the lifestyle of young women has changed in some way to make them more vulnerable to violence than older women. I then consider whether young women’s experiences of violence differ from those of older women and how the experiencing of violence affects the meanings attached to it. My third object of consideration is whether young women are simply more likely than the older generations to recognise violence and whether they have a different attitude where violence is concerned. Fourthly, I consider how the methodological choices made in the survey, such as the used definition of violence and the context of the survey, may have influenced the finding that violence is directed especially towards young women. My study consists of four separate articles and a summary. The picture drawn by the survey of partnership violence against women is shaped in my study by combined analyses of the data describing partner violence and of partial non-response to the question on partner violence. My findings indicate that experiences of violence among young women differ from those among older women. Young women are better able to influence the situation, and the psychological and social consequences of prolonged physical violence have not yet affected their perceptions of themselves, or of partnership or violence. The survey method captures the experiences of violence of young women better than those of others, and young women have a different attitude to telling and speaking about violence. In my dissertation I consider the picture of partnership violence against women conveyed by a survey as representations of lived life. The central concept unifying the findings is the concept of agency, which in my study refers to the increased possibilities for women to be active in society and thereby find better ways of responding in a violent partnership. Agency also refers to the social and cultural contexts in which women recognise and give a name to violence in a partnership, and give meanings to their experiences of it. My methodological consideration focuses on whether such a sensitive topic as violence against women can be studied by a survey, what kind of speech is allowed in a survey, and what kind of a picture survey data are capable of drawing of violence. While constructing this picture, I exploit the idea that a survey constitutes interaction between the researcher and the respondent. The theoretical points of departure for my dissertation are feminist debate on violence against women and research on victimology. My study is also associated with international methodological debate on researching violence against women by surveys, and with feminist and constructionist debate on how methodological choices affect the knowledge produced by research.
  • Siuruainen, Antti (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    Purpose of this study was to examine the residents' survey, what kind of relationship with residents and their urban forest might have and what attitude they may have when facing the urban forest management. The study serves the Helsinki department of public works, who can thus be valuable information for the above-mentioned lack of knowledge in the data. The study was conducted as a quantitative survey. The sample was selected on the Helsinki Urban Facts and the register of the population consisted of 1000 persons selected the elders of the economy. The response rate was 42, which can be regarded as a good result in comparison with earlier similar studies in the Helsinki area. In order the complete this study in were used in statistical analysis cross tabulation, x2-and t-test. Results of this research was that the majority of the Laajasalo´s population is clearly positive on the Helsinki City Public Works carried out by the forest management. In addition, the results can be concluded that a clear majority of residents felt positive the changes that took place in nearby forests after forest management. A clear majority of respondents considered treatment works and the implementation of the outcome of good or excellent. On the other hand the results shows that there is a problem in the design process, the nature management works planning and implementation of the information. However significant number of residents were not know the area planning, which are based on forest management, and in addition a significant proportion of residents felt that the treatment works began suddenly and without any information. That it may draw the conclusion that the area planning process, information is not sufficient, and people do not, it may well affect the very moment when the decisions of their local forest conditions to be made. In addition, based on the results is also noticeable that a significant number of respondents felt that local forest management activities being too open, noisy or impoverished nature value. In addition, a significant number of respondents did not know how to respond to biodiversity and important information. This can draw a clear conclusion that the general principles of Public Works, in the care and respect for nature may not have sufficiently clear for the general public, and the average inhabitants. This study confirms previous similar studies, the results of the residents has been seen in grouping in relation to the urban woodlands and their management. The conclusion here is that these groups should be taken into account in the future more clearly throughout the design process, from regional planning information until the off-road information.
  • Paloniemi, Riikka; Hujala, Teppo; Rantala, Salla; Harlio, Kirsi Annika; Salomaa, Anna Alina; Primmer, Eeva; Pynnönen, Sari; Arponen, Anni Katri Ilona (2018)
    Improving the effectiveness of voluntary biodiversity policies requires developing trans-disciplinary conservation plans that consider social constraints to achieving ecological objectives. We integrated data on landowners' willingness to participate in voluntary conservation efforts with ecological data on conservation values in a spatial prioritization, and found that doing so considerably reduced the loss in conservation value caused by landowners' reluctance to participate. We learned that conducting prioritization with stakeholder input gained through dialogue during field visits could be beneficial for increasing the legitimacy of conservation plans with stakeholders. Thus, in addition to developing a methodology for using data on stakeholder perceptions of conservation in spatial prioritization, our study suggests that engaging landowners and other stakeholders in the conservation prioritization process will improve the success of conservation plans.
  • Miettinen, Jani (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    Internet-yhteyksien käyttö yleistyi Suomessa vuoden 1993 jälkeen, mistä lähtien Internetiä on alettu käyttämään yhä enemmän tiedonkeruun apuvälineenä. Apuvälineenä Internetiä käytetään sekä yhteydenotossa vastaajiin että vastauksien keruussa. Internetin avulla tehtyihin kyselytutkimuksiin liittyy edelleen paljon avoimia metodologisia kysymyksiä. Useimmiten perinteistä, satunnaistettua otoksen keruuta ei voida suorittaa, koska kehikkoperusjoukkoa ei pystytä määrittelemään. Tällöin joudutaan turvautumaan itsevalikoituneeseen verkkotiedonkeruuseen, jossa kyselyä mainostetaan avoimesti tutkimuksen kohteena olevalle ryhmälle ja vastaajat itse päättävät osallistuvatko kyselyyn vai eivät. Samalla Internet-populaation alipeitto voi aiheuttaa harhaa tutkimustuloksiin, jos tavoiteperusjoukkona on jokin suuri populaatio, jossa kaikki eivät käytä Internetiä. Tutkielman tavoite on antaa kuva verkkotiedonkeruun ajanmukaisista menetelmistä sekä erityisesti selvittää itsevalikoituneen verkkotiedonkeruun tilastollista metodologiaa, mahdollisuuksia ja rajoituksia. Tarkoituksena on myös selvittää, kuinka hyvin valikoituneen verkkokyselytutkimuksen harhan korjaaminen onnistuu ajanmukaisilla painotusmenetelmillä. Kyselytutkimusten vastauskadosta sekä valikoituneisuudesta johtuvaa harhaa voidaan korjata painotusmenetelmillä, jos vastauskadon mekanismia tai valikoitumismekanismia pystytään selittämään. Harhaa voidaan korjata sopivien apumuuttujien avulla, jotka korreloivat tulosmuuttujan tai osallistumispäätöksen kanssa. Apumuuttujien tiedot täytyy olla tiedossa sekä kyselyyn osallistujilta että ei-osallistujilta. Perinteisen todennäköisyysotantaan perustuvan aineiston vastauskadosta johtuvaa harhaa korjataan useimmiten jälkiosituspainoilla. Itsevalikoituneen verkkokyselytutkimuksen valikoitumisharhan korjaamiseen on esitetty kaksivaiheista painotusmenetelmää, jonka tarkoituksena on korjata harhaa, joka johtuu Internetin käyttömahdollisuudesta sekä itse osallistumispäätöksestä. Internetin käyttömahdollisuus voidaan mallintaa propensiteettipistemäärän avulla, jonka käänteislukua voidaan käyttää painokertoimena harhan korjaamiseksi. Osallistumispäätöksestä johtuvaa harhaa voidaan korjata tasaamalla aineiston apumuuttujien reunajakaumat vastaamaan populaation reunajakaumia. Tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan kolmea aineistoa. Kelan tutkimusosasto keräsi vuoden 2010 syyskuussa pilotin itsevalikoituneesta verkkokyselytutkimuksesta. Kyselyllä pyrittiin kartoittamaan Suomen 16–80-vuotiaiden kansalaisten yksityisten terveys- ja hammashoitopalvelujen hintatietoja ja tarpeita. Sama kysely lähetettiin myös otosperusteisesti Kelan työntekijöille. Molemmissa kyselyissä vastaukset kerättiin sähköisellä Internet-kyselyllä. Lisäksi tutkielmassa tarkastellaan TNS Gallupin otosperusteisesti Suomen kansalaisilta keräämään suppeampaa puhelinhaastattelukyselyä, jota käytettiin myös itsevalikoituneen aineiston kalibrointiaineistona. Kyselytutkimusaineistojen vastauskatoa korjattiin erilaisilla painotusmenetelmillä, joiden avulla pystyttiin tarkastelemaan kuinka hyvin eri painotusmenetelmät pystyvät korjaamaan valikoitumisesta johtuvaa harhaa. Otosperusteisia verkkokyselytutkimuksia korjattiin jälkiosituspainoilla ja painotuksissa onnistuttiin hyvin, koska aineistossa ei ollut suurta valikoituneisuutta. Itsevalikoituneen verkkokyselytutkimuksen painotuksessa jouduttiin kohtaamaan paljon ongelmia, koska aineisto oli suuresti valikoitunut, ja siinä oli paljon vastauskatoa. Itsevalikoituneen aineiston valikoitumisen harhaa onnistuttiin kuitenkin osaksi korjaamaan, ja osa tulosmuuttujien jakaumatiedoista vastasi lähes otosperusteisen kyselytutkimuksen jakaumatietoja. Tutkimuksen keskeisin tulos oli, että vaikka verkkokyselyn tekeminen on halvempaa ja vähemmän työläämpää kuin otosperusteisen kyselytutkimuksen tekeminen, verkkokyselytutkimuksen suunnitteluun on panostettava entistä enemmän. Itsevalikoituneen verkkokyselytutkimuksen keruussa on suunniteltava tarkemmin kyselyn mainostaminen vastaajaehdokkaille, jotta valikoitumisesta johtuvaa harhaa voidaan paremmin hallita. Tutkimuksessa kävi myös ilmi, että sekä asennetta ja käyttäytymistä kuvaavia kysymyksiä on tärkeä olla kyselytutkimuksissa mukana, koska näiden avulla pystytään selittämään paremmin valikoitumisesta johtuvaa harhaa, kuin pelkästään sosiodemografisten muuttujien avulla.
  • Hämäläinen, Auli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Surveytutkimuksessa saadaan harvoin kerättyä täydellisen edustavaa aineistoa tavoitellulta vastaajajoukolta. Lähes aina osa vastauksista tai vastaajista jää puuttumaan. Puuttuneisuudella voi olla suuri merkitys aineiston tilastollisen analyysin kannalta. Se vähentää aineistosta laskettavien estimaattien tarkkuutta ja voi pahimmillaan myös aiheuttaa harhaa estimaatteihin. Otantatutkimuksessa virhettä tulee lisäksi itse otannasta. Puuttuneisuudesta ja otannasta johtuvia virheitä surveyaineistossa pyritään usein korjaamaan aineiston uudelleenpainotuksella. Tässä työssä on tutkittu kalibrointiin ja vastaustaipumuksen mallintamiseen perustuvien uudelleenpainotusmenetelmien vaikutusta estimoinnin laatuun, kun otosaineistosta halutaan estimoida erilaisten tutkimusmuuttujien keskiarvoja perusjoukossa. Näiden kahden eri lähestymistavan vertailun lisäksi on haluttu tutkia, voisiko vastaustaipumusmallilla tuotettuja painoja parantaa kalibroimalla (eli muodostamalla ns. yhdistelmäpainot). Käytetty tutkimusaineisto on peräisin Suomessa vuosien 2009 ja 2010 taitteessa toteutetusta EU-rikosuhritutkimuksen pilottivaiheesta. Aineisto sisältää erilaisten rikosten kohteeksi joutumiseen ja turvallisuuden tunteeseen liittyviä muuttujia. Rikosuhritutkimuksessa kerätty otosaineisto on tätä tutkimusta varten monistettu koko populaatiota edustavaksi synteettiseksi dataksi. Synteettisestä perusjoukosta on poimittu satunnaisotoksia jäljitellen aitoa otantatutkimuksen tilannetta. Eri tavoin painotetuista otoksista laskettuja estimaatteja on verrattu toisiinsa sekä tunnuslukujen oikeisiin arvoihin perusjoukossa. Painojen muodostuksessa ja tunnuslukujen estimoinnissa on käytetty SAS-ohjelmistoa. Kalibrointipainot on laskettu käyttämällä Calmar 2-nimistä SAS-makroa, jonka voi ladata ilmaiseksi Ranskan kansallisen tilasto- ja taloustutkimuslaitoksen INSEEn internetsivuilta. Estimoinnin tulosten perusteella voidaan todeta, että uudelleenpainotuksella pystyttiin parantamaan estimoinnin laatua lähes kaikkien tarkasteltujen muuttujien kohdalla. Kaikki painotusmenetelmät eivät kuitenkaan toimineet kaikissa tilanteissa yhtä hyvin. Estimoitaviksi oli tarkoituksella valittu eri tyyppisiä muuttujia. Toiset muuttujista olivat helpompia estimoitavia, eli painotuksella päästiin lähelle estimoitavan muuttujan oikeita arvoja. Osa muuttujista oli kuitenkin sellaisia, joiden kohdalla mikään uudelleenpainotus ei tuonut kovin hyviä estimointituloksia, vaan estimaatteihin jäi reilusti harhaa. Estimointituloksissa näkyi selviä eroja vertailtavien menetelmien välillä. Useimpien muuttujien kohdalla parhaat estimointitulokset saatiin yhdistelmäpainoilla. Yhdistelmäpainojen etu on se, että niissä yhdistyy yksilö- ja makrotason lisäinformaation hyödyntäminen estimoinnin harhan korjaamisessa. Myös puhtailla kalibrointipainoilla saatiin joidenkin muuttujien tapauksessa muita parempia tuloksia, mutta kyse oli sellaisista muuttujista, joiden kohdalla parhaatkaan estimaatit eivät olleet kovin harhattomia. Vastaustaipumusmallinnukseen perustuva menetelmä toimi yleisesti ottaen hyvin, mutta yhdistelmäpainot olivat yleensä vähän paremmat, eli kalibroinnista oli apua. Kalibroinnin kanssa on kuitenkin noudatettava varovaisuutta, koska sillä voidaan pahimmillaan myös huonontaa estimaattien laatua, kuten yhdessä esimerkkitapauksessa näkyi. Lähes kaikkien muuttujien kohdalla estimaatteihin jäi uudelleenpainotuksenkin jälkeen vielä harhaa, joten menetelmien suhteen jäi vielä parannettavaa. Kehitettävää voi löytyä vastaustaipumuksen mallinnuksessa itse mallista. Kalibroinnin tapauksessa on huomattava, että vaikka menetelmällä saadaan reunajakaumat täsmäämään, se ei kuitenkaan takaa, että itse tutkimusmuuttujat estimoituisivat hyvin. Uudelleenpainotuksessa on myös oletettu, että puuttuvuus voidaan selittää käytettävissä olevilla taustamuuttujilla, ja ettei se riipu tutkittavista muuttujista. Näin ei kuitenkaan välttämättä aina ole.
  • Marttinen, Mikko (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    Purpose and aim of loyalty programs are to commit and bind customers and increase shopping amounts and times and create loyalty. Loyalty programs aim to achieve this by producing benefits to its members. Using multiple measures such as advertisement, producing benefits and offering discounts and introducing systems to encourage commitment achieve influencing attitudes and commitment towards loyalty programs. Aim of this thesis was to find out from consumers perspective what do customers think of loyalty programs. What types of attitudes do consumer programs show and does loyalty programs work in consumer’s minds. Does loyalty programs affect to consumers commitment and do they drive to concentrating in to specific companies. Consumers belong to multiple loyalty programs and from many of the programs there has been studies made on how they work from the companies’ perspective. Purpose of this thesis was to find out the consumers view on being a loyal customer and from loyalty programs. The research method of this thesis was quantitative. During summer 2008 through internet survey over 800 responses were collected. Survey was published on the consumer agency web pages and a link to the survey was published also in the Helsingin sanomat newspaper during August. Most of the respondents were from south Finland and from Uudenmaan district. Majority of respondents were women and most common age among respondent were between 26 to 35. Respondents belonged to multiple loyalty programs and in general the respondents liked loyalty programs. Centralising and commitment was slightly seen but in general also commonly lower price level companies were preferred. According to respondents the companies behind loyalty programs benefit more from the programs then the consumers. Never the less majority of the respondent felt that loyalty programs gave positive experiences and vast majority felt that they received benefits on monthly bases from the loyalty programs. Respondents felt in many cases that there are already too many loyalty programs offered toward consumers and those are not commonly compared with other loyalty programs. Based on this most often consumers are part of the most common programs existing but there is no apparent reason behind this other then their commonness. Joining to loyalty programs was met with carefulness and majority of respondents does not actively recommend loyalty programs to others.
  • Husu, Liisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Aims and Objectives. Devices for treating stuttering have become more common in the last decades. One of these is an anti-stuttering device based on Altered Auditory Feedback (AAF). The auditory feedback of speech can be altered so that the speaker hears their voice either with a delay (DAF, Delayed Auditory Feedback) from a different frequence (FAF, Frequency Altered Feedback) or utilizing both of these settings simultaneously. The Hospital Districts of Helsinki and Uusimaa (HUS) Foniatrics Unit launched an anti-stuttering device trial in 2008. The aim of this study is to provide information on that anti-stuttering device trial, the use of the device and the effects it has on speech. The aim is to discover the occasions when the device can be useful, on what occasions it cannot be used, and what kind of issues the use has caused. There is no former Finnish study on the use of anti-stuttering devices, but internationally the topic has been widely researched. Methods. The research method in this thesis was a survey sent by post. The survey was sent to patients who had participated in the anti-stuttering device trial, and it included two different forms, A and B. Form A was for patients who were still using the device and form B for those who had either returned the device or were not using it. The forms comprise of both open and closed questions. The responses to the open questions were analysed qualitatively by categorizing and sorting into themes, and then coding them to the same data along with the closed question responses. The quantitative analysis of the final data was made with an SPSS-program by calculating frequencies and relative frequencies and by cross-tabulating the dependencies between the variables. Results and conclusions. The results showed that the experiences of the trial participants varied greatly. A majority of the respondents had returned the device, yet almost half of all those who answered the survey had found the device useful. The most common finding was that the anti-stuttering device cannot be utilized in background noise. There had also been technical difficulties with the devices, concerning the settings and battery life. Those who answered form A, i.e. device-users, found it useful on singular occasions, e.g. while speaking on the phone or face to face with another person, or in all communication situations in general. Majority of the respondents had received positive feedback on their speech while using the anti-stuttering device. The most frequent feedback was that the speech of the stutterer was slower and clearer. All those who had received positive feedback would have recommended the anti-stuttering device to stutterers. Opinions on the use of the device are mixed, but based on individual positive experiences testing the device can be recommended when deciding on rehabilitation and therapy methods.
  • Concas, Francesco; Mineraud, Julien; Lagerspetz, Eemil; Varjonen, Samu; Liu, Xiaoli; Puolamäki, Kai; Nurmi, Petteri; Tarkoma, Sasu (2021)
    The significance of air pollution and the problems associated with it are fueling deployments of air quality monitoring stations worldwide. The most common approach for air quality monitoring is to rely on environmental monitoring stations, which unfortunately are very expensive both to acquire and to maintain. Hence environmental monitoring stations are typically sparsely deployed, resulting in limited spatial resolution for measurements. Recently, low-cost air quality sensors have emerged as an alternative that can improve the granularity of monitoring. The use of low-cost air quality sensors, however, presents several challenges: they suffer from cross-sensitivities between different ambient pollutants; they can be affected by external factors, such as traffic, weather changes, and human behavior; and their accuracy degrades over time. Periodic re-calibration can improve the accuracy of low-cost sensors, particularly with machine-learning-based calibration, which has shown great promise due to its capability to calibrate sensors in-field. In this article, we survey the rapidly growing research landscape of low-cost sensor technologies for air quality monitoring and their calibration using machine learning techniques. We also identify open research challenges and present directions for future research.
  • Tyynismaa, Lotta (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    In Finland first pharmacists started to work on wards in 1980s and 1990s. Ward pharmacy increased mainly in consequence of the lack of nurses. Common tasks were taking care of drug logistics (stock control), dispensing drugs to patient specific doses, preparing and diluting intravenous drugs and providing drug information to ward personnel. During the 2000s, ward pharmacy services have been increasing a lot. New tasks are, e.g., reviewing medications and prescriptions, medication counselling, and taking part in medical rounds. However, the tasks are still rather logistics compared to the United States and the United Kingdom where a pharmacist has an established role in a multiprofessional team. Internationally it has been proved that it is possible to achieve decreased and enhanced quality of care and patient safety with hospital clinical pharmacy services. The aim of this study was to explore the extent and benefits of ward pharmacy services in Finland. An online survey was conducted by sending the invitations to the chiefs of hospital pharmacies (n = 24) and medical dispensaries (n = 94) by using the e-mail register of the University of Helsinki and Satefa (Finnish Association of hospital and health centre pharmacists). Before compiling the questionnaire six theme interviews were conducted to set up the questionnaire. The survey respondents were asked to submit information about development projects and research reports if they had explored the benefits of ward pharmacy services. The response rate was 60 % (n/N = 72/118). A half of the respondents (n = 36) reported having ward pharmacy services in their units. Benefits were explored in 12 units and nine project reports were received. Altogether 157 pharmacists were working in 242 wards at the time of the survey in spring 2011. Most common tasks were providing drug information to ward personnel, drug logistics and dispensing drugs to patient specific doses. Patient oriented tasks were increased, including prescription and medication reviews, taking part on medical rounds and medication counselling gave patient information were reported. The most reported benefits on ward pharmacy services were increased multiprofessional collaboration, saved working time of nurses and physicians, decreased drug costs and decreased number of medication errors and/or enhanced reporting habits and developed functions on wards. Respondents also believed that ward pharmacy services can have positive impact on length of stay, readmission and hospitalisations and mortality during hospitalization, but these benefits were not demonstrated by studies. In the future it would be important to develop the Finnish ward pharmacy services by following the international example and the principles of pharmaceutical care. The help of automation technology and pharmacy technicians should be exploited more in drug logistics. The economical and patient related outcomes of new clinical and patient oriented services should be proved in Finland and the results of the researches and projects made in hospital and health centres should be published more.
  • Kelemen, Eszter; Pataki, György; Konstantinou, Zoi; Varumo, Liisa; Paloniemi, Riikka; Pereira, Tânia R.; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel; Vandewalle, Marie; Young, Juliette (Elsevier Science, 2021)
    Environmental Science and Policy 123, 91-98
    An approach that has been suggested as potentially addressing the challenges of science-policy-interfaces (SPIs) is the mobilization of existing networks through a ‘network-of-networks’ (NoN) approach. This paper shares empirical findings from a mixed-method study, combining qualitative and quantitative data, that critically evaluates the ‘network-of-networks’ approach for SPIs. To establish whether and how a NoN can help existing networks act more effectively at the boundary of science and policy, we use the Eklipse Mechanism as a key example. We analyse the major characteristics of networks active in biodiversity-focused science-policy interactions, the potential roles and types of engagement of participants, and the major challenges faced by networks and individuals when acting at the boundaries of science and policy. Results suggest that the more diverse the actors involved, the more effective the SPI. While a formalized EU-level SPI for biodiversity is welcomed by most respondents, willingness and actual potential to contribute to such an entity differed amongst networks, highlighting that contributions to SPIs are highly dependent on individual and organizational capacities. The challenges faced by individuals and networks range from limited resources to effective communication and achieving meaningful impact even if the institutional context is unrewarding. To make a ‘network-of-networks’ model fully operational requires meeting the capacity building needs of networks, providing institutional support, and creating room for wider engagement.
  • Lahti, Lauri (Helsingfors universitet, 2006)
    The study examines various uses of computer technology in acquisition of information for visually impaired people. For this study 29 visually impaired persons took part in a survey about their experiences concerning acquisition of infomation and use of computers, especially with a screen magnification program, a speech synthesizer and a braille display. According to the responses, the evolution of computer technology offers an important possibility for visually impaired people to cope with everyday activities and interacting with the environment. Nevertheless, the functionality of assistive technology needs further development to become more usable and versatile. Since the challenges of independent observation of environment were emphasized in the survey, the study led into developing a portable text vision system called Tekstinäkö. Contrary to typical stand-alone applications, Tekstinäkö system was constructed by combining devices and programs that are readily available on consumer market. As the system operates, pictures are taken by a digital camera and instantly transmitted to a text recognition program in a laptop computer that talks out loud the text using a speech synthesizer. Visually impaired test users described that even unsure interpretations of the texts in the environment given by Tekstinäkö system are at least a welcome addition to complete perception of the environment. It became clear that even with a modest development work it is possible to bring new, useful and valuable methods to everyday life of disabled people. Unconventional production process of the system appeared to be efficient as well. Achieved results and the proposed working model offer one suggestion for giving enough attention to easily overlooked needs of the people with special abilities. ACM Computing Classification System (1998): K.4.2 Social Issues: Assistive technologies for persons with disabilities I.4.9 Image processing and computer vision: Applications
  • Moe, Hallvard; Hovden, Jan Fredrik; Karppinen, Kari (2021)
    The concept of exposure diversity, the diversity of information that people actually access and use, has recently gained prominence in media policy debates. This aspect of media diversity, however, remains difficult to define, measure or implement in actual policy. In this article, we propose an empirical approach that operationalizes exposure diversity in terms of news and current affairs providers in the media repertoire of different social groups. This can be studied through cluster analysis of survey data on respondents? combinations of use of different media providers and outlets. The article first discusses exposure diversity as a media policy aim. We then outline our proposal on how to take the debate a step further through empirical analysis of media repertoires, with an illustration of how such an analysis may be conducted using survey data from Norway.