Browsing by Subject "tarjouskilpailu"

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  • Alhola, Katriina (Finnish Environment Institute, 2012)
    Monographs of the Boreal Environment Research 40
    Green public procurement (GPP) is about setting environmental criteria in the public procurement process alongside the traditional purchasing criteria, e.g. price, quality and technical features of products, services and works. GPP is considered to be one of the key policies that could be used to promote the change of unsustainable patterns of consumption and production.The use of environmental procurement criteria has increased during this decennium, as it has been promoted by many international and national policies and programmes. Nevertheless, how does this push for greener public procurement comply with the primary aims of public procurement legislation – guaranteeing the best value for taxpayers’ money and the operability of the internal market? The challenge is to combine economic and environmental issues so that purchasing decisions are compliant with law and jurisprudence. In this thesis, this issue is analyzed by examining the relations of environmental and economic aspects as well as environmental and legal aspects in public procurement.This thesis uses several methods and tools to assess the greenness of public procurement; an analysis of purchasing criteria, life cycle assessment and eco-label criteria. Environmental criteria found in the tender documents are mirrored to the existing European procurement directives and case law. The relation between economy and environment is studied within the concept of the most economically advantageous tender as defined in the EU’s public procurement directives. Its content and applicability in the assessment of economic and environmental performance of a purchase is opened for discussion.The results of this thesis suggest that economical, environmental and legal aspects can be combined in public procurement, though the linking of green criteria is specific to a single contract. Despite the increased amount of green criteria in tender documents (i.e. calls for tenders and contracts), they mainly focus on those aspects that are undoubtedly covered by the procurement directives – possibly excluding some of the important environmental impacts of the product or service from a life cycle perspective. However, systematically presented green criteria in calls for tenders could give a signal to the manufacturers of the demand for environmentally preferable solutions, and encourage them to invest in developing green products, i.e. eco-design.
  • Sahari, Taina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Verkkari 2007 (1-2)
  • Alvesalo, Juhani (2005)
    Tässä tutkimuksessa on tarkasteltu Suomen asfalttimarkkinoita ja erityisesti kaupunkien teettämien asfaltointiurakoiden tarjouskilpailuja vuosina 1994-2002. Kilpailuvirasto on esittänyt kilpailunrikkomismaksun määräämistä kahdeksalle tänä aikana alalla toimineelle yritykselle. Tutkimusta on varten kerätty tarjouskilpailuaineisto, jota testataan tilastollisilla menetelmillä mahdollisen tarjouskartellin havaitsemiseksi. Työn teoreettisena perustana ovat huutokauppa- ja peliteoria. Käytetty tutkimusmenetelmä perustuu artikkelissa Bajari & Ye (2003) esitettyyn metodiin. Suomalaisella tarjouskilpailuaineistolla ei ole aiemmin tehty vastaavaa tutkimusta. Tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan asfaltointimarkkinoiden erityispiirteitä. Erityisenä mielenkiinnon kohteena ovat yritysten jättämiin tarjouksiin vaikuttavat kustannustekijät. Varsinkin yrityksen etäisyys urakkakohteesta on oleellinen kustannustekijä yrityksen arvioidessa kuinka suuren tarjouksen se tekee kaupattavasta urakasta. Tutkimusaineistolle estimoidun mallin tulokset tukevat tätä olettamusta. Myös muiden tarjouskilpailuun osallistuvien yritysten lukumäärä on saatujen tulosten perusteella tilastollisesti merkittävä. Tutkimuksessa yrityksille muodostetaan tarjousfunktiot, joiden perusteella niiden jättämiä tarjouksia selitetään. Tarjousten oletetaan olevan toisistaan riippumattomia ja yritysten kustannusrakenteiden suhteen vaihtokelpoisia keskenään. Näitä oletuksia testataan analysoimalla tilastollisilla testeillä tarjousten residuaalien korrelaatioita sekä tarjousfunktioiden muuttujien kertoimia. Tutkimusaineistolle tehtyjen testien perusteella 18 prosenttia kaikista testatuista yrityspareista joudutaan hylkäämään molemmissa testeissä. Saatujen tulosten perusteella epäiltyä kartellia ei kuitenkaan voida yksiselitteisesti erottaa. Kartelliin kuulumisesta epäiltyjä yrityksiä havaitaan kuitenkin molemmissa testeissä hylättyjen yritysten joukossa selvästi muita enemmän. Työssä käytettyä tutkimusmenetelmää voidaan pitää käyttökelpoisena kolluusion havaitsemiseksi tarjouskilpailuissa Tutkimusmenetelmä soveltuu hyvin esimerkiksi alustavaan markkinoilla esiintyneen tarjouskäyttäytymisen analysointiin, jolloin testitulosten perusteella voidaan arvioida mahdollisen jatkotutkimuksen tarvetta. Työn keskeisimmät lähteet ovat: BAJARI, P. - YE, L. (2003): Deciding Between Competition and Collusion. BAJARI, P. - SUMMERS, G. (2002): Detecting Collusion in Procurement Auctions. PORTER, R. H - ZONA, J. D. (1999): Ohio School Milk Markets: An Analysis of Bidding.
  • Grönlund, Pekka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The emissions from energy production should be significantly reduced and the key measure is to increase the share of renewable energy sources. In long term, this should be market-based, but so far renewable energy investments have mainly not been launched without state aid. The number of fixed feed-in tariff schemes started to increase in the beginning of the millennium. However, setting up the correct aid levels and especially taking into consideration technological development is extremely difficult. Furthermore, as the amount of renewable energy increases, the expenditure has also increased significantly. Therefore, cost-efficiency has become even more important than before. Recently schemes based on auctions have increased their popularity rapidly. Based on the experiences so far, they have proven to be a good solution for the challenges faced with previous aid schemes. There are several choices to be made when implementing auctions, which have large impact on cost-efficiency or state expenditure. The aim of the thesis has been to create an overall picture of auction schemes, the choices they require and to analyze their cost effects. The main choices are between sliding and fixed premium schemes and whether aid payment is based on the individual bids or uniform price. Previous studies have focused on the comparisons between different systems and general auction theory. In addition, there are several lessons-learned type studies. Common view is that one cannot simply copy a successful auction from one market to another. Therefore, a simulation model created for Finnish conditions makes it possible to try different choices and analyse their impact. Based on the result of the simulation model, sliding premium scheme is more cost-efficient than fixed premium scheme. Correspondingly aid based on every individual bid rather than uniform price, would become less expensive for state. Due to restrictions in the model, it is not possible to reflect the expected behavior of the bidders and thus the bids are truthful and strictly based on costs. Therefore, the real-life implications would most likely be less clear. Nevertheless, the results are in line with previous studies and reports. Due to higher risks in fixed premium scheme, the costs of capital tend to increase in comparison to sliding premium scheme. Schemes based on individual bids should be cheaper than uniform price based scheme, unless there is incentive for the last winner to increase its bid. If there is enough competition, other winning bids should fall below the last winning bid.