Browsing by Subject "teologinen etiikka ja uskonnonfilosofia"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-2 of 2
  • Ojajärvi, Marjo (Suomalainen Teologinen Kirjallisuusseura, 2012)
    In this study, A Middle aged Man who is Falling in Love is Searching for Himself: A Study of Novels by André Brink, Jörn Donner, and Isaac Bashevis Singer, I examine the search for identity of middle aged men, who are married and who are in love with much younger women, from the point of view of ethical choices. In my research material I look at male characters with mid-life crises in Isaac Bashevis Singer's novel Shadows on the Hudson (1997), Jörn Donner's series of novels about the Anders family, especially Viimeinen kesä (1987), Itsenäisyyspäivä (1983) and Sattuman kauppaa (1993), and Andre Brink's States of Emergency (1988). My research an ethical and philosoph, is rather than a literary approach, and I primarily analyze my chosen texts from the perspective of moral philosophy. But having said that, my general goal in this research is to support the idea that it is useful and important that moral philosophy pays attention to literary works. In their stories of people´s lives novels offer concrete examples that deal with questions which moral philosophy approaches in a different way. This view is also proposed by Martha Nussbaum, Cora Diamond, and others. Applying moral philosophy opens new perspectives for reading literature, through which readers may enlarge their moral thinking, and the novels provide concrete narrative examples for understanding various concepts which are relevant in moral philosophy. I do not evaluate novels as such; I analyze the behavior of fictitious persons as moral agents in order to show how moral philosophical tools can be applied to novels in a way that is beneficial to a reader and also fruitful for a better understanding of these tools. The results of this research concern firstly the moral theoretical understanding of ethical situations of choice in relation to self knowledge, secondly ethical questions of falling in love and relationships as they occur in the life of the characters in the novels, and thirdly relations between literary fiction and ethical analysis. In dealing with ethical questions related to self understanding and the construction of personal identity, the examples constructed for theoretical purposes, and used in philosophical literature-, can be problematic because of the lack of personal depth and life orientation perspective. In such cases examples from fiction might well be more suitable for moral philosophical considerations. My goal is to demonstrate the usefulness of this kind of approach for moral philosophy, particularly in dealing with questions of self defeat, double life, weakness of will, the enchantment of love, fidelity, or friendship, with examples taken from various narrative contexts.
  • Visala, Aku (2009)
    This study examines philosophically the main theories and methodological assumptions of the field known as the cognitive science of religion (CSR). The study makes a philosophically informed reconstruction of the methodological principles of the CSR, indicates problems with them, and examines possible solutions to these problems. The study focuses on several different CSR writers, namely, Scott Atran, Justin Barrett, Pascal Boyer and Dan Sperber. CSR theorising is done in the intersection between cognitive sciences, anthropology and evolutionary psychology. This multidisciplinary nature makes CSR a fertile ground for philosophical considerations coming from philosophy of psychology, philosophy of mind and philosophy of science. The study begins by spelling out the methodological assumptions and auxiliary theories of CSR writers by situating these theories and assumptions in the nexus of existing approaches to religion. The distinctive feature of CSR is its emphasis on information processing: CSR writers claim that contemporary cognitive sciences can inform anthropological theorising about the human mind and offer tools for producing causal explanations. Further, they claim to explain the prevalence and persistence of religion by cognitive systems that undergird religious thinking. I also examine the core theoretical contributions of the field focusing mainly on the (1) “minimally counter-intuitiveness hypothesis” and (2) the different ways in which supernatural agent representations activate our cognitive systems. Generally speaking, CSR writers argue for the naturalness of religion: religious ideas and practices are widespread and pervasive because human cognition operates in such a way that religious ideas are easy to acquire and transmit. The study raises two philosophical problems, namely, the “problem of scope” and the “problem of religious relevance”. The problem of scope is created by the insistence of several critics of the CSR that CSR explanations are mostly irrelevant for explaining religion. Most CSR writers themselves hold that cognitive explanations can answer most of our questions about religion. I argue that the problem of scope is created by differences in explanation-begging questions: the former group is interested in explaining different things than the latter group. I propose that we should not stick too rigidly to one set of methodological assumptions, but rather acknowledge that different assumptions might help us to answer different questions about religion. Instead of adhering to some robust metaphysics as some strongly naturalistic writers argue, we should adopt a pragmatic and explanatory pluralist approach which would allow different kinds of methodological presuppositions in the study of religion provided that they attempt to answer different kinds of why-questions, since religion appears to be a multi-faceted phenomenon that spans over a variety of fields of special sciences. The problem of religious relevance is created by the insistence of some writers that CSR theories show religious beliefs to be false or irrational, whereas others invoke CSR theories to defend certain religious ideas. The problem is interesting because it reveals the more general philosophical assumptions of those who make such interpretations. CSR theories can (and have been) interpreted in terms of three different philosophical frameworks: strict naturalism, broad naturalism and theism. I argue that CSR theories can be interpreted inside all three frameworks without doing violence to the theories and that these frameworks give different kinds of results regarding the religious relevance of CSR theories.