Browsing by Subject "temperature sum"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-2 of 2
  • Nissinen, Anne; Haapalainen, Minna; Ojanen, Hannu; Pirhonen, Minna; Jauhiainen, Lauri (2021)
    Carrot cultivation in Europe is suffering from infections with "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" (CLso), a psyllid-transmitted bacterial pathogen. In this study, field experiments were carried out in Finland to separately measure the effects of psyllid feeding damage and CLso infection on the carrot root growth and to reveal the dynamics of the spreading of CLso within the field. Most of the experiments were carried out during the summers 2016 and 2017, and a follow-up sampling was performed in 2018. Carrot psyllid (Trioza apicalis) flight activity was monitored and carrots were sampled at 25 points within the field. Early in the season a clear spatial correlation was found between the sampling sites showing the psyllid feeding damage, that is, leaf-curling, up to the range of 40-60 m, indicating aggregation behaviour of the psyllids. No CLso infections were detected in the first sampling, which was performed before the psyllid flight peak in both years. Later, a positive correlation between the psyllid feeding damage and the CLso titre was observed. An increase in the CLso titre occurred approximately a month after the psyllid flight peak, and this increase correlated with the accumulating effective temperature sum. In 2016, both the psyllid feeding damage and CLso infection had a significant effect on the carrot root weight. The effect of CLso titre on root weight was nonlinear, that is, it intensified rapidly at the highest bacterial titres. During the colder summer of 2017 the CLso titres did not reach high enough levels in the plants to cause substantial visible symptoms and root growth reduction. Thus, it seems that in the Nordic conditions the effect of CLso infection on carrot yield is strongly dependent on the weather conditions during the growing season.