Browsing by Subject "systems theory"

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  • Kantasalmi, Kari; Hautamäki, Jarkko (Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, 2019)
  • Kulonen, Minna (1999)
    The thesis focuses on the sociopolitical value promotion by the multinational corporations, which according to the recent research has increased during 1990's. The phenomena is analysed with the help of the concept of 'moral markets', which refers to the continual flux of the contemporary moral values. The moral values are created and enhanced by the actors at the moral markets. The study is the so called pilot study on the phenomena, which has just begun to develop and of which there exists only minimal previous research. The aim of the thesis is to systematically analyse the value promotion of the corporations and the actors and elements related to the phenomena. The system theory, which emphasises the relationship between the organisation and the external environment, is used as a contextual theory. It has been used as a basis in order to form more specific model on the functions of 'the moral markets' and the power hierarchy behind it. The theory of legitimation of power by David Beetham forms the main theory of the study. The thesis is a case study, in which is used both quantitative content analysis and qualitative text analysis. The case corporations are Shell, Nestlé, McDonald's and Nike, which have been and still are on the boycott. The quantitative analysis pointed out that the promotion of values was both relatively extensive and intensive in three of the four case corporations. Also the so called boycott values were in a central position in three of the four cases, which may seem to indicate that boycotts are one essential reason for the value promotion of the case corporations. From the results of the quantitative analysis there was formed the following value promotion profiles: boycott-centric activity (Shell and Nike), 2) symbolic surplus value -centric activity (McDonald's) and 3) boycott-centric passivity (Nestlé). According to the analysis it seems to be that both Shell and Nike are actively involved in the value creation at the moral markets. Also McDonald's seems to participate in the functions of the moral markets. However, in the case of McDonald's the symbolic surplus values and core values seem to be used to direct the attention away from the actual boycotts and its consequences. In the case of Nestlé the corporation is more passive and defensive when regarding the value promotion. Also the legitimation of the corporation is mainly practised by the means of reactive form of control as the legislation and government intervention. The most important sources of the study are the web sites of the case corporations. The other sources of the study are both socio-scientific and economical reviews, journals and books. The material has been achieved also through the Internet.
  • Hansen, Petteri; Wallenius, Tommi; Juvonen, Sara; Varjo, Janne (2020)
    Throughout history educational leaders have looked to other countries and have attempted to learn by borrowing useful examples to implement in their own educational systems. As recent comparative policy research shows, processes of policy lending and borrowing have their own socio-historically defined dynamics. In this paper, the authors approach the use of reference countries through narratives of educational experts in Finland, Norway and Sweden. By comparing how international influences are used in stories about basic education, this research constructs a core narrative of a moving Nordic landscape. This landscape indicates both recognised and acknowledged policy borrowing relations in the past, as well as a changing orientation to preferred and avoided reference countries in the present. While new country-specific performance indicators such as PISA have widened the landscape of reference countries at an official level, culturally mediated images seem to redefine how reference countries are observed in everyday semantics.
  • Jalava, Janne (2004)
    The overall theme of this work is the explication of Niklas Luhmann's concept of trust and its connections to norms, strangers and care. The luhmannian perspective of trust is discussed from three different viewpoints. First, I study Luhmann's concepts of familiarity, confidence and trust in the context of his systems theory. I present an overview of the functions and meanings of social systems and examine what type of role the theory of trust has in Luhmann's larger system's theoretical thinking. Second, I examine the connections between Luhmann's theory of trust and the traditional theories of trust. I compare his theory of trust to two of his most important influences, Talcott Parsons and Georg Simmel. Third, I extend the discussion of trust to the areas - which Luhmann himself does not handle - of strangers, terrorists and the system of care. By doing this, I expand the limits of luhmannian trust and concretise its usefulness of today's sociological problems. The content of this work can be introduced as follows: First, I will introduce the basic concepts of Luhmann's systems theory: autopoiesis, meaning, communication, evolution and differentiation. Second, I show why trust in particular is of central concern in contemporary social theory and in today's society, and examine the connections between Luhmann's theory of trust and his autopoietic systems theory. The connections between Luhmann's theory of trust and that of Parsons will also be addressed. Third, I specify the concepts of terrorism, stranger and trust in the global age. I study especially the connections between Simmel's and Luhmann's theories of trust as well as show how the growing number of meetings with strangers are affecting today's trust relationships. Last, I examine the concept of care, especially caring for the elderly, from the perspective of Luhmann's systems theory. I consider care as a functional subsystem of society which has gradually been developed over the years in the modern welfare state and outline also Luhmann's organisation theory and specify elements of contemporary care organisations as well as address the connections between Luhmann's theory of trust and the systems-theoretical model of care.
  • Hansen, Petteri; Puustinen, Mikko (2021)
    This paper discusses the relationship between knowledge and society in social studies by analysing how society is presented in four Finnish social studies textbooks currently in use in comprehensive education. Besides its empirical contribution, the paper examines the possibilities of applying Michael Young's understanding of powerful knowledge in social studies by complementing it with two additional theoretical approaches to society. Firstly, by applying Basil Bernstein's concept of recontextualisation, it is possible to elaborate on the way in which social studies textbooks reproduce societal power relations. Secondly, by observing the society of social studies textbooks in the light of Niklas Luhmann ' s social systems theory, it is possible to examine how social reproduction in social studies is related to temporal forms of knowledge in a functionally differentiated, multifaceted society. The findings indicate that due to the present-focused and institutional approach to society, the textbooks offer few tools for critical understanding and for changing society.