Browsing by Subject "tiedekasvatus"

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  • Lemmetty, Taru (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    There has been a decline in the interest of children and the young in natural sciences. This phenomenon is worrying because it is known that interest affects learning and performing in science positively. Teaching methods have an impact on interest. This research will focus on science camps that are non-formal science education environments. The study describes the interestingness of the teaching methods used in biology science camps from a child's perspective. The study also investigates the development needs of the activities and the tutors' own development during the camps. In the summer of 2016, the BioPop class of the LUMA science education center organized six biology science camps for two age groups of children: 7–9 years old and 10–12 years old. The material of the research was collected from these science camps, while the researcher herself was a tutor of the science camps. The research material consisted of questionnaires for campers (N=99) and tutors (N=8). The campers evaluated the interestingness of the activities on the Flechen-scale from 1 to 5, and filled out open-ended questions about what they 'liked' and what they did 'not like' in the camps. In addition, the tutors evaluated the interestingness and development needs of the activities, and their own development as tutors. The material was analyzed by using simple statistical key figures. It was analyzed by Mann-Whitney U-test whether gender or previous participation in BioPop camps had any effect on the interestingness of the activities. The open-ended questions were analyzed by theory-based content analysis. The campers were very interested in the activities – lab assignments and experiments, outdoor education, plays and nature videos were the most interesting activities. The results of the research supported previous studies of the relationship between teaching methods and interest in teaching natural sciences: for children, functional, inquiry-based and interactive teaching methods were the most interesting. Child's sense of autonomy, optimal challenge and novelty of the activities seemed to be central to children's interest. There were significant differences between the camps in the interestingness of some activities: activities gained mostly higher interest rates on the second camp week than the first. One possible explanation for this is the development of the activity guidance, in which the tutors think they had advanced during the camps. Especially in the older age group, inquiry-based, pupil-centered and interactive activities were the most interesting among children. The younger age group was more interested in independent and teacher-led activities compared to the older age group. Girls were more interested in independent and teacher-led activities than boys. The results of the research can be utilized in the future when developing science camps more inquiry-based, pupil-centered and interactive learning environments of science education.
  • Aivelo, Tuomas; Uitto, Anna (2021)
    Understanding how teaching affects students' attitudes and beliefs is notoriously difficult, specifically in a quickly evolving and societally relevant field such as genetics. The aim of this survey study is to capitalize our previous research and examine how teaching relates to Finnish secondary school students' liking of, self-concept in and experienced utility of genetics, attitude towards gene technology and belief in genetic determinism. In this unique setting, we used as explanatory variables their teachers' teaching emphases and learning materials, and as student-related factors, we used gender and the number of biology courses attended. Item-response theory with exploratory, confirmatory, and explanatory analyses were carried out to model the data. Teaching explained students' attitudes and beliefs: if the teacher's emphasis was Hereditary or the textbook with stronger Mendelian emphasis was used, students tended to havemore negative attitudes towards learning genetics and stronger belief in genetic determinism . Our results also suggest gender differences: male students had more positive attitude towards gene technology, higher self-concept, whereas as utility of genetics and belief in genetic determinism were higher in females. The results suggest that teaching' approaches as well as learning materials need updates to fulfil the needs for genetics literacy
  • Kolehmainen, Kati; Pernaa, Johannes; Aksela, Maija (2013)
    The aim of this research was to design nanotechnology teaching material that is interesting to the pupils, and brings out the significance of chemistry and technology in society as well as supports the development of scientific literacy. The research was conducted as a design research that included four phases: 1) theoretical problem analysis, 2) design, 3) design outcome and its evaluation, and 4) further development of the outcome. During the theoretical problem analysis, previous research literature was studied and design goals for this research were set. According to previous research, it was noted that students are interested in visualizations of nanotechnology and its applications in everyday life. The designed material was an educational video because the aim was to make it technically usable and easily distributed. The material is being distributed to the users through interactive blog.
  • Katajapelto, Salla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tiivistelmä - Referat – Abstract Aims. The aim of this study was to film, analyse and describe what kind of observations children make during voluntary outdoor play. Previous research suggests that playing in a natural environment is associated with environmentally friendly attitudes. Observation has been recognized as the most important skill in early childhood science. The research questions were: (1) What kind of observations do children make in voluntary outdoor play, (2) How is the observation in voluntary outdoor play related to science education? The results of this study can be used in the planning of educational activities, where the aim is to strengthen the child's observation skills as part of activities that support the goals of science education. Methods. The study was a qualitative case study. The material consisted of 119 minutes and 56 seconds of video footage of the outdoor play of a southern Finnish pre-school group. A total of 24 episodes were located from the material in which children made observations. Episodes were analysed using multimodal interaction analysis. Results and conclusions. Especially testing as part of making observations was rich and varied. Therefore, it could be concluded that the frameworks and elements provided by nature support children’s ability to make observations from the perspective of science education. With the help of this study, it could be demonstrated that the children showed emotions in connection with the making of observations, which was evident in e.g. as a commitment to action. Commitment to the action could be concluded to be related to focusing. In this study, children gave new meanings to the play equipment they used. In conclusion, it could be argued that imaginative situations give rise to situations in which observations were made and thus are favourable moments for using other science process skills as well. Regarding questioning in children’s communication, the result of this study was that questions always gave rise to other aspects of making observations such as experimentation, descriptioning or interpretation. However, the findings did not lead children to use other science process skills. From this it can be concluded that adult support as a supporter of science education and science play is essential.
  • Laherto, Antti (2020)
    Global sustainability crises are changing the aims, pedagogies and research in science education. The field is increasingly oriented towards transformative education for sustainable development. School science should now support responsible agency and value-based transformation. This article argues that the thinking in the field of Futures Studies can help students to see alternative futures and take action. Science education provides excellent opportunities for scenario building activities, addressing the uncertainty, and shaping transformative agentic orientations. Future-oriented activities developed in the I SEE project are presented as an example. The suggestions are discussed with relation to the topical sustainability crises and the COVID19 pandemic.
  • Axelsen Rasmus (Helsingin yliopisto, 2023)
    Luonnontieteiden luonne ja luonnontieteellinen lukutaito ovat olleet pitkään tiedekasvatuksellisia tavoitteita sekä maailmanlaajuisesti että paikallisesti Suomen lukiojärjestelmässä. Tässä tutkielmassa toteutettavalla lukion opetussuunnitelmien perusteiden analyysillä on pyritty selvittämään mahdollistavatko lukion fysiikan ja kemian opetussuunnitelmarakenteet luonnontieteiden luonteen kattavan opetuksen. Tuloksia on vertailtu vuosina 2006 ja 2021 käyttöönotettujen opetussuunnitelmien perusteiden välillä. Analyysimalli perustuu perheyhtäläisyyslähestymistapaan ja edelleen sen pohjalta muodostettuun metakategoriamalliin, jota on täydennetty liittämällä mukaan luonnontieteellisen työskentelyn persoonallista lähtökohtaa ja tiedon faktuaalisuuden päämäärää kuvaavat vastakohtaparit. Tuloksista käy ilmi, että vuosina 2006 ja 2021 käyttöön otettujen lukion opetussuunnitelmien perusteiden välillä on selviä eroja, joiden valossa jälkimmäisessä on havaittavissa edellistä kattavampi näkemys luonnontieteiden luonteen opetuksesta. Fysiikan ja kemian oppiaineiden kognitiivis-episteemisten kokonaisuuksien analyysi osoittaa, kuinka vuonna 2021 käyttöön otettujen opetussuunnitelmien perusteiden aiempaa selkeämpi luonnontieteiden luonteen sisällyttäminen opetuksen tavoitteisiin ei ole johtanut aiheen kannalta olennaisen luonnontieteellisen menetelmän kuvauksen sisällyttämiseen opetussuunnitelmien perusteisiin. Sosiaalis-insitutionaalisten kokonaisuuksien analyysi osoittaa, kuinka fysiikan tavoitteet ovat selvästi kemiaa monipuolisemmat sosiaaliselta kannalta tarkasteltuna.
  • Halonen, Julia Elina; Aksela, Maija Katariina (2018)
    Non-formal science education means goal-oriented learning outside of school. The use of out of school learning environments (e.g. science camps) has been found to increase motivation and interest in natural sciences. In this study, the relevance of non-formal science education in science camps has been analyzed from the perspectives of children and families, which has not been studied before. The analysis of relevance has been based on the relevance theory developed by Stuckey, Hofstein, Mamlok-Naaman & Eilks in 2013. The study focuses on the 46 science camps organized by the University of Helsinki LUMA Centre in the years 2015 and 2016, involving more than 900 schoolchildren and some of their parents (N=124). The study examined also the impact of children’s gender and children’s earlier interest in science on the relevance of chemistry related science camps. Survey and theme interview were both used as research methods. The results of the survey show that non-formal science education in science camps is relevant according to both the children and the families, mainly at the level of individual relevance, with emphasis on present and intrinsic dimensions of relevance. The tasks related to the camp themes, for example in chemistry camps, experimental work in the laboratory, and friends made in the science camps are the most relevant for children. The chemistry science camps are individually most relevant to those children who didn’t have much earlier interest in chemistry. Boys are more confident about their own interests at the individual relevance level than girls. At the level of societal relevance, boys are more focused on present-day relevance than girls when girls also consider the future. The levels of societal and vocational relevance were only slightly visible in the answers of the survey. However, based on theme interviews, camps were considered as relevant for all relevance levels of the relevance theory. The results of this research can be utilized in the development of out of school learning environments, especially in the development of science camps and in further research.
  • Pernaa, Johannes; Aksela, Maija (2013)
    This article discusses the historical development, current state, and needs future development of electronic learning environments for chemistry education. The study is by nature a theoretical literature review. Its aim is to canvass how the requirements related to chemistry learning environments have changed over time. By understanding the history, the further needs for development can be supported in the fast-advancing field of technology. The objects of investigation are the changes in both technology and chemistry education. Theory of blended learning was used as the theoretical framework for the study. In the theory section, it is combined with the possibilities of ICT in chemistry teaching and learning. In the historical framework of the article, the change in the requirements and possibilities of ICT-based chemistry learning environments is discussed from the perspective the recent history of chemistry education. It has been divided into three periods: 1) The use of ICT before the year 1999, 2) The use between the years 2000 and 2010, and 3) The use in 2011 and later. For each of the periods, the possibilities in chemistry education of one significant ICT tool are presented. In the analysis section of the study, these examples are reflected on the theory of blended chemistry learning and technological development. At the end of the article, three instructions are presented that can be employed in the use and development of chemistry learning environments. The instructions support the development of chemistry learning environment solutions that are technologically durable and take advantage of the various possibilities of ICT.
  • Markula, Anette Emilia; Aksela, Maija (2022)
    The aim of this multiple-case study was to research the key characteristics of project-based learning (PBL) and how teachers implement them within the context of science education. K-12 science teachers and their students’ videos, learning diaries and online questionnaire answers about their biology related PBL units, within the theme nature and environment, were analysed using deductive and inductive content analysis (n = 12 schools). The studied teachers are actively engaged in PBL as the schools had participated voluntarily in the international StarT programme of LUMA Centre Finland. The results indicate that PBL may specifically promote the use of collaboration, artefacts, technological tools, problem-centredness, and certain scientific practices, such as carrying out research, presenting results, and reflection within science education. However, it appeared that driving questions, learning goals set by students, students’ questions, the integrity of the project activities, and using the projects as a means to learn central content, may be more challenging to implement. Furthermore, although scientific practices had a strong role in the projects, it could not be defined how strongly student-led the inquiries were. The study also indicated that students and teachers may pay attention to different aspects of learning that happen through PBL. The results contribute towards a deeper understanding of the possibilities and challenges related to implementation of PBL and using scientific practices in classrooms. Furthermore, the results and the constructed framework of key characteristics can be useful in promoting research-based implementation and design of PBL science education, and in teacher training related to it.
  • Merenheimo, Salla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Nuorten kiinnostus luonnontieteiden opiskelua kohtaan on heikentynyt sekä Suomessa että kansainvälisesti ja nuoria hakeutuu luonnontieteellisille aloille yhä vähemmän. Samaan aikaan Eurooppaan tarvitaan yli 700 000 uutta tutkijaa. Eräänä syynä nuorten kiinnostuksen puutteeseen luonnontieteiden opiskelua kohtaan pidetään nuorten stereotyyppistä tutkijakuvaa. Tutkijakuvalla tarkoitetaan henkilön mielikuvia ja käsityksiä tutkijoista. Stereotyyppiseen tutkijakuvaan kuuluvat käsitykset laboratoriotakkiin ja silmälaseihin pukeutuneista miehistä, jotka työskentelevät laboratoriossa tehden kokeita ympärillään monenlaisia tutkimusvälineitä. Stereotyyppisen tutkijakuvan väitetään vaikuttavan negatiivisesti nuorten asenteisiin ja kiinnostukseen luonnontieteiden opiskelua kohtaan ja jopa heidän halukkuuteensa hakeutua opiskelemaan luonnontieteellisille aloille. Suomalaisten lasten ja nuorten tutkijakuvaa ei ole aiemmin kartoitettu. Tämän tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli selvittää suomalaisten lasten ja nuorten käsityksiä tutkijoista. Tutkimuskohteena olivat Helsingin yliopiston LumA-tiedekasvatuskeskuksen kesän 2017 tiedeleireille osallistuneet lapset ja nuoret (N=455). Tutkimuksessa selvitettiin sukupuolen, iän sekä tiedeleirin teeman yhteyttä leiriläisten tutkijakuvaan. Tutkimusmenetelmänä käytettiin kyselylomaketutkimusta, jossa vastaajat piirsivät omiin mielikuviinsa pohjautuvan kuvan tutkijasta. Piirroksia käsiteltiin määrällisenä aineistona. Jokainen piirustus analysoitiin tarkistuslistan avulla, johon listattiin kirjallisuudesta ja aineistosta nostettuja stereotyyppiseen tutkijakuvaan liittyviä piirteitä. Tulokset analysoitiin deskriptiivisellä analyysillä. Sukupuolten välisiä eroja tarkasteltiin khiin neliö -testien ja Mann-Whitneyn U-testin avulla. Iän yhteyttä tutkijakuvaan selvitettiin Kruskal-Wallis -testillä. Tutkimuksen luotettavuutta tarkasteltiin validiteetin ja reliabiliteetin avulla. Tutkimuksessa selvisi, että suomalaisilla lapsilla ja nuorilla on stereotyyppisinä pidettyjä käsityksiä tutkijoista, vaikkakin stereotyyppisiä piirteitä esiintyi piirroksissa vähemmän aiempiin tutkimuksiin verrattuna. Tyypillisimmät piirroksissa esiintyneet stereotyyppiset piirteet olivat työskentely sisällä, miestutkija sekä erilaiset tutkimuksen symbolit ja teknologiavälineet. Sukupuolella oli yhteys tutkijakuvaan tyttöjen piirtäessä merkitsevästi enemmän naistutkijoita ja hymyileviä tutkijoita kuin pojat. Vastaajan ikä ei ollut yhteydessä stereotyyppisten piirteiden määrään, toisin kuin aiemmissa tutkimuksissa. Leirin teema oli vahvasti yhteydessä niihin tarvikkeisiin, joita tutkijan ympärille piirrettiin. Tutkimuksessa havaittiin piirrosten tulkinnan olevan subjektiivista ja vaikuttavan tutkimuksen tuloksiin. Siten nuorten tutkijakuvaa tulisi jatkossa kartoittaa useiden metodien avulla. Tämä tutkimus antaa viitteitä tiedeleirien potentiaalista lasten ja nuorten tutkijakuvan muovaamisessa. Tutkimuksen tuloksia voidaan hyödyntää luonnontieteiden opetuksen kehittämisessä sekä formaalissa että nonformaalissa tiedekasvatuksessa: tiedostamalla nuoren oman tutkijakuvan muodostuminen voidaan opetuksessa tarjota oppijalle mahdollisuuksia muodostaa realistisempaa ja monipuolisempaa tutkijakuvaa esimerkiksi tutkijavierailujen ja toiminnallisten aktiviteettien kautta. Tämä voi lisätä nuorten kiinnostusta ja minäpystyvyyttä tutkijan uraa kohtaan.
  • Lahin, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The purpose of this study is to describe how and with whom children share the observations they do during science education and how the physical environment of the kindergarten and the research tools appear in the interaction. The aim is to produce new information on early childhood science education from a socio-cultural perspective in the institutional context of early childhood education. Learning by inquiry is a major method in the basics of the Early Childhood Education Curriculum (2018). Based on previous research, early experiences in science education and scientific language use form the basis for learning science at a later age. In this study science education is viewed in a sociocultural frame based on the theories of Lev Vygotsky. Science and research are social activities involving certain social conventions, and in science education children learn to understand these conventions. In this study, observation refers to how, according to Howes, an individual directs his or her attention to a phenomenon of interest to him or her. Observation is an interesting topic to study, because it’s a central part of learning and science education. The sharing of findings is approached within the socio-cultural perspective of learning, and the interaction in kindergarten is viewed as an institutional interaction. The research is qualitative research. The video material of the study was collected as part of the Joy of Learning Multiliteracies (MOI) project. Data was collected in Finnish day-care centers, and the research subjects were 5-6 years old. Multimodal conversation analysis was used as the analysis method. The analysis utilizes the three focuses of Rogoff’s sociocultural analysis, with particular attention to contextual and interpersonal processes. Based on the results, children share observations during the research phase of science education by speaking, demonstrations, and moving research tools, as well as combinations of these ways. Joining the sharing of observations was demonstrated by gaze, speech, or both. Children experienced observations with each other and adults, but most of the interactions related to sharing observations were between children. The active participation of adults appeared to be a factor in increasing interactions concidering observations. The physical environment of the kindergarten as well as the institutional practices appeared in the research activities to be partly limiting factors for the interaction related to observation. Based on the results in early childhood education during science education research activities, the interaction related to observations can be supported by modifying the learning environment and the active participation of the teacher.