Browsing by Subject "systemaattinen teologia"

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  • Hietamäki, Minna (2008)
    The purpose of this study is to analyse the development and understanding of the idea of consensus in bilateral dialogues among Anglicans, Lutherans and Roman Catholics. The source material consists of representative dialogue documents from the international, regional and national dialogues from the 1960s until 2006. In general, the dialogue documents argue for agreement/consensus based on commonality or compatibility. Each of the three dialogue processes has specific characteristics and formulates its argument in a unique way. The Lutheran-Roman Catholic dialogue has a particular interest in hermeneutical questions. In the early phases, the documents endeavoured to describe the interpretative principles that would allow the churches to together proclaim the Gospel and to identify the foundation on which the agreement in the church is based. This investigation ended up proposing a notion of basic consensus , which later developed into a form of consensus that seeks to embrace, not to dismiss differences (so-called differentiated consensus ). The Lutheran-Roman Catholic agreement is based on a perspectival understanding of doctrine. The Anglican-Roman Catholic dialogue emphasises the correctness of interpretations. The documents consciously look towards a common future , not the separated past. The dialogue s primary interpretative concept is koinonia. The texts develop a hermeneutics of authoritative teaching that has been described as the rule of communion . The Anglican-Lutheran dialogue is characterised by an instrumental understanding of doctrine. Doctrinal agreement is facilitated by the ideas of coherence, continuity and substantial emphasis in doctrine. The Anglican-Lutheran dialogue proposes a form of sufficient consensus that considers a wide set of doctrinal statements and liturgical practices to determine whether an agreement has been reached to the degree that, although not complete , is sufficient for concrete steps towards unity. Chapter V discusses the current challenges of consensus as an ecumenically viable concept. In this part, I argue that the acceptability of consensus as an ecumenical goal is based not only the understanding of the church but more importantly on the understanding of the nature and function of the doctrine. The understanding of doctrine has undergone significant changes during the time of the ecumenical dialogues. The major shift has been from a modern paradigm towards a postmodern paradigm. I conclude with proposals towards a way to construct a form of consensus that would survive philosophical criticism, would be theologically valid and ecumenically acceptable.
  • Kitanov, Severin (Severin Valentinov Kitanov, 2006)
    This dissertation examines the concept of beatific enjoyment (fruitio beatifica) in scholastic theology and philosophy in the thirteenth and early fourteenth century. The aim of the study is to explain what is enjoyment and to show why scholastic thinkers were interested in discussing it. The dissertation consists of five chapters. The first chapter deals with Aurelius Augustine's distinction between enjoyment and use and the place of enjoyment in the framework of Augustine's view of the passions and the human will. The first chapter also focuses upon the importance of Peter Lombard's Sentences for the transmission of Augustine's treatment of enjoyment in scholastic thought as well as upon Lombard's understanding of enjoyment. The second chapter treats thirteenth-century conceptions of the object and psychology of enjoyment. Material for this chapter is provided by the writings - mostly Sentences commentaries - of Alexander of Hales, Albert the Great, Bonaventure, Thomas Aquinas, Peter of Tarentaise, Robert Kilwardby, William de la Mare, Giles of Rome, and Richard of Middleton. The third chapter inspects early fourteenth-century views of the object and psychology of enjoyment. The fourth chapter focuses upon discussions of the enjoyment of the Holy Trinity. The fifth chapter discusses the contingency of beatific enjoyment. The main writers studied in the third, fourth and fifth chapters are John Duns Scotus, Peter Aureoli, Durandus of Saint Pourçain, William of Ockham, Walter Chatton, Robert Holcot, and Adam Wodeham. Historians of medieval intellectual history have emphasized the significance of the concept of beatific enjoyment for understanding the character and aims of scholastic theology and philosophy. The concept of beatific enjoyment was developed by Augustine on the basis of the insight that only God can satisfy our heart's desire. The possibility of satisfying this desire requires a right ordering of the human mind and a detachment of the will from the relative goals of earthly existence. Augustine placed this insight at the very foundation of the notion of Christian learning and education in his treatise On Christian Doctrine. Following Augustine, the twelfth-century scholastic theologian Peter Lombard made the concept of enjoyment the first topic in his plan of systematic theology. The official inclusion of Lombard's Sentences in the curriculum of theological studies in the early universities stimulated vigorous discussions of enjoyment. Enjoyment was understood as a volition and was analyzed in relation to cognition and other psychic features such as rest and pleasure. This study shows that early fourteenth-century authors deepened the analysis of enjoyment by concentrating upon the relationship between enjoyment and mental pleasure, the relationship between cognition and volition, and the relationship between the will and the beatific object (i.e., the Holy Trinity). The study also demonstrates the way in which the idea of enjoyment was affected by changes in the method of theological analysis - the application of Aristotelian logic in a Trinitarian context and the shift from virtue ethics to normative ethics.
  • Huhtanen, Tiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The present study analyses the concept of revelation in the theology of Walter Kasper (b. 1933). The method of the study is systematic analysis, which focuses on ascertaining the commonalities, characteristics and possible inconsistencies in Kasper's thought. The sources for this study consist of works pertinent to the subject in the corpus of Kasper's writings from 1965 to 2015. In order to offer a full account of Kasper's understanding of revelation, this study analyses the philosophical and theological background of his thought. The present study outlines and discusses Kasper's interpretation of the doctrine of revelation, his understanding of how the Bible should be interpreted and his dogmatic method. This study also discusses Kasper's understanding of the meaning of revelation in the modern era. In line with previous studies of Kasper's theology also this study concludes that the three influences that have most affected Kasper's thought are: German idealist philosophy, the Tübingen School and the Second Vatican Council. This study argues that Kasper's conception of revelation is dynamic and dialogical. With the help of the concepts of German idealist philosophy, especially that of F.W.J Schelling, Kasper sketches a model of revelation theology based on the idea that, precisely because the human being is finite, he is able to conceive that there must lie an infinite ground that is the ground of being of all reality. In the meaning event (Sinnerfahrung) the human being realises that his or her ground of being must lie in infinite reality. The human being s true freedom can only be fulfilled in connection to God, who is himself perfect freedom. This study argues that this basic philosophical framework can open possibilities for dialogue with other world views as well. Kasper argues that the Trinitarian God abides in relation (Father, Son and the Holy Spirit), and the immanent reality of the Trinitarian God is thus reflected in the Creation. As God's creation and God's image, human beings are intended to be in dialogue, both with God and with other human beings. In his self-revelation God gives his promise: he will be with his people always. In the Exodus narrative this promise culminates in the event of the burning bush, in which God gives his Name to Moses (Ex 3,14). In the New Testament literature the promise finds its fulfilment in the Incarnation. The title of this study is Event of the Radically New. The most important observation concerning the modern, post-Vatican II Catholic understanding of theology of revelation is that revelation consists not only of information but rather that it is primarily an event. It is an event in which God reveals himself anew in each particular historical era. It is radical in the sense that it brings something completely new and completely transforming to our reality. As well, it is radical because it reflects the eternal spirit of the Gospel, the roots (radices) of Christian faith. Thus, paradoxically, revelation is at the same time radically eternal and radically new, open to the future. Kasper's theology of revelation culminates in Christology. The truth of the Christian faith, the truth that shapes and renews our reality, is the incarnate Word of God, our Saviour, Jesus Christ. In Christ's full humanity the mystery of the meaning of being human is solved once and for all. Christ is God's freedom, love and mercy incarnate. He is the answer to all search for meaning. In him, reality is interpreted in a completely new, illuminating light. In Christ the majestic quality of God's being (grace, Gnade), appears in human history as mercy (Barmherzigkeit). In Jesus Christ, Christians find the fulfilment of their yearning for a new, meaningful experience: a fulfilment that modern man so determinedly, but in vain, tries to find in immanent reality. Keywords: Walter Kasper, revelation, faith and knowledge, atheism, freedom 
  • Kylliäinen, Antti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The subjects of this doctoral dissertation are the concepts of virtue and value. Both concepts have substantial roles in the history of moral philosophy, and they still belong to the core concepts of ethics. Despite this their meanings and purposes in modern societies have become obscure and their roles in the lives of both individuals and communities smaller than they would deserve. The aim of this study is to enable the return of virtues and values to the roles and parts they belong to in the lives of both the society and its members. This requires answering questions like what virtues and values are, what is their connection to good, how they function, to whom they belong and what is their mutual connection. The method of the study is concept and argument analysis. However, the purpose of the study is not to create a new theory of virtues and values but to find practical ethical instruments for individuals, communities, and society by sketching plausible and useful concepts of virtue and value. The purposes of the study are thereby strongly connected to applied ethics and social philosophy. The study on virtues starts from the virtue theory formulated by Aristotle in Nicomachean Ethics. Answers to open questions concerning Aristotelean ethics are searched for in recent moral philosophical discussions on virtues. The study results in sketching a neo-Aristotelian notion of virtues based on idea of human being as a social animal. Virtues are characteristics that make human beings good human beings and benefit both the individual herself and the surrounding community when acting correctly in correct situations. They are contextual which among other things means that in the end only the community itself has the right to name and to define the virtues that are regarded essential in its realm. Values are studied mostly through the texts of Finnish 20th century philosophers. The discussion on values is concentrated on the questions of separating values from means and the ownership of values. The study results in accepting as values only intrinsic values set by society as its objectives and thereby separating values both from means and preferences concerning values of individuals and communities. Values and virtues are pointed out to have a clear conceptual and when functioning well also practical connection. In the last section of the study the discussion on virtues and values is applied to education and organizational life. In moral education the objectives of socialization and individualization are achieved when both values and virtues are understood as aims in educating children. The prerequisites of operation in an organization are ideally fulfilled when the organization can lean on values of the society and virtues of the personnel.
  • Kojonen, Erkki Vesa Rope (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Intelligent Design (ID) is a contemporary attempt to defend the idea that the order of nature bears marks of its Creator. The movement began in the U.S.A. during the 1980´s and 1990´s, and its claims about the relationship of theology and science, and its critique of evolutionary theory have caused much controversy. This study is a theological and philosophical analysis of ID s design argument and its presuppositions. ID is contrasted with naturalistic evolutionism and theistic evolutionism, and related to the broader discussion of natural theology. The study attempts to provide a more balanced and nuanced view of both the strengths and weaknesses of ID s argumentation than much of the previous discussion. The study s main focus is on increasing understanding of the ID movement s argumentation, but some evaluation of the arguments of the discussion is also included and criticisms are developed. ID s design arguments are quite minimalistic, not aspiring to prove the existence of God, but merely of an unidentified intelligent designer of cosmic and biological teleology. It also emphasizes the scientific nature of its design argument. Consequently, much discussion has focused on the question of whether ID is better understood as part of the natural sciences, or as philosophical-theological idea. Though this study also considers this philosophical question, it also emphasis that it is not the central question of the debate, since good arguments are not restricted to science. So, it is more interesting to ask why people believe or do not believe in the designedness of the cosmos and how good the arguments for each view are. The definition of natural science is a side-issue in the discussion of these questions. The study argues that ID s design argument is best understood as an inference to the best explanation that is supported by the analogy between nature s teleological order and the teleological capabilities of minds. The credibility of this design argument depends not only on our philosophical and theological background beliefs, but also on the empirical evidence. Theological and philosophical a priori -considerations arguments are not sufficient to settle the debate on ID apart from empirical study of what the world is like. Nevertheless, the theistic and naturalistic worldviews that have been defended in the discussion are not based merely on scientific data, but also on philosophical, metaphysical and theological considerations. While emphasizing its scientific nature, the ID movement also seeks to build bridges between science and religion. Rather than conflicting with each other, ID argues that science and theology support each other, when they are rightly understood. Though this study supports the basic premise that there can be mutually beneficial dialogue between science and theology, it also warns against emphasizing the importance of scientific arguments to such an extent that the broader metaphysical, philosophical and theological nature of the doctrine of creation and the value of non-scientific arguments is forgotten. The study also argues that contrary to some of ID s argumentation, one can believe both in divine design and Darwinian evolution at the same time. This compatibility thesis can surprisingly be argued not only on the basis of broader theological and philosophical arguments, but also on the basis of the ID movement s own ideas.
  • Nurminen, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    God or Me? Two Different Understandings of Justification within Conservative Laestadianism in the 1970s. The present study analyses the understandings of justification within Conservative Laestadianism during the 1970s. The hypothesis of the study was that there had to have been at least two different understandings of justification within Conservative Laestadianism during the 1970s and those understandings were so markedly different from one another that it's impossible to say that they are similar. The method of the study is systematic analysis. The sources for this study consist of the publications of the SRK in the 1970s, e.g. devotional books and the weekly newspaper Päivämies. The results of this dissertation show that there were at least two different understandings of justification amoung Conservative Laestadianism during the 1970s. In this dissertation these consepts are called grace approach (armolinja) and sanctification approach (pyhityslinja). These two approaches were not, in and of themselves, established doctrinal positions of two opposing factions, but were rather constructs of thinking and teaching. The theological differences of the two approaches start from an understanding of sin, the work of Christ and free will (arbitrium), and they show through the whole theology. The heart of theology of grace approach is that the righteousness of God in Christ is both grace (favor) and a gift (donum). Both are given to a Christian through Christ. In fact, Christ IS grace and gift and Christian receives those by faith in the union with Christ. This union is not a relational but an actual, ontological participation. Christ, in both his person and his work, is truly present in faith and unites himself with a believer in faith. In the person of Christ, a Christian receives the righteousness of God in exchange for his or hers sinfulness. According to grace approach justification is both effective and forensic. They both are given to a Christian by Christ in the union. The union effects a total renovation and transformation of man although a Christian still stays totally sinfull (totus peccator). A Christian is free from the power of death and sin and he or she lives in God. In this sense, a Christian is purified from sin. The analysis demonstrates that according to grace approach, effective justification is not a process in a Christian. The righteousness of Christ is foreign and it has come outside of a Christian. It doesn't transform the substans of a Christian, and a sinner can't gain control over it (the righteousness of Christ), but at the same time, it's totally his or hers own in faith. In the union with Christ a Christian is totus iustus and totus peccator. The grace approach claims that the righteousness of God is not exclusively/only a real presence of Christ but it is also forensically imputed to the sinners - because of the real presence of Christ. That's why God is favorable towards a sinner: a Christian lives continually covered by God's forgiveness and favor. The Christian exists simul iustus et peccator, as justified and sinner, at one and the same time. The sanctification approach contains a purely forensic understanding of justification in which the righteousness of faith is construed merely, or exclusively, as a new relationship with God. In fact, the results of the dissertation show that the sanctification approach has a synergistic consept of justification: God gives tools for salvation but it's a sinner's responsibility to both choose salvation (free will, liberum arbitrium) and to keep it. Thus, the sanctification approach s emphasis shift from a forensic justification orientation to the role of the sinner s own efforts to keep himself or herself spiritually immaculate (righteous) by using absolution.
  • Rantalainen, Anne (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Tutkimuksen kohde on roomalaiskatolisen teologin Hans Urs von Balthasarin (1905–1988) kirja Mary for Today (1988). Tavoitteena on selvittää Balthasarin tulkinta kyseisessä kirjassa Neitsyt Mariasta kirkkona, ja miten sitä voi tulkita nykyaikana. Katolisessa teologiassa mariologia on oma tieteenalansa, ja katolilaisille Maria edustaa kirkkoa. Tutkimus tuo esiin Balthasarin käsityksen kirkosta ja selvittää noudattavatko Balthasarin tulkinnat yleisiä katolisen kirkon näkemyksiä ja dogmeja Mariasta. Tutkimuksen viitekehyksenä on katolinen mariologia, johon liittyvistä asiakirjoista tässä tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan lähemmin paavi Johannes Paavali II:n ensyklikaa Redemptoris Mater sekä Vatikaanin toisen konsiilin katolisen dogmaattisen konstituution Lumen gentiumin - Kirkosta lukua VIII Neitsyt Mariasta. Tutkimusmetodina on systemaattinen analyysi. Balthasaria pidetään usein jopa 1900-luvun merkittävimpänä teologina, ja hänen laajaa tuotantoaan on tutkittu yhä enenevässä määrin, mutta ei juurikaan hänen tulkintojaan Mariasta. Maria on yksi keskeinen selvityskohde katolisten ja reformoitujen kirkkojen välisessä ekumeenisessa dialogissa, ja siksi tutkimus arvostetun katolisen teologin tulkinnasta on tärkeää. Tässä tutkimuksessa ekumeeninen näkökulma nousee esiin kuitenkin vain viitteellisesti. Tutkimuksessa selvisi, että Mary for Today -kirjalla on tiivis yhteys paavin ensyklikaan – Balthasar on tehnyt kiertokirjeeseen kommentaarin, jonka sisältöä hänen kirjansa hyödyntää. Balthasarin yleinen Maria-tulkinta pohjaa vahvasti katoliseen mariologiaan. Hän tarkastelee Mariaa katolilaisille ominaiseen tapaan Marian sisäisten mielenliikkeiden kautta, ja siirtyy välillä Raamattuun ja eksegeettisiin tulkintoihin Marian osuudesta kristologiassa ja soteriologiassa. Balthasar analysoi Marian elämää vaihtelevasti sekä luonnollisen todellisuuden että Raamattuun pohjautuvan, yliluonnollisen todellisuuden välillä – mikä tuo esiin Balthasarin tomistisen taustan. Marian elämän mystisissä, narratiivisissa kuvauskohdissa saattaa olla yhteys Balthasarin ystävyyteen mystikko Adrienne de Speyrin kanssa. Paavi Johannes Paavali II:n ja Balthasarin tausta jesuiittana näkyy rakkauden ja johannekselaisuuden korostuksissa. Balthaarin käsitys Mariasta kirkkona löytyy selkeimmin päälukujen poikittaisanalyysin kautta. Alalukujen tarkastelu rinnakkain tuo esiin Balthasarin käsityksen Mariasta kirkkona, joka sopii sekä kuluvaan aikaan että paruusian odotukseen. Balthasarin kirkko nousee Kaanan häistä ja ristin ääreltä. Kirkko on henkinen tila, johon Jumalan Sana voi tulla. Kirkko ei ole eristetty vaan maailman muutoksessa mukana, mikä sopii Vaikaanin II konsiilin henkeen. Kirkko on määrätietoinen äiti, joka tunnistaa vähäisten tarpet ja ohjaa lapsiaan tekemään Jumalan tahdon. Kirkko tekee Isän tahdon ja taistelee harhakuvia vastaan, jokainen joka seuraa Tietä saa jakaa Isän läsnäolon taivaassa.
  • Taipale, Tuomas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Karthagolainen Tertullianus oli ensimmäinen laajasti latinan kielellä kirjoittanut teologi. Hän käytännössä loi teologisen latinan kielen ja käänsi kristinuskon keskeiset käsitteet kreikan kielestä latinaksi. Tertullianus eli 200 luvun taitteessa ja joutui puolustamaan kristittyjä ja kristinuskoa sekä maallisia vainoajia, että harhaoppeja vastaan. Tertullianuksen teksteistä on haluttu monien filosofien ja teologienkin toimesta etenkin viimeisen kahden sadan vuoden aikana löytää kirkkoisä, joka halusi täysin hylätä järjen ja selittää kaiken uskolla ilman rationaalista ajattelua. Samalla on haluttu tuoda esille se, että Tertullianus olisi ollut sivistyksen ja koulutuksen vastustaja. Lainaukset ovat tuntuneet kuitenkin toisinaan hyvin irrallisilta ja osaa lainauksista ei sellaisenaan löydy Tertullianuksen kirjoituksista. Tässä työssä esitellään Tertullianuksen järjen ja uskon opetus hänen kirjoitustensa perusteella, sekä selvitetään, miten hän ymmärsi järjen ja uskon suhteen toisiinsa. Tekstilähteiksi on etsitty hänen järkeä ja uskoa eniten käsittelevät teoksensa. Tutkimusmetodina on käytetty systemaattista analyysia, jossa järjestelmällisesti on ensin käyty läpi kaikki järki ja usko –sanojen esiintymät. Tämän jälkeen on analysoitu niiden merkitys asiayhteydessään, ja lopuksi on koottu näiden analyysien pohjalta Tertullianuksen kokonaiskäsitykset järjestä, uskosta ja niiden suhteesta toisiinsa. Tertullianuksen opetus järjestä pohjautuu Raamatun, antiikin ajan ja edeltävien kirkkoisien logos-käsityksiin. Jumalallinen järki on logoksen pohjana. Järjen saadessa Logoksen muodon, syntyi Poika, jolla on myös Jumalan järki. Synteesinä näistä opeista Tertullianus opettaa Jumalan luomistyössä ihmiseen puhaltaman hengen muodostavan kuolemattoman sielun, johon ihmisjärkikin osana kuuluu. Järki on loogiseen ymmärtämiseen liittyvä osa, joka on annettu myös uskon apuvälineeksi ihmiselle. Tertullianus, opettaessaan uskosta, tulee kirjoittaneeksi lähes sanasta sanaan yli 100 vuotta myöhemmin Nikean kirkolliskokouksessa hyväksytyn uskontunnustuksen. Kolminaisuusoppi oli sama, kuin se on tänäkin päivänä. Sakramentti otetaan Tertullianuksen mukaan uskolla vastaan, ja usko on apostolinen, eli yksi ja sama kuin opetuslapsilla alkukirkossa. Raamattuun perustuva apostolinen usko auttaa erottamaan harhaopit ja välttämään niitä. Järki ja usko kuuluvat Tertullianuksen opetuksessa oleellisesti yhteen, ja hän itse käyttää kaikkea sivistystään ja tiedollista osaamistaan perustellessaan ja puolustaessaan kristinuskon oppeja ja tapoja ensin maallisille tuomioistuimille ja sitten harhaoppisille. Tertullianuksen tekstit osoittavat, että järkeä tulee käyttää syvässä yhteydessä uskon kanssa ja uskon vaikuttamana evankeliumin työn hyväksi Jeesuksen lähetyskäskyn mukaisesti.
  • Räsänen, Niilo (Suomalainen Teologinen Kirjallisuusseura, 2007)
    This dissertation examines James I. Packer s view of the Bible as the book of God s revelation. However, this study could not be complete without discussion of his background ideas about God, man and the foundations of theology. The research method used in this dissertation is systematic analysis. I analyse key theological concepts in the data, such as inerrancy, God s word and the covenant of grace, and examine Packer s concepts primarily in the context of the reformed tradition that he represents. Although the dissertation presents the philosophical premises of Packer s thought, the focus is on an analysis of theological concepts. Packer claims to approach theological issues broadly and to reject legalism. However, he also considers Calvinist thinking to be best suited to theological work and emphasises the central role of law in his view of the Bible. My dissertation pays particular attention to the status of law in Packer s theology and especially in the covenant of grace. The dissertation shows that the fundamental theological structure of Packer s view of the Bible is based on Puritan covenant theology, which consists of the temporally successive covenant of works and covenant of grace. Covenant theology stresses the connection and friendship between God and man. Man s highest goal according to the Westminster Confession of Faith (1647) is to glorify the triune God and to rejoice in him for all eternity. After the fall of man, this friendship between God and man can only take place in the covenant of grace. For Packer, the covenant of grace encompasses not only the time of the Gospel, but also the time of the law before the Gospel. Consequently, the covenant of grace incorporates in its very essence the demand of obedience to God s law. Covenant theology forms the foundation for both his view of the Bible and his idea that a believer lives in a covenant of grace, the key aspects of which are God s commandments and man s works. Law and the Gospel are not considered fundamental opposites in the covenant of grace, unlike in justification. In the covenant of grace, man has become God s friend who obeys the law as the law of Christ in a way which differs from Luther s view of obedience to the faith . For Packer, covenant theology is a Puritan instrument to link predestination and sanctification. Works committed in obedience show that the believer belongs to the covenant of grace and will be among the saved. Although voluntary obedience to God s commandments is not a direct instrument to achieve salvation, it is a pivotal sign of predestination. God calls the predestined to salvation with an effectual calling, the reliable message of the Bible. In sanctification, God guides a believer living in the context of covenantal nomism. In that sense, the Bible is above all an instrument of law guided by reason. In man s obedience, God completes man s nature and restores the imago Dei in man.
  • King, Yvonne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Tässä tutkielmassa tarkastelen responsibilistisen hyvetietoteorian kontekstissa motivaation käsitettä. Analyysin lähteinä ovat Linda Zagzebskin Virtues of the Mind (1996), Jason Baehrin The Inquiring Mind (2011) sekä Zagzebskin ja Baehrin välillä käyty keskustelu Are Intellectually Virtuous Motives Essential to Knowledge? (2014) Tutkimuskysymys on mitä kirjoittajat tarkoittavat motivaatiolla ja miten käsite liittyy hyveisiin ja tietoon. Tutkielma muodostuu johdannon ja johtopäätösten lisäksi taustoittavasta luvusta, analyysiluvusta ja luvusta, jossa esitellään aiheen uskonnonfilosofisia sovelluksia. Taustaluvussa käydään läpi analyyttisen epistemologian piirissä 1900-luvulla ilmenneitä keskusteluja, modernin hyve-epistemologian synty reaktiona näihin keskusteluihin ja hyve-epistemologian erilaisia suuntauksia. Analyysiluvun tarkoitus on vastata tutkimuskysymykseen lähdetekstien perusteella. Sovellusluvussa esitän hyvemotivoituneen tietokäsityksen mahdollisuuksia vastata uskonnolliseen tietoon liittyviin kysymyksiin. Motivaatio on oleellinen osa molempien kirjoittajien hyvetietoteoreettista mallia. Zagzebski ja Baehr käyttävät eri käsitteitä motivaation kuvaamiseen, mutta molemmat kirjoittajat käyttävät motivaatiota hyveen määritelmän osana. Kirjoittajien erimielisyydet liittyvät selkeimmin tiedon määrittelyyn ja hyvemotivaatioiden rooliin tiedon instansseissa. Tämä kertoo kirjoittajien lähtökohtaisesta erimielisyydestä hyveiden mahdollisuudesta vastata perinteisiin uskonnonfilosofisiin kysymyksiin.
  • Anttila, Miikka E. (2011)
    The aim of the study is to examine Luther s theology of music from the standpoint of pleasure. The theological assessment of musical pleasure is related to two further questions: the role of emotions in Christianity and the apprehension of beauty. The medieval discussion of these themes is portrayed in the background chapter. Significant traits were: the suspicion felt towards sensuous gratification in music, music as a mathematical discipline, the medieval theory of emotions informed by Stoic apatheia and Platonic-Aristotelian metriopatheia, the notion of beauty as an attribute of God, medieval aesthetics as the aesthetic of proportion and the aesthetic of light and the emergence of the Aristotelian view of science that is based on experience rather than speculation. The treatment of Luther s theology of music is initiated with the notion of gift. Luther says that music is the excellent (or even the best) gift of God. This has sometimes been understood as a mere music-lover s enthusiasm. Luther is, however, not likely to use the word gift loosely. His theology can be depicted as a theology of gift. The Triune God is categorically giving. The notion of gift also includes reciprocity. When we receive the gifts of God, it evokes praise in us. Praising God is predominantly a musical phenomenon. The particular benefit of music in Luther s thought is that it can move human emotions. This emphasis is connected to the overall affectivity of Luther s theology. In contrast to the medieval discussion, Luther ascribes to saints not just emotions but particularly warm and tender affections. The power of music is related to the auditory and vocal character of the Word. Faith comes through hearing the Word that is at once musical and affective perception. Faith is not a mere opinion but the affective trust of the heart. Music can touch the human heart and persuade with its sweetness, like the good news of the Gospel. Music allows us to perceive Luther s theology as a theology of joy and pleasure. Joy is for Luther a gift of the Holy Spirit that fills the heart and bursts out in voice and gestures. Pleasure appears to be a central aspect to Luther s theology. The problem of the Bondage of the Will is precisely the human inability to feel pleasure in God s will. To be pleased in the visible and tangible creation is not something a Christian should avoid. On the contrary, if one is not pleased with the world that God has created, it is a sign of unbelief and ingratitude. The pleasure of music is aesthetic perception. This in turn necessitates the investigation of Luther s aesthetics. Aesthetic evaluation is not just a part of Luther s thought. Eventually his theology as a whole could be portrayed in aesthetic terms. Luther s extremely positive appreciation of music illutrates his theology as an affective acknowledgement of the goodness of the Creation and faith as an aesthetic contentment.
  • Haataja, Heikki (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The objective of this research was to explicate Urho Muroma's understanding of regeneration and sanctification. The study afforded special attention to the part the human will plays in regeneration and sanctification. The research method was systematic analysis. The study demonstrated that Muroma's soteriology is structured by his interpretation of God as “righteous love”, who, on the basis of original sin (peccatum originale) does not condemn anyone to perdition. God gives everyone the possibility to accept salvation or to reject it. In Muroma's opinion, since all do not receive this option during this life, God will arrange this opportunity for these people in the life hereafter. According to Muroma, regeneration does not take place in water baptism. It is only through spiritual awakening (vocatio et illuminatio), conversion (conversio), and justification through faith (iustificatio per fidem) that we reach the experience of regeneration (regeneratio), which enables sanctification. Muroma thinks that without a free decision of the will no one can be saved. In the Fall, people did lose the freedom of the will (liberum arbitrium), but during “a time of visitation” people receive a free will (liberatum arbitrium = the freed will). Conversion is an act of the will involving free choice and “unconditonal surrender”. Through the decision of the will, people are capable of “opening up to God's influence.” This then resolves the salvation of a person – not God's choice. Thus, Muroma's soteriology is left with a synergistic feature. Justification is a prerequisite for receiving the Holy Spirit and takes place through concious faith (fides directa) “side by side with regeneration.” Sins are not reckoned to those who believe in Christ, but Christ's righteousness is accounted to them (favor, iustificatio forensis). Muroma joins together the aspects of forensic and effective justification (iustificatio forensis et effectiva). Both “Christ for us” (Christus pro nobis) and “Christ in us” (Christus in nobis) is justification for the sinner before God (coram Deo). When Christ enters into the hearts of believers through the Holy Spirit (donum), they will be regenerated (regeneratio) “as new creations” in Christ. Per Muroma, regeneration means becoming a participant in the “divine nature” and the renewal of the image of God (imago Dei). The divine nature is Christ Himself (Christus in nobis). Muroma argues that regeneration is a unique event (regeneratio momentanea), the “basic experience” in which people are transferred from the realm of Satan to become the children of God. Muroma states that sanctification (sanctification) is the prerequisite for ultimate salvation. God has determined to make each and every regenerated person “into the likeness of Christ”. Yet Muroma affirms that most believers have become stalled in their spiritual growth “at the level of a carnal Christian”. While on the one hand he emphasizes sanctification as the prerequisite of salvation, on the other hand he, under pressure, teaches – in the manner of the Keswick Movement – that “even carnal” Christians, provided they remain in faith to Christ, will ultimately be saved, even though sanctification had not materialized in them in the way God willed. The role of Christ is emphasized in Muroma's understanding of sanctification. “Entire Christianity” aspires to the likeness of Christ. Nonetheless, he emphasizes the role of the Holy Spirit. When the Holy Spirit gains “an absolute hold” on believers, He will mold them into the likeness of Christ. This is why being filled with the Holy Spirit is the necessary prerequisite of sanctification. In Muroma's theology, “being filled with the Holy Spirit” requires “total surrender” – an act of volition. First, those who are not regenerated must “surrender themselves totally to the Lord” in order to be born again. After that, those born again are to “decisively surrender themselves to the Lord” in order to be filled with the Holy Spirit. Muroma seems to have adopted the emphasis typical of the Keswick Movement, where the volitional act of “total surrender” is a prerequisite for a higher level of a life of faith. Regenerate persons in “total surrender” give themselves and their will to Christ. It is “a crucial step” and “a decisive act”, the result of which is that believers are filled with the Holy Spirit. For Muroma, even though changing into the likeness of Christ remains for most people weak and defective in their lifetime, there are Christians whose Christlikeness is unusually manifest. They are filled with the Holy Spirit, reflecting the mind, humility, courage of faith and strength of Christ. Nevertheless, Muroma stresses that these very people themselves feel they are more deficient than any other Christians. While Muroma contends Christians do not free themselves from sin in this life, they are nevertheless not supposed to live as if “the flesh” had control over them. Christians are to be repeatedly filled with the Holy Spirit whereby “the flesh” remains crucified. Salvation is only fully realized when Christians themselves become freed from “this body of sin”, which is when they will understand why they had had so much tribulation in life. These too have been necessary in order that they might grow into the likeness of Christ.
  • Juutinen, Esko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tämän tutkielman tarkoitus on perehtyä Erik Eriksonin teoksessa Nuori Luther esitettyihin väitteisiin Lutherin opinmuodostuksesta ja opin sisällöstä. Tutkielman tutkimuskysymys on hahmottaa Erik Eriksonin keskeiset väitteet Martin Lutherin identiteetin ja teologian kehityksestä ja näiden yhteyksistä, esittää Eriksonin keskeiset teologiset väitteet ja reflektoida niitä, sekä verrata niitä lyhyesti Olli-Pekka Vainion ja Tuomo Mannermaan Luther-tulkintoihin. Tutkielman lähteenä on Erik Eriksonin teos Nuori Luther, joka on käännös hänen alkuperäisteoksestaan Young Man Luther. Tutkielman metodeina ovat systemaattinen analyysi ja referointi. Tutkielman ensimmäisessä luvussa esitellään Eriksonin tausta ja hänen kaksi varhaista teostaan Nuori Luther ja Lapsuus ja Yhteiskunta. Eriksonin psyko-sosiaalinen kehitysvaiheteoria ja Eriksonin teorian keskeiset käsitteet esitellään referoiden. Tutkielman toisessa luvussa referoidaan Eriksonin teos Nuori Luther keskittyen Lutherin identiteetin ja opin kehitystä käsitteleviin osiin ja Eriksonin tulkintaan Lutherin teologian sisällöstä. Luvun lopuksi esitellään reflektioni teologisia sovelluksia Eriksonin väitteistä. Kolmannessa luvussa tehdään hyvin lyhyt katsaus Olli-Pekka Vainion ja Tuomo Mannermaan Luther-tulkintoihin, ja verrataan niitä Eriksonin vastaaviin väittämiin. Johtopäätöksenä Eriksonin arvio Lutherin identiteetin kehityksestä näyttää mahdollisen version siitä, miten ankaran kasvatuksen saanut Luther kärsii nuorena aikuisena identiteettikriisistä ja pakenee isänsä valmistamia elämänsuunnitelmia luostariin. Vanhan identiteetin menetys, uuden sopimattomuus ja isän hyväksynnän menetys ajavat hänet ahdinkoon, kunnes hän löytää hyväksyvän isähahmon, ja pystyy rakentamaan uuden identiteetin ja teologian. Siinä hän suhtautuu Jumalaan vastaanottavasti kuin lapsi äitiin ja löytää merkityksen kärsimyksilleen samaistamalla ne Kristuksen kärsimyksiksi ja Jumalan läsnäolon osoituksiksi. Eriksonin oletukset tarjoavat hyödyntämiskelpoisen näkökulman Lutherin opinmuodostukseen, mutta hänen tulkintansa Lutherin teologiasta ei ole uskottava. Hänen näkökulmansa inhimillistä Lutheria, ja tarjoaa näkökulmia Lutherin opin kehityksen tulkintaan ja opin näkemiseen osana yksilön identiteetin rakennustarpeita.