Browsing by Subject "tablet"

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  • Palttala, Iida (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    Automated dose dispensing is an increasing field in which medicines are packaged mechanically into small one-dose pouches in portions of two weeks. Suitability of tablets for automated dose dispensing has not been researched systematically earlier. The study was made in collaboration with the dose dispensing unit of Espoonlahti pharmacy. The aim of the study was to define optimal characteristics for an automatically dispensed tablet from a viewpoint of the dose dispensing process to reduce breakings and transitions. Breaking means that tablet crumbles, splits up or breaks up otherwise during mechanical dose dispensing process. Transition means that tablet is dispensed in a wrong dose pouch. Percentually breakings and transitions occur very little, but quantitatively plenty and increasingly when automated dose dispensing is becoming more common. Breakings and transitions cause plenty extra work because of correcting pouches, so their amount should be aimed to reduce. In addition, the aim is to find out matters to enquire from the manufacturers of medicines that would help concluding whether a product is suitable for automated dose dispensing based on written information. Results of the study indicate that to reduce breakings and transitions, an optimal tablet product for dose dispensing is rather small or middle sized, coated, strong and without a breakline and the optimal relative humidity of air in the product room of dose dispensing unit would be around 30 - 40 %. Matters to enquire from the manufacturers of medicines besides size, coating, breaking strength and breakline are stability of the product outside of its original package and light, heat and moisture sensitiveness of the product. Besides breakings and transitions, also stability of a moisture sensitive acetylsalicylic acid product (Disperin 100 mg) was investigated in 25 °C/60 % RH because air humidity in the product room is not adjustable. Duration of the test was four weeks. It is enough since it is the maximum time that tablets are outside their original packages during drug dispensing process before use. Tablets were kept in opened original container (bottle), in closed original container, in cassette of dispensing machine and in two different dose pouches (new material and the one in use). According to the results, cassettes are protecting tablets from moisture as poorly as an opened bottle. Instead, new pouch material protects tablets better than the material in use. Results of Raman spectroscopy measurements indicate no change in acetylsalicylic acid to salicylic acid during four weeks test. Moisture affects to tablets by decreasing breaking strength, which may cause more breakings. Air humidity should be adjusted in product rooms or tablets should be unpacked into cassettes as near operating the machine as possible to prevent breakings. Especially when air humidity is high. Among others, a heat sensitive drug product was researched because of the seaming unit of dose dispensing machine which is radiating heat of about 75 °C to pouches if machine is pulled over in the middle of work. Study was performed with variable temperature XRPD. Results of the study of heat sensitiveness indicate that 75 °C for 60 minutes doesn't induce changes in carbamazepine tablet (Neurotol 200 mg). However, results of the study reveal that researched product did not contain the most heat sensitive form of carbamazepine, so other heat sensitive drug products should be examined to get more information about effects of heat.
  • Palomäki, Emmi (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    3D-imaging is based on combining two or more pictures to form one three-dimensional picture. Most of the methods used provide only surface pictures, but tomography acquires also information about the inside-structure of investigated material. Young's modulus is a method, which has been used for long time to determine toughness hard materials, such as steal. In traditional method a beam-shaped piece is bent. When the size of piece, used force and amount of bending are known, Young's modulus of piece can be calculated. Although the method has traditionally been used to research very hard materials, it has been applied without changes with pharmaceutical materials. It is, however, open to the question whether or not the method is appropriate for those materials. There are also methods to determine Young's modulus based on compressing a tablet or using ultrasound. Determining tablet's toughness with ultimate strength test is complicated because it breaks tablet. For that reason it would be good to find compensatory methods to measure strength of tablet. The aim of the study was to validate Flash Sizer 3D appliance, which is used in 3D-imiging. Another goal was to investigate possible correlations between 3D-imiging, Young's modulus and traditional ultimate strength method. Lastly, the feasibility of Young's modulus as a substitute for traditional ultimate strength measurement in self life studies was investigated. Flash Sizer 3D was validated by measuring particle size distribution of pellets, which were made of microcrystalline cellulose (Cellets). Sizes of the investigated pellets were 100 µm, 200 µm and 500 µm. Also binary mixture of 100 µm and 200 µm was investigated. From microcrystalline cellulose was made tablets and 3D-pictures were taken. Ultimate strength test was made for half of the tablets. Young's modulus was measured from half of the tablets in tableting day, day after that and nine days after tableting. Results show that Flash Sizer 3D is suitable for investigating bigger Cellet. With smaller particles distinguishing of tablets wasn't probably good enough. Still it seems to be quite good method to determine surface roughness of tablet. Young's modulus seems to be very promising as compensating method for traditional ultimate strength measurement. In future in self life studies tablets hardness might be able to investigate by measuring Young's modulus and not measuring ultimate strength. If correlation between Young's modulus and solubility meets the case, Young's modulus might also replace also solubility measurements in self life studies.