Browsing by Subject "swine"

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  • Lassen, Brian; Oliviero, Claudio; Orro, Toomas; Jukola, Elias; Laurila, Tapio; Haimi-Hakala, Minna; Heinonen, Mari (2017)
    The husbandry of pigs for meat production is a constantly developing industry. Most studies on the effects of Ascaris suum infection in pigs and its prevention with anthelmintics are over a decade old. We examined the effect of 2.5 mg fenbendazole per kg bodyweight administered in drinking water for two consecutive days on A. suum infection 1 and 6 weeks after pigs arrived to fattening units. We hypothesised that the treatment would reduce the presence of A. suum-infections, improve the average daily weight gain of pigs, reduce the percentage of liver rejections in pens by 50% and increase the lean meat percentage at slaughter by 1%. The study included a placebo group (427 pigs) and a treatment group (420 pigs) spanning four different farms previously reporting ≥15% liver rejection. The treatment was given for 2 consecutive days 1 and 6 weeks after the pigs arrived to the fattening unit. Faecal samples were collected during weeks 1, 6 and 12 from all pigs and examined for A. suum eggs. Blood was collected during weeks 1 and 12 from a subgroup of the pigs and examined for anti-A. suum antibodies and clinical blood parameters. Data on liver rejection and lean meat percentage were collected post-mortem. The proportion of Ascaris seropositive pigs changed from 8.6% to 22.2% and 20.3% to 16.3% in the placebo and treatment group respectively. Fenbendazole reduced the presence of A. suum eggs in faeces the percentage of liver rejections by 69.8%. The treatment did not affect daily weight gain or lean meat percentage. Pigs with A. suum eggs in faeces at week 6 had a lower average daily weight gain of 61.8 g/day compared with pigs without parasite eggs. Fenbendazole treatment may be a useful option for farms struggling with persistent A. suum problems and demonstrate a beneficial effect on the weight gain of the animals shedding eggs in faeces and result in fewer condemned livers at slaughter.
  • Mikkola, Aino (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Before parturition the wild boar uses plant material to build a nest, which provides the piglets shelter and keeps them warm. Despite domestication, this behaviour has remained as an important part of maternal behaviour in the domestic pig. Nest building behaviour has a big impact on modern pig production, because the possibilities to practise this behaviour affect the sow and the piglets in various ways. In this study, we investigated nest building behaviour in a group farrowing system. We also studied how nest building behaviour is associated to the sow’s physiology and performance. A total of 31 farrowings of 23 group-housed sows were investigated. The nest building behavior and the location of the sows were monitored continuosly starting 24 hours prior to farrowing. When the sow farrowed, blood and colostrum samples were collected to assess the concentrations of progesterone and immunoglobulins. Also the duration of farrowing, the yield of colostrum and the piglets’ growth, colostrum intake and mortality were observed. The sows had excellent conditions for nest building, because they could move freely in their own group farrowing department and had access to large amounts of straw to use as a nest building material. The total duration of nest building behaviour and the way it was distributed varied greatly between sows. Nest building behaviour started on average 23 h 7 min before farrowing and ceased approximately 18 min before farrowing. The mean total duration of nest building behaviour during 24 hours before farrowing was 4 h 29 min. Most of the nest building behaviour, 3 h 32 min, occurred 12–0 h before farrowing and the peak was seen 6–4 hours prior to farrowing. Younger sows started nest building behaviour earlier and spent less time in the pens than older sows. Starting nest building behaviour earlier correlated with a shorter duration of farrowing and, to a lesser extent, with a smaller number of stillborn piglets. Abundant nest building during 24–12 hours before farrowing tended to correlate with lower piglet mortality in the age of 1–3 days. Opposite to our assumptions, abundant nest building during 12–0 hours before farrowing correlated with poorer piglet growth. Nest building behaviour wasn’t related to colostrum yield and intake or the concentrations of progesterone and immunoglobulins. In conclusion, the total duration of nest building behaviour was greater in group farrowing system than in previously studied systems (farrowing crate, loose farrowing pen). Especially the early start of nest building had a positive effect on sows’ performance.
  • Keltto, Katri (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    Ketoprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) widely used for the treatment of pain in sheep and swine. Information of correct ketoprofen doses in different animal species is limited. The correct dose cannot be reliably extrapolated based on other species or human. The problem in cases of suspected overdose is knowing whether the given dose was toxic. The objective of the study with sheep was to figure out if the kinetics of ketoprofen is altered by a tenfold overdose, study the effect of the overdose to kidneys and find out a way to diagnose overdose by a simple urine test. The objective of the study with swine was to figure out the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of ketoprofen after oral, intramuscular and intravenous administration. The most important variables were AUC0-_, Cmax and Tmax. Bioavailability was calculated based on intravascular administration. 30 mg/kg ketoprofen was administered intravenously to six sheep. The concentration of ketoprofen in sheep plasma was followed for 24 hours. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated afterwards. Blood and urine samples were analysed to detect enzyme markers indicating possible renal failure. The sheep were finished off 24 hours after the administration and the possible damage to kidneys was evaluated from histological samples. Ketoprofen was also administered to eight swine. The doses were 3 mg/kg of oral, intramuscular and intravascular, and 6 mg/kg of oral ketoprofen. The study was performed as a randomized, cross-over study. The concentration of ketoprofen in swine plasma was followed for 48 hours after administration. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated and bioequivalence evaluated afterwards. The in vivo -studies of both of the studies as well as the histological study of the kidneys, and the urine and blood analysis except for the analysis of ketoprofen concentration, were carried out by the researchers of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Plasma ketoprofen concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Drug concentration and pharmacokinetic analysis were carried out in the Faculty of Pharmacy. The tenfold dose of ketoprofen was toxic in sheep. Serum concentrations of urea and creatinine increased. Histological samples revealed acute tubular damage. Many urine enzyme concentrations increased. The rise of urine lactate dehydrogenase (LD) concentration was most significant and earliest. LD appears to be a potential marker of a toxic ketoprofen dose. Compared with the therapeutic dose, overdose did not affect ketoprofen elimination rate from plasma, so the kinetics of ketoprofen was not altered. AUC- and Cmax -values were over tenfold compared to the therapeutic dose, so the values did not rise linearly as the dose reached a toxic level. Bioequivalence of ketoprofen in swine was not observed between different routes of administration. The bioavailability was excellent in all routes of administration. Tmax was slightly over one hour after administration. Cmax and AUC were 5,1 mg/l and 32 mg l-1 h after oral 3 mg/kg dose and 7,6 mg/l and 37 mg l-1 h after intramuscular dose. The increases in AUC and Cmax were linear between the different dosages of oral ketoprofen. The difference of the elimination rates between oral and intravascular administration was statistically significant. Ketoprofen distribution volume and clearance did not differ significantly between different routes of administration.
  • Koskinen, Juho; Keto-Timonen, Riikka; Virtanen, Sonja; Vilar, Maria J.; Korkeala, Hannu (2019)
    Pigs are considered the main reservoir of Yersinia enterocolitica, and hence, understanding the ecology of this foodborne pathogen at the farm level is crucial. We calculated Bayesian estimates for the ability of a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) diagnostic test kit to detect antibodies against pathogenic Yersinia in pigs. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were 75.4% and 98.1%, respectively. We also studied the dynamics of Y. enterocolitica infection in 3 farrow-to-finish pig farms by following the same 30 pens of pigs through their lifetime from farrowing unit to slaughterhouse. Each farm was sampled 4 times, and 864 fecal and 730 serum samples were collected altogether. Pathogenic Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 was isolated from 31.6% of the fecal samples by culturing, and Yersinia antibodies were detected in 38.2% of the serum samples with the commercial ELISA test. The pathogen was not isolated from farrowing units or all-in/all-out weaning units. However, in the weaning and fattening units using continuous management systems, the pathogen was isolated from every pen at some point of the study. After the pigs were transported into slaughterhouse, 150 tonsils were collected and 96.7% were positive by culturing. Among the strains isolated from feces and tonsils, 56 different genotypes of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 were found by multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA). Finally, we collected tonsils of 266 sows from 115 farrowing farms, and Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 was detected in 6.0% of the samples by the culture method, whereas 77.1% of the tonsils were serologically positive; the estimate for true seroprevalence was 95.8%. In conclusion, sows may not be the main source of Y. enterocolitica for piglets, although sows may still play a role in maintaining Y. enterocolitica in pig farms. Instead, pigs appear to get this foodborne pathogen mainly during the fattening period, especially if continuous management is applied.
  • Kauffold, Johannes; Peltoniemi, Olli; Wehrend, Axel; Althouse, Gary C. (2019)
    Simply Summary: Real-time ultrasonography (RTU) has become an essential diagnostic value when assessing female swine reproduction in either individual or groups of animals. Diagnostic application of RTU is applied throughout most stages of production, including gilt development, breeding, gestation and farrowing. Along with its most common use in on-farm assessment of pregnancy status, RTU is also used to troubleshoot disruptions in reproductive performance such as delayed puberty, prolonged wean-to-estrus interval, absence of post-weaning estrus, decreased conception and farrowing rates, vulval discharge, peripartum and puerperal disorders. This review aims to provide an overview on principles and clinical uses of RTU in female reproduction on commercial swine farms. Abstract: Within the past 30 years, through ongoing technology and portability developments, real-time (b-mode) ultrasonography (RTU) has increasingly become a valuable diagnostic tool in assessing the female reproductive tract in swine. Initially applied in swine production to visually determine pregnancy status, RTU use has expanded to include assessment of the peri-pubertal and mature non-pregnant females as well. Transabdominal and transrectal modalities to visualizing the reproductive tract in swine have been reported with the transabdominal approach more common due to the fact of its ease of accessibility, animal/personnel safety, and reduced time to perform. Adjustable frequency transducers are preferred as they allow optimization of image quality at various depths. If a single transducer frequency must be selected, a 5 MHz probe provides the best versatility for visualizing the reproductive tract in swine. Other basic requirements for ultrasound equipment which will be used on commercial swine farms include being light weight and easy to handle, readily cleanable and disinfectable, long battery-life, and good durability. When using RTU for pregnancy determination, diagnosis is based upon a combination of the animal's breeding records, the presence of embryonic fluid, and, depending upon gestational stage, fetal structures. If RTU is used as a diagnostic tool in assessing reproductive problems in an individual or a group of animals, sonographic evaluation of both the uterus and ovaries is performed. Tissues are delineated and assessed based upon their echogenicity, echotexture, and size. Uses of RTU in clinical practice may include assessment of delayed puberty, prolonged wean-to-estrus interval, absence of post-weaning estrus, herd disruptions in conception and farrowing rates, vulval discharge, peripartum and puerperal disorders. This review aims to provide an overview on principles and clinical uses of RTU with respect to application to address female reproductive performance issues in commercial swine operations.
  • Pieters, R. J; Slotved, H. C; Møller Mortensen, H.; Arler, L; Finne, J; Haataja, Sauli; Joosten, J. A. F; Branderhorst, H. M; Krogfelt, K. A (2013)