Browsing by Subject "talous- ja sosiaalihistoria"

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  • Jalava, Jukka (Tilastokeskus, 2007)
    This study examines Finnish economic growth. The key driver of economic growth was productivity. And the major engine of productivity growth was technology, especially the general purpose technologies (GPTs) electricity and ICT. A new GPT builds on previous knowledge, yet often in an uncertain, punctuated, fashion. Economic history, as well as the Finnish data analyzed in this study, teaches that growth is not a smooth process but is subject to episodes of sharp acceleration and deceleration which are associated with the arrival, diffusion and exhaustion of new general purpose technologies. These are technologies that affect the whole economy by transforming both household life and the ways in which firms conduct business. The findings of previous research, that Finnish economic growth exhibited late industrialisation and significant structural changes were corroborated by this study. Yet, it was not solely a story of manufacturing and structural change was more the effect of than the cause for economic growth. We offered an empirical resolution to the Artto-Pohjola paradox as we showed that a high rate of return on capital was combined with low capital productivity growth. This result is important in understanding Finnish economic growth 1975-90. The main contribution of this thesis was the growth accounting results on the impact of ICT on growth and productivity, as well as the comparison of electricity and ICT. It was shown that ICT s contribution to GDP growth was almost twice as large as electricity s contribution over comparable periods of time. Finland has thus been far more successful as an ICT producer than a producer of electricity. Unfortunately in the use of ICT the results were still more modest than for electricity. During the end of the period considered in this thesis, Finland switched from resource-based to ICT-based growth. However, given the large dependency on the ICT-producing sector, the ongoing outsourcing of ICT production to low wage countries provides a threat to productivity performance in the future. For a developed country only change is constant and history teaches us that it is likely that Finland is obliged to reorganize its economy once again in the digital era.
  • Kaartinen, Aija (Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, 2012)
    It is often maintained that the Prohibition Act (in force from 1 June 1919 to 5 April 1932) still influences both the Finnish alcohol policy and notions about alcohol. This study focuses on the development of women s opinions concerning Prohibition in Finland. What role did the formulation and expression of women s opinions and women's actions play in the final outcome of the Prohibition Act? What do the debate on Prohibition and women s activities for and against the legislation tell us about the status and possibilities of women to exert influence in the Finnish society of the Prohibition era? Women s opinions are particularly interesting since they deviated radically from what has generally been assumed. It was expected that the referendum of 1931 would result in a resounding vote of 100% in favour of Prohibition, but the outcome was a majority vote against it. Over 65% of the women who cast their vote in the referendum wanted a full repeal of Prohibition. The study approaches the history of Prohibition by combining methods and theories of the history of mentalities and social history with gender history. Women are examined as a heterogeneous group with dissimilar objectives and differing ways of acting and thinking. The research material consists of press materials, archival materials from organisations, personal materials and statistics from the Prohibition period. Both discourses and practices are examined; the object of the research is best described by Michel Foucault's concept of dispositif. When participating in the public debate on Prohibition, women based their right to express their opinions and take part in action on an ideological continuum spanning a hundred years, according to which home and family were central areas of women s interest. This idea was linked to questions of morality and social policy. On the other hand, women presented themselves as working taxpayers, voters and equal citizens. The most crucial issue in women's discussions was whether Prohibition improved or worsened the temperance of fathers, husbands and sons. The dichotomies town dweller - countryside dweller, Swedish-speaking Finnish-speaking, and middle class - working class were highly significant backgrounds both as factors dividing women and in public discussions regarding Prohibition. The 1931 referendum showed that the lines of demarcation drawn during the preceding debate did not materialise in political action in line with these dichotomies: the dispositif did not correspond to the discourse. Contrary to what was expressed in public, a great number of women among the labour and rural classes, among inland inhabitants and among Finnish-speakers were also against Prohibition. The media and organisations defended temperance and Prohibition almost until the end of the Prohibition era. This discourse was in conflict with the discourse of everyday conversations and practices in which alcohol was present.
  • Bickert, Irinja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    In my thesis I look at the yellow vest demonstrations in the light of historic urban spaces in Paris and the history of political participation. I focus on the most active period of yellow vest demonstrations, from November 2018 to end-May 2019. My main theoretical approaches draw on the concept of radical democracy by Chantal Mouffe and Ernesto Laclau, Pierre Rosanvallon’s counter-democracy, Jürgen Habermas’s public sphere, and the global city developed by Saskia Sassen. My main question is: in what kind of historically-, economically- and politically-charged spaces the demonstrations took place in Paris? And my second question is: How did the yellow vests reflect changes in the political arena and how did the government respond to the protests? I investigate the cityscape of Paris by undertaking an ethnographic walk in the city. The ethnographic walk is an observational, self-conscious, reflective way of walking and looking to better understand an area’s physical and social context. The pictures and fieldnotes I took and made during the walk form my first assemblage of sources. My other sources consist of articles from French newspapers and magazines as well as government sources. I have selected those articles in particular that deal with the yellow vests in relation to French society, with physical places, and the control of space and their historical meanings. My research shows that the demonstrations in Paris took place in centres of political and economic power, and that those places and their historical layers have a certain significance for the movement. The Champs-Élysées, representing global capitalism and the Parisian elite, served as the primary locus for the yellow vests and their actions. They marched to the Presidential Palace because they wanted to show their discontent with Macron and his policies. The yellow vests damaged the Arc de Triomphe, which can be interpreted as a direct attack on an iconic national symbol. Bastille Square, a highly important site in the French Revolution, served as a gathering place for both the yellow vests and their counter movement, the “red scarves”. Place de la République, in turn, symbolizes the French Republican values of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity. The yellow vests used forms of political participation and mechanisms of control over representative democracy, which I interpret as actions of counter-democracy. Their actions also manifested radical democracy, as the movement created open conflict and confrontation. The populist movement of the yellow vests acted in response to Macron’s centre-liberal politics. The government responded to the protests by expanding the power of the police forces and by tightening protest-related restrictions, as well as by holding a large national debate in order to enrich the public conversation. My research shows that Paris is indeed a “global city”, a primary node in the global economic network and represents the contra side as juxtaposed with the French countryside represented by the yellow vests. The demonstration sites in Paris reflect the economic, cultural and political history of France, as well as different dimensions and aspects of society and its activities. The revolt of the yellow vests is part of a historical continuum of revolutions and social movements in France, which according to my research, is also reflected in their use of the public urban space.
  • Ahlqvist, Kirsti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    The aim of the study was to find out how the consumption of the population in Finland became a target of social interest and production of statistical data in the early 20th century, and what efforts have been made to influence consumption with social policy measures at different times. Questions concerning consumption are examined through the practices employed in the compilation of statistics on it. The interpretation framework in the study is Michael Foucault s perspective of modern liberal government. This mode of government is typified by pursuit of efficiency and search of equilibrium between economic government and a government of the processes of life. It shows aspirations towards both integration and individualisation. The government is based on freedom practices. It also implies knowledge-based ways of conceptualising reality. Statistical data are of specific significance in this context. The connection between the government of consumption and the compilation of statistics on it is studied through the theoretical, socio-political and statistical conceptualisation of consumption. The research material consisted of Finnish and international documentation on the compilation of statistics on consumption, publications of social programmes, and reports of studies on consumption. The analysis of the material focused especially on the problematisations related to consumption found in these documents and on changes in them over history. There have been both clearly observable changes and as well as historical stratification and diversity in the rationalities and practices of consumption government during the 20th century. Consumption has been influenced by pluralistic government, based at different times and in varying ways on the logics of solidarity and markets. The difference between these is that in the former risks are prepared for collectively while in the latter risks are individualised. Despite the differences, the characteristic that is common to these logics is certain kind of contractuality. They are both permeated by the household logic which differs from them in that it is based on the normative and ethical demands imposed on an individual. There has been a clear interactive connection between statistical data and consumption government. Statistical practices have followed changes in the way consumption has been conceptualised in society. This has been reflected in the statistical phenomena of interest, concepts, classifications and indicators. New ways of compiling statistics have in their turn shaped perceptions of reality. Statistical data have also facilitated a variety of rational calculations with which the consequences of the population s consumption habits have been evaluated at the levels of economy at large and individuals.
  • Vuorinen, Marja (SKS, 2011)
    An imagined nobleman Nobility as an enemy image and in-group identity in nineteenth-century Finland The focal point of this study is the difficult relationship between two seemingly very different 19th-century elite groups, the upwardly mobile bourgeois intelligentsia and the slowly declining traditional nobility. In the thinking of the bourgeois contender the two emerged as exact opposites, styled as conflicting ideal types: an outdated, exclusive, degenerate hereditary aristocracy versus a dynamic and progressive new force in society, recruited solely on the basis of personal merit, originating from the common people and representing the nation. The appearance of an important 19th-century novelty, print publicity, coincided with the emergence of the bourgeois intelligentsia. The institutions of the developing publishing industry were manned by the aspiring new group. The strengthening flow of progressive, democratic, nationalist ideas distributed via the printing presses carried an undercurrent of self-promotion. It transmitted to the developing readership the self-image of the new cultural bourgeoisie as the defender and benevolent educator of the nation. Having won the contest over the media, the intelligentsia was free to present its predecessor and rival as an enemy of the people. In its politics the nobility emerged as an ideal scapegoat, represented as the source for existing social evils, all if which would promptly go away after its disappearance. It also served as a black backcloth, against which the democratic, national, progressive bourgeois intelligentsia would shine more brightly. In order to shed light on the 19th-century process of (re)modelling the image of nobility as a public enemy I have used four different types of source materials. These include three genres of print publicity, ranging from popular historical and contemporary fiction to nonfictional presentations of national history and the news and political commentaries of the daily papers, complemented by another, originally oral type of publicity, the discussion protocols of the Finnish four-estate parliament. To counterpoint these I also analysed the public self-image of the nobility, particularly vis-à-vis the nationalist and democratic ethos of the modernising politics.
  • Kavonius, Ilja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    This study is divided into two parts: a methodological part and a part which focuses on the saving of households. In the 1950 s both the concepts as well as the household surveys themselves went through a rapid change. The development of national accounts was motivated by the Keynesian theory and the 1940 s and 1950 s were an important time for the development of the national accounts. Before this, saving was understood as cash money or money deposited in bank accounts but the changes in this era led to the establishment of the modern saving concept. Separate from the development of national accounts, household surveys were established. Household surveys have been conducted in Finland from the beginning of the 20th century. At that time surveys were conducted in order to observe the working class living standard and as a result, these were based on the tradition of welfare studies. Also a motivation for undertaking the studies was to estimate weights for the consumer price index. A final reason underpinning the government s interest in observing this data regarded whether there were any reasons for the working class to become radicalised and therefore adopt revolutionary ideas. As the need for the economic analysis increased and the data requirements underlying the political decision making process also expanded, the two traditions and thus, the two data sources started to integrate. In the 1950s the household surveys were compiled distinctly from the national accounts and they were virtually unaffected by economic theory. The 1966 survey was the first study that was clearly motivated by national accounts and saving analysis. This study also covered the whole population rather than it being limited to just part of it. It is essential to note that the integration of these two traditions is still continuing. This recently took a big step forward as the Stiglitz, Sen and Fitoussi Committee Report was introduced and thus, the criticism of the current measure of welfare was taken seriously. The Stiglitz report emphasises that the focus in the measurement of welfare should be on the households and the macro as well as micro perspective should be included in the analysis. In this study the national accounts are applied to the household survey data from the years 1950-51, 1955-56 and 1959-60. The first two studies cover the working population of towns and market towns and the last survey covers the population of rural areas. The analysis is performed at three levels: macro economic level, meso level, i.e. at the level of different types of households, and micro level, i.e. at the level of individual households. As a result it analyses how the different households saved and consumed and how that changed during the 1950 s.
  • Poikolainen, Janne (Nuorisotutkimusverkosto/Nuorisotutkimusseura, 2015)
    The study introduces a historical perspective to the discussion on fandom by examining the emergence of popular music fan culture in Finland from the 1950s to early 1970s. The analysis focuses on the ways the forms and meanings of music fandom, as well as the images attributed to fans, developed in the interaction between the music industry, publicity and audience. The source material consists mainly of written reminiscences on popular music and fandom, and music magazines from the research period. The material also includes e.g. fan letters and statistics. The historical context of the analysis is comprised of the substantial changes in youth brought about by the post-war social change. In the study, these changes are referred to as the modernization of youth. The study examines the technological, social and cultural changes linked to the change in youth that facilitated the emergence of the fan culture. Secondly, the study identifies the socio-cultural needs, created by modernization, to which music fandom as a phenomenon responded. In terms of content, the analysis focuses on three dimensions of fan culture. The first dimension comprises the musical and material settings of fandom, such as recordings, concerts and music magazines. The second consists of media discourses concerning the fan phenomenon. Here the study also questions and disassembles the gendered stereotypes constructed within the discourses. The third dimension comprises the socio-cultural meanings of fandom, particularly in respect of identity work taking place in the forms of identification and social distinction. Scrutiny of these dimensions also highlights the links between the fan phenomenon and the constituent phenomena of modernizing youth: for example, the mediatization, Anglo-Americanization and sexualization of youth culture, as well as the weakening of the traditional identity models. The study shows that the emergence of fan culture was a process where the media contents and ideas concerning fandom interacted in multi-dimensional ways between the various actors. The music industry, media publicity and fan audience formed the macro-level of this interactive network. The contents of fandom formed within this framework assumed their practical meaning in the daily lives of young people. These everyday meanings of fandom were concretized in the form of various consumption and production practices, through which the macro-level interrelationships were again redefined.
  • Toivanen, Tero T. (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This doctoral dissertation analyses the social and ecological changes in nineteenth-century northern Finland in the context of capitalist world-system. The object of the study is the ‘socio-ecological turmoil in Kainuu’, or the transformation in the assembly of sources of livelihood, social relations and conceptions of nature in the region known as Kainuu. The study researches why and how a historically specific formation of social power, tar capitalism, expanded and took root in Kainuu’s socio-ecological environment, and what kind of power strategies were exercised in appropriating the human labour and extra-human natures of this northern periphery. The study uses the findings from historical research on Kainuu to reinterpret the theoretical discussions on the origins and development of capitalism. The dissertation stimulates a new research perspective called an environmental history of capitalism. It combines elements from historical sociology, economic and social history, environmental history and environmental social science. The study consists of five research articles and a theoretically orientated summarising chapter; two of the articles are theoretical and three of them empirical, situated in the historical context of Kainuu. The study examines the how and why as well as what kinds of socio-ecological consequences allowed for the expansion of tar capitalist social relations in Kainuu. The answers provided by the research setting were obtained by reviewing the findings from previous historical and other social scientific research and studying different types of primary sources. The dissertation argues that tar capitalism was imposed on Kainuu in a specific world-historical moment that was influenced by the combination of world-systemic, national and local political and economic pressures and power struggles. The key power strategy of tar capitalism was rural indebtedness, a power relation between the coastal town of Oulu’s merchant houses, ‘the tar bourgeoisie’, and Kainuu’s tar peasants. As a consequence of rural indebtedness, the people of Kainuu were ripped from their traditional forms of livelihood, which were based on the forest commons and swidden cultivation, and made dependent on the compulsions of the market and the extent to which they could pay off their debts. A specific form of enclosure of Kainuu’s forest commons, isojako, was implemented by the state to restrict the socially and ecologically harmful aspects of tar production. However, it did not restrain the burning of tar; instead, it enclosed access to the forest commons and made the majority of the population into landless poor. The undermining consequences of tar capitalism on the lived environments of Kainuu’s communities were most severely felt during the fatal ‘Great Hunger Years’ of the 1860’s. The merchant houses, for their part, accumulated significant amounts of merchant capital from the tar trade and increased further their capacity to use economic power. The study argues that the development of capitalism cannot be analysed as a historical necessity determined by, for example, axiomatic economic laws or the structures of the world-system. Instead, historical development is full of contingency: different paths of history that are constantly opened, reconfigured and closed. As a case study of such historical contingency, the decade-long phenomenon of social banditry in Kainuu, which emerged after the collapse of early local iron industry, is also studied. The social banditry is interpreted as an insolent endeavour to build a historical lived environment as an alternative to tar capitalism. The study defends a stance where the development of historical capitalism is understood as resulting both from constant interaction between different historical societal formations as well as from temporally and spatially heterogeneous global processes and events. Thus, distant historical peripheries, such as nineteenth-century Kainuu, are active parties in the formation of the world-system, and the historical appropriation of their human and extra-human natures are a prerequisite for the reproduction of the world-capitalism. Keywords: history of capitalism; tar capitalism; the commons; debt; swidden cultivation; social banditry; environmental history
  • Laine, Jaana (Suomen Tiedeseura, 2007)
    The Finnish forest industry bought more than half of the timber used in factories and sawmills in the 1930s from non-industrial private forests (NIPF). This research investigates the rules conformed to this timber trade. The main research questions are: what were the rules that influenced the timber trade; and by whom they were set up? Attention is also paid to the factors which advanced the forest owners’ negotiation possibilities. A variety of sources were used: legal and company statutes, timber trade contracts, archives of the forest companies and organisations. Moreover, the written reminiscences collected by the Finnish Literature Society in the early 1970s were used to analyse the views of individual sellers and buyers. An institutional economics approach was applied as the theoretical framework of this study. In the timber trade the seller (forest owner) and the buyer (the employee of the forest company) agreed to the rules of the timber trade. They agreed about the amount and the price of the timber on sale, but also rules concerning, e.g., timber marking and harvesting. The forest companies had a strong control over the written contracts. Neither the private forest owners nor the forest organisations had much influence over these contracts. However, they managed to influence the rules which could not be found in the contracts. These written and unwritten rules regulated, for instance, the timber marking and measurement. The forest organisations such as Central Forestry Board Tapio (Keskusmetsäseura Tapio) and associations of forest owners (metsänhoitoyhdistykset) helped private forest owners in gaining more control over the timber marking. In timber marking, the forest owner selected trees to be included in the timber trade and gained more information, which he could use in the negotiations. The other rule, which was changed despite forest companies’ resistance, was the timber measurement. The Central Union of Agricultural Producers (MTK) negotiated with the Central Association of Finnish Woodworking Industries (SPKL) about changing the rules of the measurement practices. Even though SPKL did not support any changes, the new timber measurement law was accepted in the year 1938. The new law also created a supervisory authority to solve possible disagreements. Despite this the forest companies were still in charge of the measurement process in most cases. The private forest owners attained changes in the rules of the timber trade mainly during the 1930s. Earlier the relative weakness of the private forest organisations had diminished their negotiation positions. This changed in the 1930s as the private forest owners and their organisations became more active. At the same time the forest industry experienced a shortage of timber, especially pulp wood, and this provided the private forest owners with more leverage.
  • Kauppila, Jari (Statistics Finland, 2007)
    Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on tuottaa uutta tietoa Suomen kansantalouden rakenteesta ja lyhyen aikavälin kehityksestä 1920- ja 1930-luvulla. Tutkimus toteutettiin laatimalla kansantaloutta kuvaava panos-tuotostaulu vuodelle 1928 sekä sen laajennus, panos-tuotosmalli. Aineiston avulla kuvataan kansantalouden rakenteellisia riippuvuuksia, tuotannon avaintoimialoja sekä näiden vaikutusta kansantalouteen. Lisäksi tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan kansantalouden tuontiriippuvuutta sekä tuontitullien vaikutusta hintoihin 1930-luvun laman aikana. Tutkimuksen perusteella voitiin identifioida Suomen kansantalouden avaintoimialat vuonna 1928: maatalous, metsätalous, elintarviketeollisuus, puuteollisuus, paperiteollisuus ja rakennustoiminta. Erityisesti elintarviketeollisuuden vahva rooli kansantaloudessa oli kenties yllättävää, erityisesti kun huomioidaan kuinka vähän toimiala on saanut huomiota osakseen taloushistorian tutkimuksessa. Tutkimus osoitti, että Suomen vienti oli pääomavaltaisempaa kuin tuonti. Vaikka tämän tuloksen tulkinta on varauksellinen, tutkimus pystyi osoittamaan ja kvantifioimaan toimialojen työ- ja pääomapanoksen osuuden tuotoksesta yksityiskohtaisesti. Panos-tuotosmallilla arvioitiin puuteollisuuden, paperiteollisuuden ja rakennustoiminnan ajanjaksona 1928-32 tapahtuneen loppukäytön muutoksen vaikutusta kansantalouteen. Merkittävä havainto on, että rakennustoiminnan loppukäytön muutoksella oli erittäin suuri kasvua vähentävä vaikutus koko kansantaloudessa. Talonrakennusinvestointien romahtaminen aiheutti lähes 13 prosentin tuotannon laskun kansantaloudessa. Vaikutus oli jopa suurempi kuin puuteollisuuden viennin romahtamisen. Tulokset osoittavat toisaalta, että yksityisen kulutuksen merkitys kansantaloudelle oli erittäin vahva. Esimerkiksi puuteollisuuden viennin romahtaminen aiheutti yli 4 % tuotannon vähenemisen mutta huomioitaessa mallissa myös yksityisen kulutuksen väheneminen, oli kokonaisvaikutus yli 10 %. Yksityisen kulutuksen huomioiminen mallissa siis yli kaksinkertaisti toimialojen vaikutukset kansantalouteen. Tulokset vahvistivat aiemmissa tutkimuksissa esitettyjä johtopäätöksiä tullipolitiikasta ja osoittivat maatalouteen läheisesti liittyvän elintarviketeollisuuden olleen eniten suojeltu toimiala kansantaloudessa. Muut kotimarkkinoiden toimialat eivät kuitenkaan hyötyneet tullipolitiikasta lamakauden aikana. Panos-tuotoshintamallilla osoitettiin, ettei tullipolitiikka ollut niin onnistunutta kuin aikalaistutkimuksissa väitettiin, vaan tullit korkeintaan pystyivät hidastamaan hintojen alenemista. Tutkimuksen liitteenä esitetään kaikki keskeiset Suomen kansantaloutta vuonna 1928 kuvaavat tilastolliset taulukot, mukaan lukien käyttö- ja tarjontataulukot, panos-tuotostaulukot, panoskertoimet, Leontiefin käänteismatriisi sekä työ- ja pääomapanoskertoimet.
  • Turkkila, Juhani (Taloustieto oy, 2011)
    The study seeks to find out whether the real burden of the personal taxation has increased or decreased. In order to determine this, we investigate how the same real income has been taxed in different years. Whenever the taxes for the same real income for a given year are higher than for the base year, the real tax burden has increased. If they are lower, the real tax burden has decreased. The study thus seeks to estimate how changes in the tax regulations affect the real tax burden. It should be kept in mind that the progression in the central government income tax schedule ensures that a real change in income will bring about a change in the tax ration. In case of inflation when the tax schedules are kept nominally the same will also increase the real tax burden. In calculations of the study it is assumed that the real income remains constant, so that we can get an unbiased measure of the effects of governmental actions in real terms. The main factors influencing the amount of income taxes an individual must pay are as follows: - Gross income (income subject to central and local government taxes). - Deductions from gross income and taxes calculated according to tax schedules. - The central government income tax schedule (progressive income taxation). - The rates for the local taxes and for social security payments (proportional taxation). In the study we investigate how much a certain group of taxpayers would have paid in taxes according to the actual tax regulations prevailing indifferent years if the income were kept constant in real terms. Other factors affecting tax liability are kept strictly unchanged (as constants). The resulting taxes, expressed in fixed prices, are then compared to the taxes levied in the base year (hypothetical taxation). The question we are addressing is thus how much taxes a certain group of taxpayers with the same socioeconomic characteristics would have paid on the same real income according to the actual tax regulations prevailing in different years. This has been suggested as the main way to measure real changes in taxation, although there are several alternative measures with essentially the same aim. Next an aggregate indicator of changes in income tax rates is constructed. It is designed to show how much the taxation of income has increased or reduced from one year to next year on average. The main question remains: How aggregation over all income levels should be performed? In order to determine the average real changes in the tax scales the difference functions (difference between actual and hypothetical taxation functions) were aggregated using taxable income as weights. Besides the difference functions, the relative changes in real taxes can be used as indicators of change. In this case the ratio between the taxes computed according to the new and the old situation indicates whether the taxation has become heavier or easier. The relative changes in tax scales can be described in a way similar to that used in describing the cost of living, or by means of price indices. For example, we can use Laspeyres´ price index formula for computing the ratio between taxes determined by the new tax scales and the old tax scales. The formula answers the question: How much more or less will be paid in taxes according to the new tax scales than according to the old ones when the real income situation corresponds to the old situation. In real terms the central government tax burden experienced a steady decline from its high post-war level up until the mid-1950s. The real tax burden then drifted upwards until the mid-1970s. The real level of taxation in 1975 was twice that of 1961. In the 1980s there was a steady phase due to the inflation corrections of tax schedules. In 1989 the tax schedule fell drastically and from the mid-1990s tax schedules have decreased the real tax burden significantly. Local tax rates have risen continuously from 10 percent in 1948 to nearly 19 percent in 2008. Deductions have lowered the real tax burden especially in recent years. Aggregate figures indicate how the tax ratio for the same real income has changed over the years according to the prevailing tax regulations. We call the tax ratio calculated in this manner the real income tax ratio. A change in the real income tax ratio depicts an increase or decrease in the real tax burden. The real income tax ratio declined after the war for some years. In the beginning of the 1960s it nearly doubled to mid-1970. From mid-1990s the real income tax ratio has fallen about 35 %.
  • Huokuna, Tiina (Yliopistopaino, 2006)
    Revolution at home! Visual Changes in Everyday Life in Finland in the Late 1960s and Early 1970s The purpose of my research was to investigate the visual changes in private homes in Finland during the 1960s and 1970s. The 1960s is often described as a turning point in Finnish life, a time when the society's previous agricultural orientation began to give way first to an industrial orientation and then, by the end of the 1970s, to a service orientation. My title refers to three elements in the transition period: the question of daily life; the timeframe; and the visual changes observable in private homes, which in retrospect signalled a kind of revolution in the social orientation. Those changes appeared not only in colours and designs but also in the forms and materials of household objects. My premise is that analysing interiors from a historical perspective can reveal valuable information about Finnish society and social attitudes, information that might easily escape attention otherwise. I have used the time-honoured method of collecting narratives. As far back as Aristotle, formulating narratives has been a means of gaining knowledge. By collecting and classifying narratives about the 1960s and 1970s, it is possible to gain new insight into these important decades. The archetypal 1960s narrative, involving student demonstrations and young people's efforts to improve society, is well known. Less well known is the narrative that relates the changes going on in daily life. Substantially the study focuses mainly on fabrics, porcelain ware and the use of plastics. Marimekko's style is especially important when following innovations in the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s. Porcelain production at the Arabia factory was another element that had a great influence on the look of Finnish homes and kitchens; and a further widespread phenomenon of the late 1960s and early 1970s was the use of plastics in many different forms. Further evidence was sought in Anttila department store mail catalogues, which displayed products that were marketed on a large scale, as well as in magazines such as Avotakka. The terminal point of the visual evolution is the real homes, as seen in the questionnaire "Homemade". I have used the 800 pages of the oral history text that respondents of the Finnish Literature Society have written about their first home in the 1960s. I also used archival material on actual homes in Helsinki from the archives of the Helsinki City Museum. The basic story is the elite narrative, which was produced by students in the 1960s. My main narrative from the same time is visual change in everyday life in the late 1960s and early 1970s. I have classified the main narrative of visual change into four subcategories: the narrative of national ideas, the narrative of a better standard of living, the narrative of objects in the culture of everyday life and the narrative of changing colour and form.
  • Autio, Jaakko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The study examines the changing, shaping and emergence of the Oy Arabia Ab strategy at the end of the 1960s towards the end of the 1980s, i.e., after the golden age of Finnish design. This period is characterised by the opening up of the international economy and the tightening of the competition due to increasing imports. I study how the company strives strategically to solve the challenges of productivity and internationalisation and how decision-making related to organisation, management and ownership is linked to strategic planning. In addition, I examine how Arabia integrates design management and leadership into its strategy thus responding to the new requirements of consumers and the challenges of the business environment. During the research period, the relationship with the parent company Oy Wärtsilä Ab frames Arabia's strategy. I approach strategic management and planning in the context of business history, which focuses on the long-term strategic planning, change, and construction of a new strategy. I use ambidexterity as an analytical tool. Thus, the research focuses on the company's ability to utilise existing resources (exploitation) and to innovate new strategic objectives and practices (exploration). The research material consists of three datasets related to the strategic management and planning of the studied company: 1) archive material, 2) customer, personnel and other stakeholder magazines, and 3) other printed sources (e.g. annual reports, articles in the press). I approach the company’s strategy narratively, on the basis of which I create three strategic narratives: ownership and organisation, productivity and internationalisation. The narrative of ownership and organisation frames the construction of the company’s strategy in terms of the need to create a strong internationalising Nordic design company, the need to modernise the organisational structure, as well as the tensions ensuing from the parent company Wärtsilä, which simultaneously provides opportunities for innovation. The productivity-strategic narrative is structured as a transition from technical quality to designed overall quality, and from trademark policy to brand management. In order to meet customer needs, the sales policy transforms towards the development of the product range, product innovations and business networks. The narrative of internationalisation is based on the expansion of the domestic market to the Nordic countries, the pursuit of new markets in countries appreciating the Scandinavian design taste, and the creation of sales channels, ownership, forms of cooperation and networks. During the research period, Oy Arabia Ab develops into a company that strengthens systematic strategic management under the protection of the parent company. The company transforms from a manufacturing and selling strategy towards design management, combining aesthetic product design, innovativeness, brand construction and market dynamics. This strategic change enables Arabia to rely ambidextrously on existing strengths and skills and at the same time seek a new, innovative direction for business. The ambidextrous strategy based on exploitation and exploration is path-dependent. I suggest that the company’s strategy also leans on path-creativity instead of mere path-dependency. I argue that the design management approach strengthens the organisation's ambidextrous capabilities together with the simultaneity of exploitation and exploration. This lays the foundation for path-creativity.
  • Frisk, Matleena (Nuorisotutkimusverkosto/Nuorisotutkimusseura, 2019)
    This study investigates norms of young femaleness and maleness, from the perspective of consumer products and ideals concerning the body. The context of the study is the major increase in Finnish private consumption and change in views related to sexuality that took place during the 1960s and early 1970s. The study focuses on the gender perspective in the history of everyday life structured by consumption. The research subject is delineated using a concept, intimate bodily consumer products, which refers to products that are used to process the body in an intimate way. The study asks what connections there are between the use of intimate bodily consumer products and the norms of bodily young femaleness and maleness in the commercial popular culture directed at young people in Finland in the 1960s and at the beginning of the 1970s. The key source in the study is the widely read youth music magazine Suosikki, especially the advertisements in the magazine. The analysis is contextualized by utilizing household surveys and collections of oral history data. In the first part, the study analyses the norms that could be found in the Suosikki magazine regarding girls and boys, dating and sexuality. An ideal relationship emphasised being alike and belonging together, and the ideal couple often referred to themselves as ‘we’. In this research, this is characterised with the concept of we-ness. Though the magazine had portrayed itself ever since the end of the 1960s as having a modern, non-moralising attitude to sexuality, the issue of a girl’s sexual reputation continued to be evident in the articles of Suosikki. However, the girl’s sexual agency was given space within the ideal relationship characterised by we-ness. The latter part of the study takes a closer look at the way in which the intimate bodily products and their use were woven into the understanding of gender. Two cases are analysed: young men adopting the use of deodorant and the change in the type of menstrual products used by young women. In the early 1960s, deodorant was considered to be a feminine fragrance and first started to be used on a wider scale when both the understanding of young maleness and the meaning of deodorant as a product changed. The study of disposable menstrual products, on the other hand, focuses attention on the availability of products and rising living standards. The ideal of we-ness as well as changed attitudes to pre-marital sex were reflected in advertising: Advertisements for products related to especially a girl’s body often referred to dating and sexual relationships. The ideal body was constructed with the advertised products, but was represented as natural.
  • Parpola, Antti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The use of Finland s national forests changed with World War II. During the 1940s and 1950s, the total cut tripled in relation to the area managed for timber production, and the area clear-cut increased six-fold. These new intensive logging practices became standard in the remote forests of eastern and northern Finland. This study explains how and why the agency governing the Finnish national forests, Metsähallitus, changed its operations during the years 1939 1970. These questions are answered in the vein of classical public administration theory by placing Metsähallitus in its social and governmental context and by analyzing the way in which Metsähallitus and its leaders interpreted expectations regarding national forest use. The starting point of the study is the social crisis created by the war, which in turn influenced expectations regarding the national forests and their use. The economic policy of the age emphasized the intensification of national resource use, and discourses on public administration favored effective and independent decision-making. Adhering to these paradigms, the foresters and officials of Metsähallitus changed the agency s operating model to facilitate intensified logging practices. The key figures in this change were Metsähallitus chief N.A. Osara and Forestry Professor Vilho Lihtonen. The new operating model for the national forests stressed maximizing the cut, but ignored the task of regenerating growth in the newly logged areas. As a result, both the volume and the growth of national forests plummeted during the 1950s. The subsequent regeneration of the northern and eastern national forests required a costly and protracted effort spanning the 1960s and 1970s. These changes in the agency s operating model constituted a narrowing of national forest use. Before World War II, the national forests had remained a largely untapped resource, which could serve multiple ends. The new operating model regarded the national forests primarily as a harvestable raw material for use by the pulp and paper industries. Reverting to a more diverse operating model proved difficult, as demonstrated by numerous conflicts with conservation groups during the 1970s and 1980s.