Browsing by Subject "technology"

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  • Pernaa, Johannes; Wiedmer, Susanne (2020)
    The focus of this systematic literature analysis is to provide a comprehensive review of earlier research on the utilisation of 3D printers in chemistry education. The objective is to offer research-based knowledge for developing chemistry education through following research questions: what kind of work has been done in the field of 3D printing in chemistry education; what kind of design strategies have been implemented; how 3D printing has been used in chemistry education research. The data consists of 47 peer-reviewed articles which were analysed via qualitative content analysis using a technological pedagogical content knowledge framework. Theoretical framework was selected because integrating 3D printing in chemistry education requires knowledge of chemistry, technology, and most importantly, pedagogy. Our research indicates that integrating 3D printing begins by analysing current challenges which are reasoned via pedagogical or technological content knowledge-based arguments. 3D printing was used for producing solutions (e.g. physical models) that support working with found challenges. In chemistry education research, 3D printing has mainly been used for printing research instruments; few studies have investigated its effect on learning or students’ perceptions towards it. There is a great need for comprehensive student-centred pedagogical models for the use of 3D printing in chemistry education.
  • Seppälä, Anna-Greta (2003)
    Our societies are facing an inevitable revolution of an aging population. The aging population will bring numerous challenges for the researchers in social sciences, gerontology, and others. This increase of an aging population has resulted in further research on the aged and how the elders view this late adulthood period. This thesis was divided into two distinct parts. The aim of the first part of this study was to define the social, biological and psychological aging processes, the life-cycle and adult development and what kind of an effect they have on how the late adulthood period is viewed by an individual. The life-cycle theories of Erikson, Levinson and Jung are described to portray the challenges an individual faces during the different stages of life and they also lay the foundation for the aging processes. Various effects on the outcome of the challenges at different stages of the life-cycle are also discussed. The second part is an illustrative empirical part, in which the Schwartz (1992) value model was used to describe differences among Finnish and American over 60-year old heart rate monitor users. All values act within a cultural environment. Our social environment has an impact on how different experiences are perceived and thus, a meaningful relationship exists between values and culture. Due to both cultures being more individualist than collectivist (Hofstede, 1991) similarities will also exist. A survey was sent to Finnish and American heart-rate monitor (HRM) users, who had used the HRM during exercising in the past 6-12 months. The response rate in both cultures was over 50 %, leaving the total n=634 (the US sample n=539; the Finnish sample n=95). The results showed that similarities and differences did exist among the two samples, not only among their exercise habits, but among individualist-collectivist values expressed as well. However, as a whole the US and Finnish respondents did portray individualistic qualities, as expected.
  • Omwami, Raymond K. (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1988)
    A study aimed at applying concepts of economic theory relevant to the formulation of a long-term timber production model as a basis of forest policy. A vertically integrated forest sector production model is described, together with its application in a developing economy and the derivation of a dynamic silvicultural investment criterion (in a labour surplus economy).
  • Surakka, Päivi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This thesis is a contribution to the budding discussion within social sciences about blockchain – an emerging technology that, for the last decade or so, has garnered a lot of attention especially with its cryptocurrency applications. More recently, blockchain has started to spread to fields outside of the financial sector as new imaginaries are being projected onto it in e.g. logistics, energy, entertainment, and the humanitarian sector. The study at hand focuses on blockchain in the realm of anti-money-laundering. Blockchain, when applied to cryptocurrencies, seems to propose challenges to the actors who try to prevent money-laundering, and institutional reactions trying to restrict or manage the use of certain blockchain applications have already started to emerge. However, these reactions have also affected the development of the technology itself. As blockchain is an emerging technology and phenomenon, the research conducted for this study is of the explorative kind. Reflecting on ethnographic observation and eight semi-structured interviews with e.g. cryptocurrency activists, NGOs and representatives from tax administration, central bank, foreign ministery, and financial supervision authority, the thesis examines the different imaginaries projected onto blockchain. By applying a combined framework of the global assemblages approach and the concept of practical activity, the thesis investigates the tactics, politics, morals and the subject of blockchain, and attempts to answer the following questions: How is blockchain being applied or resisted, in order to resolve the perceived problems in the field of anti-money-laundering? What is being tried to achieve by the use or resistance of blockchain in this field? Why is blockchain regarded to be of value or a risk? And fundamentally, if examined as a combined entity – who is blockchain? A myriad of interpretations emerge from the data. For many, blockchain holds promise of a better future where individuals have more power over their freedoms and assets. For others, blockchain is challenger that is controlled by no one and allows illicit activities to go unnoticed. For some, blockchain is a threat that should be restricted and governed. The main finding of the study is that blockchain allows many different agendas and imaginaries to be projected on to it. The “original” emancipatory values of blockchain that would allow its users independence, anonymity, immutability, and freedom from central governance seem to be extremely interchangeable with the values of governance and efficiency. The contradictory goals and morals enacted through blockchain have not been resolved. As the juridico-legal attempts to govern blockchain increase, certain blockchain-based actions could go deeper underground, making it more difficult for law-abiding actors to take part in blockchain-based activities. For the humanitarian sector, blockchain holds a lot of interesting potential. Blockchain could be used for e.g. improving access to energy, providing legal identities, and enabling cost-free remittances. The mutually constitutive nature of governance and technology should be taken into account as interpretations are made, so as to not prevent or hinder the development of applications with societally beneficial goals.
  • Valimaki, Maritta; Kuosmanen, Lauri; Hatonen, Heli; Koivunen, Marita; Pitkanen, Anneli; Athanasopoulou, Christina; Anttila, Minna (2017)
    Purpose: Information and communication technologies have been developed for a variety of health care applications and user groups in the field of health care. This study examined the connectivity to computers and the Internet among patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs). Patients and methods: A cross-sectional survey design was used to study 311 adults with SSDs from the inpatient units of two psychiatric hospitals in Finland. The data collection lasted for 20 months and was done through patients' medical records and a self-reported, structured questionnaire. Data analysis included descriptive statistics. Results: In total, 297 patients were included in this study (response rate =96%). More than half of them (n=156; 55%) had a computer and less than half of them (n=127; 44%) had the Internet at home. Of those who generally had access to computers and the Internet, more than one-fourth (n=85; 29%) used computers daily, and > 30% (n=96; 33%) never accessed the Internet. In total, approximately one-fourth of them (n=134; 25%) learned to use computers, and less than one-third of them (n=143; 31%) were known to use the Internet by themselves. Older people (aged 45-65 years) and those with less years of education (primary school) tended not to use the computers and the Internet at all (P <0.001), and younger people and those with higher education were associated with more active use. Conclusion: Patients had quite good access to use computers and the Internet, and they mainly used the Internet to seek information. Social, occupational, and psychological functioning (which were evaluated with Global Assessment of Functioning) were not associated with access to and frequency of computer and the Internet use. The results support the use of computers and the Internet as part of clinical work in mental health care.
  • Karhunmaa, Kamilla (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    This Master’s thesis has two sections. The first section is a methodological introduction that presents the data collection and analysis methods. The second part is an article ’Household energy technologies in voluntary carbon markets: storylines of co-benefits’ that has been sent to the international, peer-reviewed journal Global Environmental Change. The thesis examines how the co-benefits of voluntary carbon market offset projects are conceptualized in household energy technology projects. Carbon markets have been presented as one of the solutions for climate change mitigation. In carbon offsetting, emissions produced in one place are compensated through reducing emissions elsewhere. Offset projects have been financed especially in the global South. In addition to reducing emissions, carbon offset projects are justified on the basis of creating local co-benefits. The focus of this thesis is on the voluntary carbon markets, where the price of emission reduction credits is influenced by perceptions of created co-benefits. Household energy technologies are technologies that produce emissions reductions either through increasing energy efficiency or using renewable energy. Three technologies that have been popular project types in the voluntary carbon markets are examined, namely improved cookstoves, ceramic water purifiers and biodigesters. The popularity of the technologies is based on win-win assumptions where the technologies are seen to tackle multiple goals, such as climate mitigation and development. The research material consists of interviews with 18 experts. The interviewees consisted of representatives of NGOs, carbon offset project developers, donors, carbon standards and entrepreneurs. The interviewees were selected based on their familiarity with household energy technologies and voluntary carbon markets. The interviews were conducted in Cambodia in March 2013. In addition, publicity material, speeches and documents from an international seminar on clean cooking was reviewed. The concept of storylines is used to examine how the co-benefits of household energy technologies are conceptualized. Storylines are middle-range concepts that enable a discourse-analytical approach to research. What is viewed as a relevant problem, how it has been created, how it should be solved and by whom are all important elements of a storyline. The research presents three different storylines through which the co-benefits of household energy technology projects are conceptualized in voluntary carbon offset projects. The first storyline focuses on the impacts of the technologies on the users’ health. The storyline emphasizes the efficiency of the technologies as key to producing health impacts. The second storyline criticizes current ownership practices in carbon offset projects. The storyline claims that the greatest co-benefits would be realized if users would receive monetary compensation for the emissions reductions they produce. The third storyline emphasizes the role of developing local markets for the technologies. In the storyline, co-benefits are realized when local employment is improved and local markets developed. The first and third storyline were the most dominant ones in the analyzed material. Both storylines stressed the importance of scientific expertise and markets. The storylines differed in their views towards supporting local markets for producing the technologies versus importing more efficient technologies. The critical stance of the second storyline towards current practices in carbon credit revenue distribution was less present in the research material. Discursive forms, such as storylines, can influence what type of projects succeed in creating positive images and receiving better prices for the emissions reductions produced. How the co-benefits of household energy technologies are conceptualized carries material implications through influencing what type of projects are successful in the voluntary carbon markets.
  • Ibrahim, Mahmoud; Baker, Jason; Cahn, Avivit; Eckel, Robert H.; Sayed, Nuha Ali El; Fischl, Amy Hess; Gaede, Peter; Leslie, R. David; Pieralice, Silvia; Tuccinardi, Dario; Pozzilli, Paolo; Richelsen, Bjørn; Roitman, Eytan; Standl, Eberhard; Toledano, Yoel; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Weber, Sandra L.; Umpierrez, Guillermo E. (2020)
    Abstract Hypoglycemia is common in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and constitutes a major limiting factor in achieving glycemic control among people with diabetes. While hypoglycemia is defined as a blood glucose level under 70 mg/dL (3.9?mmol/L), symptoms may occur at higher blood glucose levels in individuals with poor glycemic control. Severe hypoglycemia is defined as an episode requiring the assistance of another person to actively administer carbohydrate, glucagon, or take other corrective actions to assure neurologic recovery. Hypoglycemia is the most important safety outcome in clinical studies of glucose lowering agents. The ADA Standards of Medical Care recommends that a management protocol for hypoglycemia should be designed and implemented by every hospital, along with a clear prevention and treatment plan. A tailored approach, using clinical and pathophysiologic disease stratification, can help individualize glycemic goals and promote new therapies to improve quality of life of patients. Data from recent large clinical trials reported low risk of hypoglycemic events with the use of newer antidiabetic drugs. Increased hypoglycemia risk is observed with the use of insulin and/or sulfonylureas. Vulnerable patients with T2D at dual risk of severe hypoglycemia and Cardiovascular (CV) outcomes show features of ?frailty?. Many of such patients may be better treated by the use of GLP-1 receptor agonists or SGLT2 inhibitors rather than insulin. CGM should be considered for all individuals with increased risk for hypoglycemia, impaired hypoglycemia awareness, frequent nocturnal hypoglycemia and with history of severe hypoglycemia. Patients with impaired awareness of hypoglycemia (IAH) benefit from real-time continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). The diabetes educator is an invaluable resource and can devote the time needed to thoroughly educate the individual to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia and integrate the information within the entire construct of diabetes self-management. Conversations about hypoglycemia facilitated by a healthcare professional may reduce the burden and fear of hypoglycemia among patients with diabetes and their family members. Optimizing insulin doses and carbohydrate intake, in addition to a short warm up before or after the physical activity sessions may help avoiding hypoglycemia. Several therapeutic considerations are important to reduce hypoglycemia risk during pregnancy including administration of rapid-acting insulin analogs rather than human insulin, pre-conception initiation of insulin analogs, and immediate postpartum insulin dose reduction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  • Heiskanen, Eva; Apajalahti, Eeva-Lotta; Matschoss, Kaisa Johanna; Lovio, Raimo (2018)
    The behaviour of incumbent energy companies is critical for a transition to a sustainable energy system. We address the recent call for closer conceptualisation of power and agency within transition studies by combining concepts of strategic action fields (Fligstein and McAdam, 2012) and the flat-ontology perspective of arenas of development (Jørgensen, 2012) to identify potential ruptures emerging on the micro scale in the field of sustainable energy. We investigate how new actor configurations in new experimental arenas open field rules for renegotiation. We provide a long-term analysis on how traditional energy field rules have emerged, how two of the most powerful energy companies in Finland have responded to the emergence of sustainable energy and how new forms of collaborations are emerging in the space created by new arenas of development that create ruptures within the incumbent energy coalition.
  • Koulu, Riikka (Taylor & Francis Group (Routledge), 2018)
    The use of new information and communication technologies both inside the courts and in private online dispute resolution services is quickly changing everyday conflict management. However, the implications of the increasingly disruptive role of technology in dispute resolution remain largely undiscussed. In this book, assistant professor of law and digitalisation Riikka Koulu examines the multifaceted phenomenon of dispute resolution technology, focusing specifically on private enforcement, which modern technology enables on an unforeseen scale. The increase in private enforcement confounds legal structures and challenges the nation-state’s monopoly on violence. And, in this respect, the author argues that the technology-driven privatisation of enforcement – from direct enforcement of e-commerce platforms to self-executing smart contracts in the blockchain – brings the ethics of law’s coercive nature out into the open. This development constitutes a new, and dangerous, grey area of conflict management, which calls for transparency and public debate on the ethical implications of dispute resolution technology.
  • Helosvuori, Elina (2020)
    For over four decades, feminist studies of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have been interested in the ethical, political and personal implications of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and other infertility treatments. Most work on the implications of ART for women has focused on the demanding cyclical process of trying to become pregnant by using the technology. However, less attention has been paid to the implications of experiencing IVF after the conception phase. This article tackles the under-researched topic of the aftermath of IVF, and discusses the temporality of affective embodied experiences of infertility after one has stopped IVF. Drawing on an ethnographic study of peer support groups for the involuntarily childless in Finland, and on in-depth interviews with women suffering from infertility, this article juxtaposes two groups of women who have had IVF: those who have had children as a result of the procedure, and those who have not. The article proposes an exploration of experiences of childlessness after IVF as 'lingering technological entanglements' - that is, as affective and embodied experiences of the effects of IVF, including after the cessation of treatment. It argues that the lingering of these entanglements manifests itself in the enactment of childlessness in relation to the available technology. Furthermore, this results in parents identifying themselves as childless, even after they have gained temporal distance from IVF practices.
  • Botez, Andrei; Hietanen, Joel; Tikkanen, Henrikki (2020)
    In this study, we critically examine the ongoing adoption of various posthumanist influences into the fields of marketing and consumer research from a theological perspective. By conducting a theological-historical assessment, we propose that it is not posthuman notions of human/technology relations, nor their broader context in the emerging non-representational paradigms, that mark radically new disruptions in the continuing restructuring of the disciplines of marketing and consumer research. Instead, we argue that what is taking place is an implicit adherence to a contemporary form of age-old Christian dogma. As a radical conjecture, we thus propose that an identification of certain similarities between Christian dogma and the grounds for various posthumanist frameworks suggest that posthuman thought may well herald the global dissemination of a far more elusive, authoritarian, and hegemonic system than that which posthumanists typically claim to have abandoned. Consequently, we elaborate on implications to developments in marketing thought.
  • Rautio, Heikki (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    This qualitative study explores the consumption process of recorded music from the perspective of individual consumer. Data was collected by interviewing 11 active music consumers between the ages of 20 to 31. The interviews followed the form of a semi-structured interview. Analysis of the data is divided into three parts. Music consumption is being examined by its economic, symbolic and functional aspect. Hence the focus is on studying 1) the purchasing of music, 2) records as tangible objects and 3) the role of technology in recorded music consumption. The purpose is to find out how the new music consumption practices and the changes in general brought by the digital revolution are being perceived among the music consumers. In addition, the study compares the consumption processes of the physical and digital recordings and examines the dimensions and meanings associated with them. In the study, the physical recordings appear as significant objects to their owners. They hold different kinds of symbolic meanings of past situations and events in life. In addition to the symbolic meanings, the object value is increased with aesthetic qualities of sound recordings, such as fine album covers. Because of the perceived value of ownership of physical recordings, especially vinyl records are proved to be great objects to collect. At the same time physical recordings can be seen in a different light: as unnecessary matter taking up too much space at home. Digital music services can be seen as eco-efficient and as such, a good alternative to the consumption of physical recordings. The sense of ownership is clearly connected to tangible objects in this study. The interviewees find it hard or impossible to perceive digital files as something they can own, and therefore they are not that willing to pay for them. Instead, the interviewees respond more openly to paying for music streaming services. In the consumption process of physical recordings, digital music often acts as an informant. The study shows that the purchase of recordings has become much more rational than before the digitalization. On a general level, the willingness to pay for music is clearly influenced by consumers' values, ethics and sense of duty. The effortlessness of digital music consumption practices is seen as positive, but compared to the consumption process of physical recordings they are regarded as inferior from the experiential point of view - as an act of "mere listening". Overall, the impact of new technologies on recorded music consumption comes out bipartite. It is mentioned to simplify and diversify the music listening possibilities, but on the other hand it brings challenges for active listening. Furthermore, the consuming of music in the digital media is seen to have a single-use nature, which again may prevent deep musical and emotional bonds from developing.
  • Allo, Mai (2004)
    We develop a model to analyse the interaction between science, technology and social welfare. In the model, there are three types of actor: a monopolistic firm, scientists choosing to work either in the firm or in the university, and quality-demanding consumers. Peer control institution of the university affects quality of science used by the firm as an input. Peer control affects the firm's costs as well. First we show that the effort level in the university is too low. Further, we show that the firm might be willing to employ more scientists if peer control in the university became stricter. We determine the conditions for both the direct and indirect welfare effects of peer control.
  • Rantala, Arja; Jansson, Miia M.; Helve, Otto; Lahdenne, Pekka; Pikkarainen, Minna; Pölkki, Tarja (2020)
    Background: The parents of hospitalized children are often dissatisfied with waiting times, fasting, discharge criteria, postoperative pain relief, and postoperative guidance. Parents' experiences help care providers to provide effective, family-centered care that responds to parents' needs throughout the day surgery pathway. Objective: The objective of our study was to describe parental experiences of the pediatric day surgery pathway and the needs for a digital gaming solution in order to facilitate the digitalization of these pathways. Methods: This was a descriptive qualitative study. The participants (N=31) were parents whose children were admitted to the hospital for the day surgical treatments or magnetic resonance imaging. The data were collected through an unstructured, open-ended questionnaire; an inductive content analysis was conducted to analyze the qualitative data. Reporting of the study findings adheres to the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research (COREQ) checklist. Results: Parental experiences of the children's day surgery pathway included 3 main categories: (1) needs for parental guidance, (2) needs for support, and (3) child involved in his or her own pathway (eg, consideration of an individual child and preparation of child for treatment). The needs for a digital gaming solution were identified as 1 main category-the digital gaming solution for children and families to support care. This main category included 3 upper categories: (1) preparing children and families for the day surgery via the solution, (2) gamification in the solution, and (3) connecting people through the solution. Conclusions: Parents need guidance and support for their children's day surgery care pathways. A digital gaming solution may be a relevant tool to support communication and to provide information on day surgeries Families are ready for and are open to digital gaming solutions that provide support and guidance and engage children in the day surgery pathways.
  • Sandbrook, Chris; Clark, Douglas; Toivonen, Tuuli; Simlai, Trishant; O'Donnell, Stephanie; Cobbe, Jennifer; Adams, William (2021)
    Wildlife conservation and research benefits enormously from automated and interconnected monitoring tools. Some of these tools, such as drones, remote cameras, and social media, can collect data on humans, either accidentally or deliberately. They can therefore be thought of as conservation surveillance technologies (CSTs). There is increasing evidence that CSTs, and the data they yield, can have both positive and negative impacts on people, raising ethical questions about how to use them responsibly. CST use may accelerate because of the COVID-19 pandemic, adding urgency to addressing these ethical challenges. We propose a provisional set of principles for the responsible use of such tools and their data: (a) recognize and acknowledge CSTs can have social impacts; (b) deploy CSTs based on necessity and proportionality relative to the conservation problem; (c) evaluate all potential impacts of CSTs on people; (d) engage with and seek consent from people who may be observed and/or affected by CSTs; (e) build transparency and accountability into CST use; (f) respect peoples' rights and vulnerabilities; and (g) protect data in order to safeguard privacy. These principles require testing and could conceivably benefit conservation efforts, especially through inclusion of people likely to be affected by CSTs.
  • Reinola, Inka Mari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    China’s rise in the 21st century has been a widely discussed phenomenon inside and outside the academia. There is a debate on whether China is a status quo or a revisionist state and the impact its influence might have on the world as a whole. One area of China’s rise has not been widely researched in relation to these questions – technology. China’s technological development has increased during the past decades to a level where its technology competence competes with other technologically advanced countries. The fourth industrial revolution has brought about new technologies, such as artificial intelligence, 5G or cyberspace. These technologies also bring forth new questions and challenges, and they require research not only from the technological perspective but also from a social science perspective. This research investigated the Chinese technology policies by looking at materials that included five speeches, two State Council notices, one journal article, and a journal commentary. The themes of the researched materials revolved around overall technology policies, artificial intelligence, cyberspace, and data. This study employed content analysis as its method. The categorization of the social identities derived from the theoretical framework of Chinese social identity strategies which included five different social identity strategies: Globalist China, Sovereign China, Unified China, Sino-centric China, and Rising China. The materials were analyzed by combining two theoretical frameworks – the social identity theory with a particular Chinese social identity theory framework, and constructivism. The social identity theory was originally invented within the field of social psychology but has been used in the study of international relations to understand rising powers. Chinese technology policies were revealed to employ Rising China strategy as their main strategy. Three other social identity strategies – Sino-centric China, Globalist China, and Sovereign China – were also found in the materials, and these revealed interesting points concerning the overall technology strategies. China was found to be balancing between the status quo and a revisionist state status, and the technology themes and the regions they aim to influence seemingly have an impact on which strategies they employ and how these strategies are implemented.
  • Helsingin yliopisto, Digitaalisten ihmistieteiden osasto; Helsingin yliopisto, Digitaalisten ihmistieteiden osasto; Jauhiainen, Tommi; Lennes, Mietta; Marttila, Terhi; ; ; (Vake Oy, 2019)
  • Paukkonen, Ville Erkki Juhana (2005)
    I argue that technological determinism is one of the most important philosophical theories of technology and thus should be studied in length. Traditionally technological determinism is conceived as a doctrine included by technological autonomy or vice versa. However, we should make a distinction between these two claims about technology; I defend a specific version of technological determinism but reject technological autonomy. The question of technological determinism is whether technology is one of the prime movers of society or not. To get a clear picture of the concept of technological impact, we should look into a general philosophical discussion of determinism. The traditional metaphor of determinism has been a Laplacean determinism which sees the world as great clockwork which makes it possible to predict any future state from the sufficient knowledge of present state. This makes free will impossible. However, we may take a compatibilist view on determinism, and maintain that things are both caused and still humans have free will. In relation to technological determinism this means that there is no contradiction in saying that technology changes culture, but we may still have some powers to influence technology. Our idea of technology also affects our understanding of technological determinism. That is why I explicate Jacques Ellul’s theory of characterologies of technology and criticize them by using Andrew Feenberg’s theory of instrumentalisation. Thus I hope to reach a coherent view of essential features of technology which I shall call modified technological essentialism. Traditional understanding of technological determinism has overemphasized the role of instrumental rationality as a threat to traditional human values. Although technology may diminish some old values it necessarily creates new ones. This is why the characterisation of technology is so important for our understanding of technological determinism; the question whether technology is neutral or value-laden determines our understanding of technology’s impact on society. From this viewpoint technological voluntarism, belief that technology is essentially neutral collection of instruments to whatever ends we may pursue, is the directly opposite view on technological determinism.
  • Bu-Pasha, Shakila (2020)
    Article 35 of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) states that data controllers are required to carry out data protection impact assessment (DPIA) if a processing operation, particularly involving the use of new technologies, is ‘likely to result in a high risk to the rights and freedoms of natural persons’. The focus in this paper is on the role and responsibilities of data controllers in a smart city platform in assessing ‘high risk’ and the importance of impact assessment in relation to data processing with the latest technologies for the protection of personal data.
  • Isoniemi, Kristina; Snellman, Kaisa (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2000)
    Working Papers
    This article expands the discussion of the impact of technology on services and contributes to a broader comprehension of the nature of virtual services. This is done by discovering dimensions that distinguish physical services from virtual services, i.e. services that are distributed by electronic means and where the customer has no direct human interaction with the service provider. Differences in the core characteristics of services, servicescape and service delivery are discussed. Moreover, dimensions that differentiate between virtual services are analysed. A classification scheme for virtual services is proposed, including the origin of the service, the element of the service offering, the customisation process, stage of the service process performed, and the degree of mobility of the service.