Browsing by Subject "technical change"

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  • Leijamaa, Terho (2008)
    Tiivistelmä: Energia on välttämätön nyky yhteiskunnan rakennusaine, ilman sitä junat eivät liiku, talvella on kylmä ja tiedon kulku on hidasta. Energian rajallisuudesta voidaan vetää suora yhteys talouden kehittyneisyydelle, maailmassa on edelleen valtioita, missä ruoka valmistetaan pääsääntöisesti avotulen ääressä. Kun taas aivan toisessa ääri laidassa on valtio, joka käyttää yli 50 % siitä öljystä jota kulutamme päivittäin maapallolla. Päteekö sittenkään samat säännöt kaikille pitkässä juoksussa vai näemmekö yhä tulevaisuudessa sotia esim. öljyn takia. Työssäni tutkin kuinka energian käyttöä säätelevät poliittiset päätökset vaikuttavat talous kasvuun. Kansainvälinen keskustelu ja köyden vetoa oli vahvasti mukana näkökulmina työssäni, pohtien mm. sitä mikä tekee toisista hallituksista valmiimman aloittamaan toimet, samalla kun toiset pystyvät olemaan täysin ymmärtämättömiä tilanteen vakavuudesta, eivätkä ole valmiina toimimaan paremman huomisen nimissä. Haen päättelyissäni vastauksia siihen oleelliseen kysymykseen, että pystytäänkö energian käyttöä sääteleviä kansainvälisiä poliittisia päätöksiä ratkaisemaan parantamalle energia tehokkuutta ennen kuin ne aiheuttavat talouden kasvun loppumista tai selvää hidastumista. Hain työni pohjaksi materiaalia Acemoglun teoksesta: Directed technical change (2001), siitä miten ja mitkä kannustimet ajavat kehitystyöhön. Sekä tietenkin välttämätön tarkastelu, siitä pystytäänkö päätöksissä hyväksyttyjä rajoituksia täysi määräisesti kompensoimaan kehittämällä vain energia tehokkuutta. Toinen tärkeä pohjamateriaalin lähde minulle oli Smulders, S. ja de Nooij, M. : The impact of energy conservation on technology and economic growth (2003). Asettamiini kysymyksiin hain heidän mallista ratkaisuja ja mahdollisia selityksiä oman päättelyni tueksi. Kysymys mihin en lähde teoksien puitteissa pystynyt saamaan konkreettista vastausta, oli se onko sillä merkitystä teknologian kehittämisessä oletko kehittämisessä edelläkävijä vai perässä hiihtäjä ja jos niin kuinka suuri se merkitys on. Taloudellisesta näkökulmastahan tämä tieto on hyvin merkityksellinen, ajavana voima joko kehitykseen panostamisessa ja sen jättämisessä. Tutkielmani lopputulos riippuu, siitä minkälainen päätös energian säätelyssä tehdään. Se sovitaanko yhteisesti energian käytön lisäämisen rajoittamisesta vai rajoitetaanko suoraan energian käyttöä. Ensiksi mainittu tapa, rajoittaa talouden kasvua pitkässä juoksussa, kun jälkimmäisessä tapauksessa vaikutus ei ole oleellinen pitkässä juoksussa. Abstract: We live in a world that develops to more and more energy dependent and the growth don’t seem to be slowing down. Countries like India and China develops rapidly and in upcoming decades they will consume in growing number of goods and energy directly and indirectly. Adding to this equation that already highly developed countries are not in a trend of consuming any less energy, it’s more like vice versa. Direct line can be drawn from economic development to growth in energy use, without it industries wouldn’t operate or society’s work. History has show that energy is not just important for world trade it is also potential source of tension and conflicts. I study in my work, how international energy conservation treaties affect economic growth and would these restrictions encourage to R&D more energy efficient technologies. To study this matter and possible trade-offs, I examined Smulders and de Nooijs models from their paper: The impact of energy conservation on technology and economic growth (2003). On that paper they showed models that would explain what would happen if we would start energy conservation and how the act would reflect to technology development. In chapter 3 we go through Acemoglu’s skill-biased technological change, which will help to understand the results that Smulders and de Nooijs come to. In conclusions I also think over the scenario, does it matter for a country if is it on the forefront of development or a follower. Going through the results of my study model wise depends on what type treaty is agreed upon, whether the treaty is to restrict growth of energy use or directly restrict the use of energy to for example to 1990 level. When the treaty affects to the growth of energy use, we can see the negative effect in the long run on economic growth. But in latter case, when we just restrict the use of energy X amount, no parent long run affect to economic growth can be seen.
  • Myllyvirta, Lauri (2010)
    Steep and rapid reductions in greenhouse gas emissions are required from industrialized countries. An important policy concern is that these emission reductions could lead to increases in emissions elsewhere. This leakage effect can be avoided by suitable choice of policies. I study the greenhouse gas abatement policy of a large coalition of countries that faces competition from countries with laxer emission policies, comparing the changes in emissions from the rest of the world and in competitiveness of dirty industries caused by different policy options. My analysis is based on a two-region, two-good model of endogenous growth with directed technical change. I compare two approaches to allocation of emissions associated with the supply of internationally traded goods and services: production-based and consumption-based accounting. When technical change and complementary policies are omitted, emission constraints based on either approach cause emissions in the rest of the world to increase, although through different mechanisms. However, an emission constraint creates incentives for energy-saving innovation and countries' emission policies can include various complementary measures in addition to the emission constraint. These factors can cause also the rest of the world to reduce emissions. Models that omit these factors yield too low recommendations on emission reduction targets. In order to maximize global emission reductions achieved with unilateral policy, production-based emission constraints should be applied on sectors where there are good possibilities to substitute other inputs for fossil energy, and there are decreasing returns to scale in carbon intensive activities. Consumption-based emission constraints achieve larger global emission reductions in sectors in which fossil energy and other inputs are strongly complementary and returns to scale on the regional level are not strongly decreasing. Complementary policies, such as subsidies to energy efficiency investments, subsidies to R&D of energy-saving technologies, transfer of technology to developing countries and relaxing the protection of intellectual property rights, can reduce or reverse carbon leakage. Each of these policies only reduces global emissions under specific conditions. Choosing suitable policies and differentiating between economic sectors is of great importance. If border measures are applied on imported carbon-intensive goods, it is important to account for the relative carbon intensity of individual producers. A regular border tax levied per tonne
  • Jaatinen, Kaius (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    As the global population grows and the demand for agricultural commodities increases, empirical measurement of agricultural productivity becomes all the more important. Agricultural productivity is the relationship between yield and inputs and can in simple terms be decomposed into technical change, technical efficiency and scale-effect. Agricultural productivity and its development with time are often studied using price and quantity indices as well as non-parametric and parametric modelling. In this thesis, a mean-value based pseudo-panel created from FADN farm data was used to analyse the productivity development of Finnish cereal farms between 2000-2018. Several functional forms, assumptions of returns to scale and combinations of variables were used to create and test several parametric models. Technical change was observed both at aggregate level for all size classes and for size classes separately. Pooled, fixed effects (FE) and random effects (RE) models were tested with the pseudo-panel. Pooled models were weighted with the number of observations for each mean-value. Results showed little to no technical change in the various size classes. Returns to scale were increasing in all models. Land was a highly significant factor of productivity growth and was found to be notably more significant than the other inputs, labour, capital and materials. FE model were mostly preferred over pooled models and R2-values of all models were over 95% implying over-complexity of models, particularly in the case of the FE models. Very high VIF values were obtained for variables, implying strong multicollinearity between variables. While results regarding technical change are, at a very high level, in line with previous studies on Finnish cereal productivity, the combination of high VIF, fluctuating elasticities between models and limited degrees of freedom indicate that the pseudo-panel method might not provide valuable results in productivity analysis when FADN mean-based data is used. More data-points per year or farm-level data would be required to increase statistical validity of results.