Browsing by Subject "tabletti"

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  • Seitavuopio, Paulus (University of Helsinki, 1999)
  • Ivars-Öhman, Maria (University of Helsinki, 1993)
  • Autio, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tässä Pro gradu -tutkielmassa tarkastellaan suomalaisten ikäihmisten kokemuksia tieto- ja viestintätekniikan (eli uusmedian), käytöstä. Väestön ikääntyminen ja yhteiskunnan läpäisevä digitalisaatio ovat ajankohtaisia ilmiöitä. Kiinnitän huomiota ikäihmisten uusmedian käyttöön sosiaalisten suhteiden, käyttöön liittyvien haasteiden ja sosiaalisten käytäntöjen näkökulmasta. Tutkimuskysymykseni on, millaisia digitaalisia käytäntöjä ikäihmisillä on, ja miten he ylittävät digitaalisia kuiluja sosiaalisten suhteidensa avulla. Tutkimuksessa keskitytään noin 70–80-vuotiaiden suomalaisten miesten ja naisten kokemuksiin. Tarkastelun kohteena ovat älypuhelinten, tablettitietokoneiden, perinteisten kännyköiden ja tietokoneiden käyttö viestinnän ja sähköisen asioinnin, etenkin pankkiasioinnin, välineinä. Aineisto on kerätty teemoitettujen yksilö- ja ryhmähaastattelujen sekä osallistuvan havainnoinnin keinoin. Osallistuva havainnointi toteutettiin neljässä ikäihmisille suunnatussa digityöpajassa. Ikäihmiset käyttävät uusmediaa eri tavoin kuin nuoremmat ikäryhmät, ja he suosivat eri välineitä. Uusmedian omaksuminen tapahtuu sosiaalisissa suhteissa muun muassa työpaikalla, perhepiirissä ja ystävien kesken. Läheisten ihmisten rooli lämpiminä asiantuntijoita ja ikäihmisten digitaalisen elämän fasilitoijina nousee vahvasti esiin. Uusien digitaalisten käytäntöjen omaksumiseen liittyvät myös laitteiden käyttöön vaikuttavat mediaideologiat ja yhteydet aikaisempiin käytäntöihin ja kompetensseihin. Tiedollisten, ruumiillisten ja kielellisten kompetenssien puute syventävät digitaalisia kuiluja. Haasteista huolimatta ikäihmisillä kuitenkin on toimijuutta ja kyky löytää luovia ratkaisuja. Tutkimus vahvistaa käsitystä, että teknologiat omaksutaan sosiaalisesti. Jos ikäihmisten digitaalista osallistuttua yhteiskunnassa halutaan vahvistaa, tulee omaksumisen ja käytön sosiaalisuus ottaa vakavasti. Tämä tarkoittaa kasvokkaisia yhteisöjä, joissa digitaalisuus on osa arjen käytäntöjä.
  • Lampinen, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Objectives: Stroke is one of the most common causes of long-term adult disability. The fastest recovery occurs during the first months of post-stroke. Still, patients in rehabilitation wards spend most of the time in nontherapeutic activities. There are promising findings on using music listening as part of the rehabilitation of stroke patients in the rehabilitation ward environment. Nevertheless, the implementation of music listening therapy still requires more research. This pilot study was designed to determine usability of music listening devices (MP3 player compared to a tablet computer with Spotify), to evaluate whether music listening can facilitate recovery after stroke and to study the subjective benefits that occur as a result of music listening on stroke patients. Methods: In total 24 subacute phase stroke patients (age 51–82 years) in a rehabilitation ward took part in the study. Patients listened to music using either MP3 device (n = 8) or Spotify on a tablet computer (n = 16). Patients listened to their favourite music for approximately one hour a day, during 2–3 weeks period. Neurological examination and brief cognitive testing were performed at the beginning and the end of the study. Patients filled questionnaires on functioning, quality of life, mood, and motor and cognitive deficits as well as role of music in life and experiences on music listening before and after the music listening intervention. At the end of the study, patients also evaluated the usability of the music listening technology. Rehabilitation ward nurses observed patients during the usage of music listening devices at the beginning, middle and end of the study. Results and conclusions: There were no changes in functioning, quality of life and mood measures, apart from the improvement in the neurological examination compared to pre-examination. There were no differences in the impacts of music listening between groups. The usability of the MP3 player and the tablet computer and Spotify were evaluated as quite good on average by patients and there were no differences between groups in this evaluation. In qualitative analysis, there seemed to occur more problems in the tablet group, but usage became easier over time. Stroke patients felt that music listening was rewarding and beneficial to their recovery and they were eager to recommend music listening as a part of stroke rehabilitation. Stroke patients felt that music listening was useful to them with both devices and beneficial to their rehabilitation. Stroke patients were eager to recommend music listening as a part of the stroke rehabilitation. Based on the results of this study, music listening therapy can be recommended as a part of the rehabilitation of subacute phase stroke patients.
  • Ainonen, Aleksi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tiivistelmä/Referat – Abstract Background: Biotin is marketed specifically for its hair and nail growth-promoting effects, and its use has become more common in recent years. High doses of 100 mg biotin have also been used to treat MS. There are no high-dose oral products on the Finnish pharmaceutical market. Biotin 100 mg tablets are not available on the global pharmaceutical market either. The University Pharmacy manufactures 100 mg biotin capsules for hospital use. Manual manufacturing of biotin capsules is a resource-intensive process. The physicotechnical properties of biotin such as crystal properties, flowability, hygroscopicity, true density and compressibility properties have not been previously published in the literature. Objectives: The aim of the thesis work was to investigate whether high-dose biotin tablets can be manufactured as an industrial-scale process. To support product development decision-making, the aim of the master's thesis was also to explore the physicotechnical properties of biotin. The main goal was to develop a method for the direct compression of biotin tablets, but also to study the applicability of the wet granulation method. Methods: The crystal form of the raw materials was examined by X-ray powder diffractometer, particle size and particle size distribution by laser velocimeter, and compression behavior by tabletability tests as well as Heckel analysis. The flowability of the raw materials was studied by bulk and tapped density measurements. The production of biotin tablets was studied with six test batches, two of which were high shear wet granulated and four were direct compression processes. The tablets were subjected to European Pharmacopoeia quality tests such as friability, disintegration, and dissolution tests. Results: The particle size distribution of the biotin grade used in the tablets was wide, with an average particle size of 58 μm. Biotin crystals are flaky in shape. Biotin used was the α-crystalline form and its crystalline form did not change as a result of high shear wet granulation. The flow of the biotin grade was extremely poor. Biotin was not found to be particularly hygroscopic. Biotin is brittle, and when compressed, it forms by fragmenting. Pure biotin cannot be compressed into a stable tablet, as even tablets made with high compression forces will form a lid from which the tablet will easily crumble. Biotin sticks to tablet machine’s punches and causes problems in the ejection phase due to high frictional forces. Test batches of the high shear wet granulation process were successful on both eccentric and rotary tablet machine. Two batches of direct compression tests performed on rotary tablet machines had to be stopped after the powder mass got stuck in tablet machine’s hopper. Biotin tablet’s dissolution was slow for all the manufactured batches, with an average of 63-73 % biotin dissolution at 45 min time point. Conclusions: Main property to be optimized for biotin tablet formulations proved to be mass flowability. High shear wet granulation improved significantly flowability. Weight variance of the tablets in the wet granulation batches was also very small. Biotin’s slow dissolution from the tablets was another significant challenge for all the test batches. Further development of biotin tablets should therefore focus on investigating, which measures accelerate biotin tablet’s dissolution. Product development would particularly benefit from the development of a more efficient, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method for dose analysis of biotin tablets. Wet granulation test batches should be manufactured at different process parameter levels with different excipients and excipient concentrations. Design of experiments statistical approach should be utilized for these further studies so that factor interactions could be detected, and the manufacturing process and drug product could be efficiently optimized.
  • Lampi, Laura (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Goals. The objective of this Master's Thesis was to examine the connection between tablet computers and motivation, in this case with motivational beliefs according to the action control beliefs theory (Skinner, Chapman & Baltes 1988). The specific interest was to find out the differences and similarities between the students with special educational needs and general education students. Most of the previous research regarding to the subject indicates that the use of technology and tablet computers has positive impact to learning and motivation, concluding that technology-assisted teaching motivates students. On the other hand there has also been studies that report no impact or even negative impact on learning and motivation. This study aims to gain new insight of how the use of tablet computers influences on students' attitudes towards learning in Finland. Particular attention is directed to the students with special educational needs and the practical applicability of the results – the role that tablet computers could play in the development of special education. Methods. The participants of this study consisted of the 4th graders in the city of Vantaa, who responded to the Centre of Educational Assessment's tablet research online survey in the autumn of 2015 and spring of 2016 (N = 208). The data was analyzed by multivariate methods (e.g. one-way variance-, the GLM-analysis) to investigate the possible relations between the variables and to verify the differences between the groups. Results and conclusions. The general use of the tablet computers among the students was not found to be related to their beliefs that support learning. However, in the subject-specific review the use of tablets in mathematics was positively related to the students' learning supportive beliefs. In particular, within the students receiving intensified or special support, the use of tablet computer was related to students' agency beliefs about effort and competence and means-ends beliefs about effort. According to the previous research these beliefs are related to school performance within students who do well in school.
  • Palomäki, Emmi (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    3D-imaging is based on combining two or more pictures to form one three-dimensional picture. Most of the methods used provide only surface pictures, but tomography acquires also information about the inside-structure of investigated material. Young's modulus is a method, which has been used for long time to determine toughness hard materials, such as steal. In traditional method a beam-shaped piece is bent. When the size of piece, used force and amount of bending are known, Young's modulus of piece can be calculated. Although the method has traditionally been used to research very hard materials, it has been applied without changes with pharmaceutical materials. It is, however, open to the question whether or not the method is appropriate for those materials. There are also methods to determine Young's modulus based on compressing a tablet or using ultrasound. Determining tablet's toughness with ultimate strength test is complicated because it breaks tablet. For that reason it would be good to find compensatory methods to measure strength of tablet. The aim of the study was to validate Flash Sizer 3D appliance, which is used in 3D-imiging. Another goal was to investigate possible correlations between 3D-imiging, Young's modulus and traditional ultimate strength method. Lastly, the feasibility of Young's modulus as a substitute for traditional ultimate strength measurement in self life studies was investigated. Flash Sizer 3D was validated by measuring particle size distribution of pellets, which were made of microcrystalline cellulose (Cellets). Sizes of the investigated pellets were 100 µm, 200 µm and 500 µm. Also binary mixture of 100 µm and 200 µm was investigated. From microcrystalline cellulose was made tablets and 3D-pictures were taken. Ultimate strength test was made for half of the tablets. Young's modulus was measured from half of the tablets in tableting day, day after that and nine days after tableting. Results show that Flash Sizer 3D is suitable for investigating bigger Cellet. With smaller particles distinguishing of tablets wasn't probably good enough. Still it seems to be quite good method to determine surface roughness of tablet. Young's modulus seems to be very promising as compensating method for traditional ultimate strength measurement. In future in self life studies tablets hardness might be able to investigate by measuring Young's modulus and not measuring ultimate strength. If correlation between Young's modulus and solubility meets the case, Young's modulus might also replace also solubility measurements in self life studies.