Browsing by Subject "tarkkaavaisuus"

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  • Tuomala, Anniina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Goals. The objective of this thesis is to study if poor language proficiency can be differentiated from reading disability by underlying cognitive processes. According to previous studies it is challenging for teachers to differentiate reading disability from poor language proficiency, and there are no tests for that in schools. The specific interest in this study is to examine if there are statistically significant relations between working memory, attentional capacity and reading skills among S1- (finnish as a first language) and S2-groups (finnish as a second language), and compare the groups' results for statistical differences. The native language teachers' assessments of S2-students' language skills are also examined. The hypothesis is that there is no statistical difference in attentional capacity between the S1- and S2-groups, but there is a difference in finnish reading skills between the groups. Methods. The participants consisted of 3rd graders from nine classes and four schools (N=159). Attentional capacity was measured by Attention Concentration Test and working memory by a computer-based test. Native language teachers' assessments were collected by a questionnaire. The results of ALLU-test, which measures reading skills, were received from the schools. The data was analysed by crosstabs, correlation and multivariate methods. Results and conclusions. According to the hypothesis, S1-group had statistically significantly higher results in reading skills than S2-group. S2-boys had the poorest results in ACT and working memory. S2-boys' ACT-results correlated positively with reading comprehension and S1-boys ACT-results correlated negatively with reading skills, so ACT-results aren't unambiguously related to reading skills. The varying results may imply the importance of process speed to reading skills. S2-boys seemed to benefit from slower working pace: the slower they were in Attention Concentration Test, the better reading comprehension results they got. S1-boys' high speed on the other hand related to higher results in decoding skills and high accuracy to higher reading comprehension results. In further studies the test measuring working memory should be more challenging for 3rd graders: in this study it wasn't difficult enough to separate pupils' working memory skills. S2-boys' native language correlated with working memory results and S2-girls' native language speaking skills correlated with finnish decoding skills. According to the regression analysis the variables predicting reading comprehension were ACT1, ACT2, native language and decoding skills.
  • Laitala, Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Attention is an essential part of learning and academical performance. At the moment attention is being assessed mainly by subjective evaluations. Attention Concentration Test pursues to measure attention objectively on the basis of Inhibition Theory. The aim of this thesis was to examine the connection between success in Attention Concentration test and success in visuospatial working memory task. Previous studies imply that functions of attention and working memory are tightly connected. In this thesis, visuospatial working memory test worked as a reference meter to attention. The thesis is a part of a broader Helsinki University Centre for Educational Assessments study which examined ACT-tests usability and ability to identify pupils with significant attentional problems. The thesis studied also genders, mother tongue and receiving intensified and special supports connections with attention and working memory. In addition, the thesis researched what factors predict success in Attention Concentration Test. The study was attended by 159 third grade pupils from four different schools located in Helsinki region. The data was collected between November 2016 and January 2017 at the schools. The tests were completed by computer over one session. The data was analysed by quantitative methods examining correlations and using One-Way Analysis of Variance and Mann-Whitney tests on purpose of finding distinctions between different groups. Furthermore, it was endeavored to create a model that would explain success in Attention Concentration Test using Regression Analysis. Examining the whole material only a weak connection was found between success in Attention Concentration test and success in visuospatial working memory task. Examining the data by gender a medium connection was found with boys. With girls, a connection wasn't found. Girls were more accurate than boys in Attention Concentration Test, but boys were faster than girls in working memory task. Non-Finnish-speaking boys and students receiving intensified and special support succeeded more poorly than other students in both tests. Due to small correlations, a model explaining success in Attention Concentration Test could not be formed.
  • Juurmaa, Kristiina (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Introduction: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common childhood psychiatric disorders and is marked by persistent, age-inappropriate levels of inattention, hyperactivity and/or impulsivity. The present study examines cortical oscillations in adults diagnosed with ADHD/ADD during administration of T.O.V.A. (Test of Variables of Attention). T.O.V.A. is a continuous performance test (CPT) that measures the ability to sustain attention for a prolonged period of time. The motivation for the study is to contribute to the diagnostic picture of ADHD through the novel combination of T.O.V.A. with an EEG measurement. Parieto-occipital alpha and frontomedial theta are examined in particular as they have been linked to sustained attention as measured in CPTs. Methods: 53 adults diagnosed with ADHD/ADD and 18 healthy controls were recruited. Concomitant T.O.V.A. and EEG was measured. Oscillatory power in theta and alpha bands was compared between groups and between different behavioural conditions. Results & Conclusions: T.O.V.A. performance of healthy controls was more likely to be within normal limits as compared to ADHD/ADD diagnosed adults, and vice versa. There were moderate significant differences in commission errors, RT variability and d’ (response sensitivity) between groups. The control group tended to manifest higher theta synchronisation during correct inhibition trials. Given differences in behavioural performance, this result might be related to a higher sensitivity to task demands in the control group. However, there were no between-groups differences in frontomedial theta power and parietal or frontal alpha power. Further research should compare groups formed on the basis of not only diagnostic status but also of behavioural performance.
  • Mikkola, Katri (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder of executive functions, which affects the social, occupational, educational, and personal life of the individuals concerned. The main characteristics of this disorder are age inappropriate inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. The research on adult ADHD is still scarce, especially concerning the neural networks of attention. Childhood ADHD has been associated with impairment in two of the attentional network subsystems alerting and executive control, leaving the third subsystem, orienting of attention, intact. Research on adult ADHD and the subsystems of attentional network is contradicting. The aim of this study was to investigate neural activation of these attentional networks during highly demanding attentional tasks in adults with ADHD. The first hypothesis was that the ADHD group have decreased activity in the frontoparietal network during orienting of attention in contrast to the control group. The second hypothesis was that the ADHD group have decreased activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate gyrus, and precuneus during divided attention in contrast to the control group. Both the ADHD group and the control group included 16 participants, aged 25 – 56 across all participants, whose brain activation was measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging during the attentional tasks. The tasks included divided and selective attention. Both conditions included task-irrelevant novel distractors. The results supported both hypotheses. The ADHD group had decreased brain activity in the frontoparietal network during top-down controlled and bottom-up triggered attention. Decreased activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus was observed during divided attention in the ADHD group. Furthermore, the default-mode network was hyperactivated in the ADHD group. Activation of this network has been related to increasing task demands and failure of maintaining an alert state. Thus, adult ADHD seems to associate with abnormally functioning attention networks. Moreover, the results indicated that in addition to dysfunctional alerting and executive control, adults with ADHD have also impaired orienting of attention. These dysfunctional attentional networks may have a connection with the inattentive symptoms of adult ADHD.
  • Sokka, Laura (University of Helsinki, 2017)
  • Tuhkanen, Samuel; Pekkanen, Jami; Lehtonen, Esko; Lappi, Otto (2019)
    In complex dynamic tasks such as driving it is essential to be aware of potentially important targets in peripheral vision. While eye tracking methods in various driving tasks have provided much information about drivers’ gaze strategies, these methods only inform about overt attention and provide limited grounds to assess hypotheses concerning covert attention. We adapted the Posner cue paradigm to a dynamic steering task in a driving simulator. The participants were instructed to report the presence of peripheral targets while their gaze was fixed to the road. We aimed to see whether and how the active steering task and complex visual stimulus might affect directing covert attention to the visual periphery. In a control condition, the detection task was performed without a visual scene and active steering. Detection performance in bends was better in the control task compared to corresponding performance in the steering task, indicating that active steering and the complex visual scene affected the ability to distribute covert attention. Lower targets were discriminated slower than targets at the level of the fixation circle in both conditions. We did not observe higher discriminability for on-road targets. The results may be accounted for by either bottom-up optic flow biasing of attention, or top-down saccade planning.
  • Peltola, Mirka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Objective The reduction of physical activity and simultaneous increase in screen time has been a source for concern in recent years. The significance of schools for increasing physical activity has grown and previous research has demonstrated a positive link between physical activity, cognitive behaviour and learning. The link between screen time and cognitive behaviour has also been researched and the results are partially contradictory. This study focuses on the connection between attention and self-assessed physical activity and screen time. It also explores the significance of an acute, coordination developing physical activity session in relation to attentiveness Methods The study was carried out as quantitative research including a questionnaire and an intervention study. The questionnaire was a self-assessment filled out by 78 pupils of 3rd and 4th grade examining levels of physical activity and screen time. The intervention study was made up by 30 children in the experimental, physically active, group and 30 children in the control, physical passive, group. The study examined the connection between self-assessed physical activity and screen time with the success in an ACT attention test and the potential influence physical intervention might have in a repeat test. Outcome and conclusions The results of this study supported previous research findings on physical activity on children and adolescence; some children are very active whilst others lack physical activity almost entirely. Most of the children and adolescence also went over the maximum recommended daily screen time limit of 2 hours, both during the week and at weekends. There was no link between overall physical activity and total screen time in relation to the success of the attention test. In the intervention part of the study, there was no noticeable difference in the results of the attention test between the experiential and control groups. Previous research material on the links between physical activity and screen time on attention is partially conflicting so further research is recommended. It has however been established, that physical activity during lessons does not lower academic results, meaning that they can be used to increase overall physical activity of individuals even if the link to cognitive behavior has not been confirmed.
  • Tammi, Tuisku (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Objectives. This thesis aims to explore temporal changes in task-related physiological arousal and their connection to performance in repeated trials of a steering task. Moderate physiological arousal is believed to direct attention towards task-relevant stimuli, leading to performance improvements, while too high or low arousal is detrimental (the Yerkes-Dodson law). However, this approach does not explicitly account for changes in arousal over time. In this study, temporal changes in task-related sympathetic arousal are modelled as habituation, which has traditionally been used to describe changes in orienting responses to repeated presentations of non-target stimuli. Habituation during task performance is interpreted in terms of predictability and significance, aiming to describe changes in attentional processing during learning in an evolutionarily plausible manner. Furthermore, connections between performance and individual differences in habituation rate and spontaneous (task-unrelated) sympathetic activity are examined. Finally, habituation is compared to deviations from predicted performance. Methods. Participants (N = 9) played a total of 40 trials of a high-speed steering task in eight sessions over a period of 2-3 weeks. Electrodermal activity during baseline and task performance was recorded in five sessions. Change in task-related skin conductance response (SCR) frequency over trials 1-5 within sessions was used to determine individual rates of habituation whereas SCR frequency during baseline indicated individual spontaneous activity. Trial-level difference scores were used to explore habituation and deviations from predicted performance (a power-law learning curve) within participants. Results and conclusions. Task-related arousal was found to decrease with repeated trials for all participants in nearly all sessions, indicating that a habituation model was successful in capturing changes in arousal in a task situation. Furthermore, sustained task-related arousal (slow habituation) was connected to better performance both between and within participants. High spontaneous activity, on the other hand, was associated with performance decrements. Taken together, these results suggest that temporal changes in task-related arousal during learning are related to the processing of task-relevant cues and may reflect motivational states that direct selective attention, while high spontaneous activity is related to performance decrements, perhaps due to interference from task-unrelated stress.
  • Hirvonen, Jonni (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Tässä pro gradu -tutkielmassa on tarkasteltu aivosähkö- ja aivomagneettikäyrien amplitudien vaihteluiden vastaavuussuhteita koehenkilön suoriutumiseen audiovisuaalisten ärsykkeiden tarkkaavaisuustehtävissä. Aikaisemmista tutkimuksista tiedetään, että koehenkilön osumatarkkuus ei pysy vakiona koko tehtävän ajan, vaan on monesti jaksottunut valppauden ja herpaantumisen jaksoihin. Lisäksi osumatarkkuus koko kokeen ajalta on alhaisempi kuin lyhyen kalibraatiojakson ajalta mitattuna. Tämän intuitiiviseltä tuntuvan keskittymiskyvyn järkkymisen taustalla on esitetty olevan henkilön introspektiiviset ja mielenvaelteluun liittyvät kognitiiviset toiminnot. Ennen tätä tutkimusta on jäänyt kuitenkin osoittamatta osumatarkkuuden ailahtelun yhteys aivokuoren hermostollisen aktiivisuuden pitkällä ajalla autokorreloiviin muutoksiin lähdemallintamisella. Tämän pro gradun tutkimustulokset osoittavat, että näiden kahden lajin välillä on olemassa merkittävä korrelaatioyhteys. Lisäksi lepovaiheen aivotoiminnasta modaliteettispesifeillä tarkkaavaisuus- ja oletustilan verkoston alueilla voidaan ennustaa psykofyysisen suoriutumisen vaihteluja jatkuvan audiovisuaalisen ärsykekynnyksen tarkkaavaisuustehtävän aikana. Keskittymiskyvyn vaihtelun muutoksia hermostollisella tasolla ja näitä mahdollisesti ilmentäviä käyttäytymisen ailahteluja psykofyysisinä parametreinä, kuten osumatarkkuutena ja reaktionopeutena, voidaan luonnehtia skaalauslakianalyysilla. Ilmiön skaalaton käyttäytyminen heijastelee monimutkaisen järjestelmän taipumusta luoda sisäisiä vastaavuussuhteita eli autokorrelaatioita, jotka heikkenevät hitaammin ja ulottuvat kauemmaksi ajassa ja/tai paikassa kuin mitä alla piilevistä mekanismeista voidaan suoraan ennustaa. On havaittu, että osumatarkkuuden jaksottuminen ja spontaani aivotoiminta noudattavat potenssilain skaalauskäyttäytymistä ajan suhteen. Psykofyysisen ja hermostollisen skaalauslain mukaisen käyttäytymisen kvantifioimiseksi tässä opinnäytetyössä on käytetty vaihtelun ikkunallista autokorrelaatioanalyysiä, DFA:ta. DFA paljastaa ilmiön sisällä olevien peräkkäisten tapahtumien autokorrelaatioiden kestävyyden tarkasteluvälin kasvaessa. Skaalausluvut eli DFA-eksponentit on johdettu tässä kokeessa jatkuvan audiovisuaalisen ärsykekynnyksen tarkkaavaisuustehtävän ja levon aikana rekisteröidyistä aivosähkö- ja aivomagneettikäyräsignaalien verhokäyrästä sekä psykofyysisen osuma/huti -binäärisekvenssistä rakennetusta keinotekoisesta satunnaiskulun kaltaisesta käyrästä. Jatkuvat ärsykekynnystehtävät soveltuvat hyvin tarkkaavaisuuden top-down mekanismien tutkimiseen, koska heikoista, vain juuri ja juuri havaintokyvyn säteellä olevista ärsykkeistä seuraa verraten heikko bottom-up hermostovaste. Näin keskittymiskykyyn vaikuttavat top-down säätelymekanismit kuten motivaatio, päämäärät tai mielenvaeltelu eli spontaanilta vaikuttava aivotoiminta edustuu selkeämmin aivosähkö- ja -magneettikäyrissä. Aivokuoren kokonaisvaltaisen skaalautumisen lisäksi ollaan kiinnostuneita psykofyysisten ja hermostollisten vastaavuussuhteiden jakaumamallista tietyille aivoalueille. Mitattujen hermostollisten signaalien paikantaminen tarkalleen tietyille aivokuoren alueille aiheuttaa käänteisen ongelman, joka on ratkaistu tässä MNE -lähdemallintamisella. Lähdemallintamisen algoritmit tuottavat todennäköisimmän mallin aivokuoren alueista, joiden aktiivisuudella voidaan selittää mitatut MEEG signaalit. Mallintaminen on työn kriittinen vaihe, koska sillä yhdistetään neuroanatominen tieto fysiologisen ja psykofyysisen tiedon kanssa. Yksilötason data on käsitelty lopuksi ryhmätasolla tilastollisin menetelmin korrelaatiotulosten merkittävyyksien arvioimiseksi.
  • Korpiniitty, Iida (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tarkastelen tutkimuksessa kuinka antroposofinen ihmiskuva ilmenee steinerpedagogisten kasvattajien vuorovaikutuksessa lasten kanssa. Steinerin antroposofisen kehitysvaiheteorian mukaan alle seitsemän vuoden ikäinen lapsi kehittyy työskentelemällä tahtonsa kanssa ja jäljittelemällä ympäristöään Tästä johtuen kasvatuksen nähdäänkin olevan pääasiassa aikuisen itsekasvatusta. Erityisesti olen kiinnostunut siitä, kuinka eettisen ja vapaan persoonan kasvatustavoitteisiin pyritään käytännössä ja kuinka nämä käsitteet ymmärretään. Tarkastelen myös, kuinka steinerkasvattajat pyrkivät säilyttämään lapsen kasvuvoimia kehossa ja hillitsemään niiden siirtymistä päähän. Pohdin, kuinka kehon ja tietoisuuden prosesseja aktivoidaan ja suunnataan vuorovaikutuksessa. Työni on laadullinen tutkimus, joka perustuu etnografiseen aineistoon, puolistrukuroituihin haastatteluihin ja grounded theory- menetelmän soveltavaan käyttöön analyysin tukena. Etnografinen aineisto on kerätty eräässä Helsingin steinerpäiväkodissa osallistuvan havainnoinnin metodilla suoritetun kenttätyön avulla. Aineisto täydentyy lisäksi kolmen eri päiväkodin kasvattajien haastatteluilla. Kasvattajat pyrkivät selittävän ja autoritäärisen ohjaamisen sijaan aktivoimaan lasten alotteellisuutta ja orientoimaan heitä keholliseen jäljittelyyn liittymisen tapana. Neuvottelun ja käsitteellisen keskustelun sijaan kasvattajat pyrkivät herättämään ja suuntaamaan lasten kehollista tietoisuutta itseen ja ympäristöön sosiaalisesti merkittävillä tavoilla. Näin kasvuvoimia estettiin siirtymästä päähän ja tuettiin liittymistä yhteisöön eettisyyden perustana. Lasten älyllistä tietoisuutta pyrittiin hillitsemään samalla kun kasvattajat puolestaan pyrkivät korkeaan tietoisuuteen suhteessa omiin tunteisiinsa, ajatuksiinsa, asenteisiinsa ja toimintaansa. Esitän, että steinerkasvatuksessa ajatus ihmisestä kasvatuksessa ja itsekasvatuksessa muokattavana yhdistyy jäljittelyyn yhtenä eettisen kultivaation tekniikkana. Jäljittelyn painopiste on lapsuudessa tiedostamattomassa päässä janaa, mutta aikuisuudessa se siirtyy tietoiseen päähän. Molemmissa vaiheissa tietoisuus käsitetään myös kehollistuneena ilmiönä: asenteet, tunteet ja ajattelu muokkaavat aisteja ja kehoa ja toisaalta kehollisen toiminnan kautta voidaan työstää asenteita, tunteita ja ajattelua. Jäljittely palveleekin lopulta perimmäistä yksilöllistymistä, jonka päämääränä on hengen vapaus.
  • Sahari, Elisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Aims. Speech processing has largely been studied in relatively simple paradigms, which do not take into account the variety of conditions people face in everyday situations. Yet, during natural conversations there are many factors that can affect the way we process speech, such as varying listening conditions, context of the conversation and visual information a listener receives from the speaker´s face. A recent study examined how speech is processed in natural situations by considering different listening conditions and availability of visual information. Participants selectively attended to audio-visual conversations among other speech, while the audio-visual quality of conversations were modulated. Selective attention to the conversations increased activity in the speech processing areas of the superior temporal lobe and in the cortical attention network, but also in the posterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortex. Previously, the latter brain areas have been associated with socio-emotional processing. Therefore, it was assumed that the conversations might create a strong enough social context to activate these areas. The aim of the present research was to study whether these areas are activated due to the social context of conversations. This was examined by breaking the coherent plot of the conversations. Furthermore, the present study aimed at clarifying how the coherence of conversations facilitates speech processing. The present study also aimed to replicate previous results associated with modulations of audio-visual quality of perceived speech. Methods. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 20 adult participants, while the participants viewed audio-visual conversations. The amount of contextual information was modulated by breaking the coherent plots of conversations. Furthermore, the auditory and visual quality of speech were modulated. Also, to increase need for cognitive control while processing the conversations, a speech audiobook was presented in the background. Results and conclusions. Attention to audio-visual speech activated cortical areas related to speech processing in temporal lobe and inferior frontal gyrus and areas related to attention in frontal lobe, as well as the medial brain areas assumed to be involved in social processing. The coherence of conversations did not modulate activations in the latter areas, implying that these areas were not activated due to social processing, but perhaps due to conceptual processing. The coherence of conversations increased activity in posterior superior temporal gyrus and temporal pole suggesting that a coherent context facilitates speech processing in both earlier and later phases of speech processing, possibly due to semantic priming. Modulation of audio-visual quality enhanced activity mainly in the same brain areas as in the previous study while increasing activation in the auditory cortex.
  • Liesto, Sanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Objectives. The aim of the current study was to examine whether patients with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) have neurocognitive deficits in acute phase and in three month follow up after injury that can be detected using a brief neuropsychological battery. Second aim of the study was also to examine if there was a subgroup of patients with more neuropsychological deficits. The aim was also to compare self-reported symptoms and objective neuropsychological deficits. MTBI is known to cause neurocognitive deficits including dysfunctions in memory, attention and executive functions in some patients. Usually neurocognitive dysfunctions resolve in three months but a minority of MTBI patients are reported to continue experience dysfunctions longer than three months. Methods. 26 patients with MTBI and 23 healthy controls participated in this study. Patients were examined with neuropsychological tests three days after the trauma. Neuropsychological tests assessed the domains of memory, attention and executive functions. Second examination was conducted three months after the first one for both groups. At the first examination patients completed SCAT2 questionnaire concerning self-reported symptoms. Results and conclusions. On a group level the neuropsychological test performance of MTBI patients did not differ from healthy controls. A minority of patients with MTBI showed significant neurocognitive deficits. Some self-reported symptoms correlated to neuropsychological performance. In the future more research is needed to explore the factors contributing to long lasting deficits after a MTBI. Also new neuropsychological tests are needed to examine the subtle deficits of MTBI.
  • Hämäläinen, Sari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Tässä pro gradu -tutkielmassa selvitetään musiikkiharrastuksen ja erityisesti soitonopiskelun yhteyttä 13–21-vuotiaiden nuorten tarkkaavaisuus- ja toiminnanohjaustaitoihin. Musiikkiharrastus on aiemmissa tutkimuksissa liitetty tehostuneisiin kuuloerottelukykyihin, kielellisiin kykyihin ja korkeamman asteisiin kognitiivisiin prosesseihin. Tämän laajan kognitiivisten kykyjen tehostumisen takana on ehdotettu olevan tarkkaavaisuuden säätelyn ja toiminnanohjaustaitojen kehittyminen musiikki- ja erityisesti soittoharrastuksen myötä. Tarkkaavaisuudelle ja toiminnanohjaukselle tärkeä etuotsalohko kehittyy edelleen nuoruudessa ja vielä aikuisiän saavuttamisen jälkeen, joten on kiinnostavaa selvittää musiikkiharrastuksen mahdollisia hyötyjä nuorten ja nuorten aikuisten vielä kehittyviin toiminnanohjaustaitohin ja mahdollista yhteyttä niiden taustalla oleviin aivomekanismeihin. Tutkimuksessa mitattiin aivosähkökäyrämittauksella (elektroenkefalografia, EEG) nuorten ja nuorten aikuisten (N=64, joista 35 kuului musiikkiryhmään ja loput kontrolliryhmään) inhibitiota, kognitiivista joustamista ja työmuistia edellyttävän visuaalisen vaihtamistehtävän synnyttämiä P3-tyyppisiä herätevasteita. Lisäksi nuoret ja nuoret aikuiset tekivät inhibitiokykyä ja tarkkaavaisuuden sujuvaa vaihtamista sekä työmuistia ja yleistä päättelysuoriutumista mittaavia neuropsykologisia tehtäviä. Tutkimuksessa tarkasteltiin myös näissä tehtävissä suoriutumisen yhteyttä P3-tyyppisen vasteen voimakkuuteen. Musiikki- ja kontrolliryhmän välillä ei havaittu eroa toiminnan tai taitojen tasolla koeasetelman vaihtamistehtävässä eikä neuropsykologisissa tehtävissä. Ryhmien välillä ei havaittu myöskään eroa P3-tyyppisen vasteen voimakkuudessa. Vasteen jakauma erosi kuitenkin ryhmien välillä. Musiikkiryhmällä P3-tyyppinen vaste oli voimakkaampi päälaen alueella pään keskiosaan verrattuna, kun taas kontrolliryhmällä vaste oli voimakkaampi päälaen alueella vielä taaempaan takaraivon alueeseen verrattuna. Koeasetelman vaihtamistehtävässä suoriutumisella oli yhteys P3-tyyppisen vasteen voimakkuuteen: mitä suurempi vasteen voimakkuus oli, sitä lyhyemmät olivat reaktioajat tehtävässä. Sen sijaan neuropsykologisessa inhibitio- tai vaihtamistehtävässä suoriutumisella ei havaittu olevan yhteyttä P3-tyyppisen vasteen voimakkuuteen. Työmuistisuoriutuminen oli kuitenkin positiivisesti yhteydessä P3-tyyppisen vasteen voimakkuuteen. Myös iällä havaittiin yhteys vasteen päänpinnan jakaumaan. Nuorimmilla vaste oli voimakkaampi päälaen alueella taaempaan takaraivon alueeseen verrattuna, mutta vanhimmassa ikäryhmässä vasteen amplitudi oli suurempi päälaen alueella pään keskiosaan verrattuna. Toiminnanohjaustehtävissä suoriutuminen parani iän myötä molemmilla ryhmillä. Vaikka selkeitä ryhmäeroja ei tutkimuksessa havaittukaan, tulokset viittaavat siihen, että nuorilla ja nuorilla aikuisilla musiikkiharrastus on yhteydessä erilaiseen tarkkaavaisuuden säätelyyn ja toiminnanohjaukseen liittyvään hermostolliseen toimintaan musiikkia harrastamattomiin verrattuna. Tulosten mukaan tarkkaavaisuus- ja toiminnanohjaustaidot ja niihin liittyvät hermostolliset prosessit myös kehittyvät edelleen 13–21 vuoden iässä.
  • Peltoniemi, Anni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The purpose of this study was to find out the kind of changes happening in directing and maintaining the attention of special class pupils while using dog assisted pedagogy. Attention can be divided into three elements i.e. directing the attention, maintaining it and changing its object. In this study I concentrated on the first two notions. Previous studies have shown that dog assisted intervention has positive effects on focusing attention. This is shown among other things in improved attentiveness while doing tasks. This master's thesis is a qualitative case study. The target group of this study consists of eight pupils in a special class in Finland. Each of them has clear features of attention deficit disorder. During the study the pupils were 7 to 8 years old. Collecting the data was carried out by observing the pupils with the help of an observation form and a video recording the material of pupils for three days. A trained education and rehabilitation dog was working in the classroom during two days and on one day it was out of the classroom. The analysis of the material was carried out as quantification. The research was focused on two aspects, getting the pupils' attention and keeping it in two different situations: with the dog present and without the dog in the classroom. According to the results of this study there are positive changes in shifting and maintaining the attention of the pupils when using dog assisted pedagogy. The pupils' ability to focus their attention immediately was increased by 12.2 per cent when the dog was present. In addition, in situations where attention was not targeted immediately, the delay in focusing the attention was reduced by 2.6 seconds. On the basis of analyzing the observation form maintaining attention was improved by 34 per cent and on the basis of the video material by 25.6 per cent when the dog was in the classroom. In addition, the attentiveness of the pupils was less frequently interrupted when the dog was present in the classroom. Based on this study it seems that dog assisted pedagogy has positive impacts on students' attentiveness.
  • Karjalainen, Henri (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Expert performances and expertise are interesting topics from a layman's as well as a researcher's point of view. According to the expertise theory and the theory of achieving expert performance at least 10 years of regular and intensive practice is needed to reach the international top level and to attain an appreciated position in one's own field. Besides practice also learning and attention enabling it are prerequisites for developing performances. Attention plays an important role in learning, and it has been tested at schools especially among young school children. The earlier studies examining the connection in question show that with the help of an attention concentration test the future school success of children can be estimated (e.g. Hotulainen, Thuneberg, Hautamäki, Vainikainen, 2014). In this study the racing drivers' attention was measured by using the Attention Concentration Test (ACT) created by Ad van der Ven in 2005. In addition, their cognitive power of deduction was measured with the help of a Formula test dealing with topics of formula autosports. Furthermore, a comparison was made in order to see if there was any connection between the number of career practice days and the logical reasoning. The purpose of the study was to find out how the number of races and career practice days of the racing drivers affected their success in autosports, and to compare the results with the expertise theory. It was also studied how attention is connected with expert performance and success both in autosports and in school, and whether the number of career practice days in autosports have any impact on the results of the ACT test. Furthermore the racing drivers' estimates of their own driving skills were compared with their success in racing. The AKK-Motorsport's junior team group, who represent Finnish top level, was chosen as the target group of the study. Thirteen drivers aged 13 to 21 participated in the study with four of them racing in touring and formula series and nine in different karting series. The results gained in the study showed there was no significant connection between attention and success in school or racing. However, the number of career practice days had a statistically significant connection to success in racing. Those having driven more during their career succeeded better than those having driven less. In the Formula-themed test measuring the logical power of deduction the most experienced drivers succeeded best. The young racing drivers' self-concept and awareness of their own strengths were more accurate when their estimates of their own driving skills were directly connected with their success in racing.
  • Reivinen, Anna (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Aims. The aim of the study was to find out the relations between attention, formal operational thought, psychological well-being and school achievement and choices of educational tracks. The thesis complements the study and modelling carried out by the Centre for Educational Assessment and Unit of Special Education of the University of Helsinki by adding psychological well-being to the model of attention, formal operational thought and future plans. Method. The data consisted of a sample of ninth graders from six comprehensive schools from a municipality in Eastern Finland. The size of the sample was N=287 of which girls 53% (ngirls=152) ja boys 47% (nboys=135. The data were gathered using a computer-assisted ACT-test, a multiple choice Formula-test and a BPNS-questionnaire. The data were analyzed using correlations, linear regression and general linear model (GLM) two-way analysis of variance. Results. Both girls' and boys' experience of competence and formal operational thought had a statistically significant relation between school achievement. Regarding girls, competence was a stronger explanatory variable than formal operational thought, whereas regarding boys formal operational thought was a stronger explanatory variable than competence. When girls' choices of educational tracks were examined it appeared that attention and competence were statistically significant explanatory variables regarding the choice of academic track. Boys' choices of the academic track could only be explained by competence. It also appeared that attention had a statistically significant correlation between formal operational thought which in turn was correlated with school achievement. This confirmed the assumption given by previous studies that attention has an indirect effect on school achievement via formal operational thought. The thesis is part of a study (attention, thinking skills, self-determination theory and school achievement) carried out by the Centre of Educational Assessment and Unit of Special Education of the University of Helsinki.
  • Alho, Kimmo; Salmela, Viljami (2017)