Browsing by Subject "thermal properties"

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  • Keskivali, Laura; Heikkila, Pirjo; Kentta, Eija; Virtanen, Tommi; Rautkoski, Hille; Pasanen, Antti; Vaha-Nissi, Mika; Putkonen, Matti (2021)
    The growth mechanism of Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) on polymeric surfaces differs from growth on inorganic solid substrates, such as silicon wafer or glass. In this paper, we report the growth experiments of Al2O3 and ZnO on nonwoven poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA), polyethersulphone (PES) and cellulose acetate (CA) fibres. Material growth in both ALD and infiltration mode was studied. The structures were examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM), scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), attenuated total reflectance-fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and Al-27 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Furthermore, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis were used to explore the effect of ALD deposition on the thermal properties of the CA polymer. According to the SEM, STEM and ATR-FTIR analysis, the growth of Al2O3 was more uniform than ZnO on each of the polymers studied. In addition, according to ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, the infiltration resulted in interactions between the polymers and the ALD precursors. Thermal analysis (TGA/DSC) revealed a slower depolymerization process and better thermal resistance upon heating both in ALD-coated and infiltrated fibres, more pronounced on the latter type of structures, as seen from smaller endothermic peaks on TA.
  • Wiedenmann, Verena; Oehlke, Kathleen; van der Schaaf, Ulrike; Koivula, Hanna; Mikkonen, Kirsi S.; Karbstein, Heike P. (2019)
    Protein films can be applied to improve food quality and to reduce packaging waste. To overcome their poor water barrier properties, lipids are often incorporated. The function of incorporated lipid depends on the interface between filler and matrix. This study aimed to tailor the properties of a protein–lipid film by designing the oil/water interface to see if the concept of inactive/active filler is valid. Therefore, we varied the emulsifier stabilizing solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) to promote (viaβ-lactoglobulin) or to minimize (via Tween 20) interactions between particle surface and protein. SLN were incorporated into protein films and film properties were determined. Addition of SLN led to significantly decreased water vapor permeability (WVP) of protein films. However, WVP was mainly affected by the emulsifiers and not by the lipid. Protein-stabilized SLN (BS) replaced a lacking protein in the protein network and therefore did not influence the mechanical properties of the films at ambient temperature. BS-composite films were temperature sensitive, as lipid and sucrose palmitate melted at temperatures above 40°C. Tween 20-stabilized SLN(TS) led to reduced tensile strengths, probably due to perturbative effects of TS and plasticizing effects of Tween 20. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed that TS and Tween 20 increased film mobility. Melting of lipid and emulsifiers, and temperature-dependent behavior of Tween 20 led to a strong temperature dependence of the film stiffness. By designing the interface, particles can be used to tailor mechanical properties of protein films. Tuned edible films could be used to control mass transfers between foods.
  • Fowler, Michael; Duhamel, Jean; Qiu, Xing Ping; Korchagina, Evgeniya; Winnik, Francoise M. (2018)
    Aqueous solutions of a series of monodisperse poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)s end-labeled with n-butyl-1-pyrene at one or both chain ends (Py-n-PNIPAMs with n=1 or 2) were studied by turbidimetry, light scattering, and fluorescence. For a given polymer concentration and heating rate, the cloud point (T-c) of an aqueous Py-n-PNIPAM solution, determined by turbidimetry, was found to increase with the number-average molecular weight (M-n) of the polymer. The steady-state fluorescence spectra and time-resolved fluorescence decays of Py-n-PNIPAM aqueous solutions were analyzed and all parameters retrieved from these analyses were found to be affected as the solution temperature passed through T-c, the solution cloud point, and T-m, the temperature where dehydration of PNIPAM occurred. The trends obtained by fluorescence to characterize the aqueous Py-n-PNIPAM solutions as a function of temperature were found to be consistent with the model proposed for telechelic PNIPAM by Koga et al. in 2006. (c) 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 2018, 56, 308-318