Browsing by Subject "time"

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  • Segercrantz, Beata (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2011)
    Many Finnish IT companies have gone through numerous organizational changes over the past decades. This book draws attention to how stability may be central to software product development experts and IT workers more generally, who continuously have to cope with such change in their workplaces. It does so by analyzing and theorizing change and stability as intertwined and co-existent, thus throwing light on how it is possible that, for example, even if ‘the walls fall down the blokes just code’ and maintain a sense of stability in their daily work. Rather than reproducing the picture of software product development as exciting cutting edge activities and organizational change as dramatic episodes, the study takes the reader beyond the myths surrounding these phenomena to the mundane practices, routines and organizings in product development during organizational change. An analysis of these ordinary practices offers insights into how software product development experts actively engage in constructing stability during organizational change through a variety of practices, including solidarity, homosociality, close relations to products, instrumental or functional views on products, preoccupations with certain tasks and humble obedience. Consequently, the study shows that it may be more appropriate to talk about varieties of stability, characterized by a multitude of practices of stabilizing rather than states of stagnation. Looking at different practices of stability in depth shows the creation of software as an arena for micro-politics, power relations and increasing pressures for order and formalization. The thesis gives particular attention to power relations and processes of positioning following organizational change: how social actors come to understand themselves in the context of ongoing organizational change, how they comply with and/or contest dominant meanings, how they identify and dis-identify with formalization, and how power relations often are reproduced despite dis-identification. Related to processes of positioning, the reader is also given a glimpse into what being at work in a male-dominated and relatively homogeneous work environment looks like. It shows how the strong presence of men or “blokes” of a particular age and education seems to become invisible in workplace talk that appears ‘non-conscious’ of gender.
  • Pekkola, Juhani (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2002)
    Economics and Society
  • Pavicic, Mirko; Mouhu, Katriina; Wang, Feng; Bilicka, Marcelina Marta; Chovanček, Erik; Himanen, Kristiina Irma Helena (2017)
    Flowering time control integrates endogenous as well as environmental signals to promote flower development. The pathways and molecular networks involved are complex and integrate many modes of signal transduction. In plants ubiquitin mediated protein degradation pathway has been proposed to be as important mode of signaling as phosphorylation and transcription. To systematically study the role of ubiquitin signaling in the molecular regulation of flowering we have taken a genomic approach to identify flower related Ubiquitin Proteasome System components. As a large and versatile gene family the RING type ubiquitin E3 ligases were chosen as targets of the genomic screen. To this end the complete list of Arabidopsis RING E3 ligases were retrieved and verified in the Arabidopsis genome v11. Their differential expression was used for their categorization into flower organs or developmental stages. Known regulators of flowering time or floral organ development were identified in these categories through literature search and representative mutants for each category were purchased for functional characterization by growth and morphological phenotyping. To this end, a workflow was developed for high throughput phenotypic screening of growth, morphology and flowering of nearly a thousand Arabidopsis plants in one experimental round.
  • Sinicato, Alice (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The present thesis consists of an ethnographic study of the encounter between an NGO and the local practices and epistemologies where it operates. Specifically, the thesis provides insights to what extent the NGO La Maison sans frontières takes into consideration the local practices, traditions, knowledge, and overall ecology of the community of Kuma Tsamé Totsi, in Togo. The study mainly focuses on three aspects that emerged during the research: time, hygiene, and upbringing practices, highlighting both incongruences and meeting points between the goals and operations of the NGO and the local ontologies and epistemologies. Given that the local community and the NGO enter in dialogue and develop new practices together, this thesis adopts the metaphor of ‘bridge’ for the NGO, indicating to what extent the local practices have agency on its operation and vice versa. Overall, the meeting of these different realities seems to be permeated by acceptance and understanding, creating a unique practical and organizational system. The encounter between La Maison sans frontières and this Togolese community seems to have created a middle ground between different cultures, where peoples together strive to bridge the gap in cultural diversity. The research study relies on qualitative methodology, comprising fieldwork and structured and semi-structured interviews. Fieldnotes in the form of written texts, photographs and videos have been taken during fieldwork and analysed through a qualitative data analysis software.
  • Aarniosuo, Mauri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Assuming that living is not always categorically good or categorically bad for the life’s subject, ‘wellbeing’ must be a value that is measured on a non-ratio scale. This entails that there is no significant zero point on the wellbeing level scale. The arbitrary zero point on a non-ratio scale does not signify a lack. Thus, the states of living and non-living are incomparable from the perspective of wellbeing-related interests, for a subject does not have any wellbeing level while not alive. A similar argument was put forward already by Epicurus and Lucretius. The concepts of ‘a life worth living’ and ‘a life not worth living’ are flawed. Birth and death, as coming into existence and ceasing to exist, can never either harm or benefit a life’s subject wellbeing-wise. This is true a priori. As wellbeing levels are non-ratio values, they do not cumulate. Hence, it makes little sense in trying to compare the wellbeing values of wholes, like complete lives, especially if they are of different duration. The thesis starts from a premise of ‘wellbeing’ relating to moments of time, this being the undisputed part of the different interpretations of the term. Only after carefully examining the concept of a ‘wellbeing level’ and its features, a theory is built to address the question of how to compare values of temporal wholes. In the process, all of the possible symmetrical and asymmetrical theories of the personal value of birth and death are laid out, and their relationship with the concept of ‘wellbeing’ is analyzed. The term ‘biosignificantism’ is introduced to refer to a theory according to which birth and death may both be either beneficial or detrimental to a subject from a wellbeing-point-of-view. The claims of biosignificantism are refuted by demonstrating why a significant zero point on a non-ratio scale cannot be defined. The type of non- cumulative wellbeing that a non-ratio scale entails is logically combined with features that pose some limitations on how wellbeing may be affected either causally or non-causally. These limitations are outlined. Finally, the broad implications of a theory that is named ‘bioindifferentism’ and that reduces personal value on non-ratio wellbeing are formulated. The relevant literature that is utilized in the research is largely divided: mostly separate fields of research have been devoted to the relationship of birth and wellbeing, and, on the other hand, the relationship of death and wellbeing. This master’s thesis brings the issues together. Derek Parfit’s Reasons and Persons (1984) and Ben Bradley’s Well-Being & Death (2009) are central references. Past research has been largely conducted in terms of moral philosophy which seems to have led to a lot of confusions. The thesis’s axiological focus is intended to bring the discussion back to the atom level to lay down the groundwork for also ethics.
  • Tammisto, Tuomas (Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, 2019)
    Studia Fennica Anthropologica
  • Aunela, Hilja (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    This thesis is a study about Portuguese people who were learning mindfulness meditation in order to overcome stress. The primary question the thesis reflects on is: How do people attach value to what they are doing in situations where there is no clear set of criteria? The research is based on a 10-week ethnographic fieldwork which was conducted in Lisbon, Portugal during spring 2015. The data consists of material gathered by participant observation in two mindfulness meditation centers, combined with interviews and informal talks. By analyzing accounts of the research participants, the study identifies stress as an inherently social experience, and caused by an excess of work and a constant requirement to multitask. The study analyzes these notions by applying Marxist-influenced anthropological analyses of time and combines these with the anthropologist Marilyn Stathern’s (1992) concept of postpluralism. Building upon these theories, the study identifies stress which the research participants reported to be related to the logic of time within neoliberalism. The study observes that being mindful is experienced as a way to live with stressful situations, even though the practice does little to challenge the initial circumstances that caused the research participants feel stressed. Thus, the study suggests that mindfulness teaches the practitioners to recalibrate their values, offering the capacity to give less value to issues the practitioners found stressful. In this vein, mindfulness meditation is interpreted to respond to a particular Western problem in contrast to the Eastern (Buddhist) origins of the practice. The study however pays also attention to contradicting ideas of good life within the West, namely in gendered Portuguese expectations on how much time one should give for others in contrast to the individualistically oriented practice. Thus, the study highlights certain ambivalences present. On one hand, mindfulness responds to stress, as the practice helps keeping the contradictory logics of work and kinship separated. On the other hand, the practice is a retreat from the social and thus does not necessarily ease the initial problem the research participants had. As a conclusion, the study argues that the mindfulness practitioners feel the strain that neoliberal flexibility causes. It is however pointed out that people are not governed by the neoliberal logic and find ways to remove its logic from their own values.
  • Tapaninen, Anna-Maria; Halme-Tuomisaari, Miia; Kankaanpaa, Viljami (2019)
  • Ihantila, Kimmo (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    This thesis examine young college student's consumption resources and consumption. I study how consumption resources are related to college student's consumption. The research has been carried out qualitative, phenomenography research method, where object of examination are student's views of consumption, use of time, student loan use and themes between essential and luxurious consumption. I used interviews as a method of collecting data, which suits for a phenomenography research. The empirical material consist of 13 student's interviews. I analysed material by using content analysis and typecasting. Available resources, such as income, are important for consumers. Students who took part research have low income level compared to the rest population. Financial aid to students consist of student grant, housing benefit and student loan. Majority of interviewees drew student loan in addition to student grant. Nearly all interviewees received financial support from their parents. Housing cost took the majority of interviewees money. The students lived mainly in apartment building. Time is addition to money other household's central resources, because it analyse household daily action. When examine meaning of time in young college students' consumption appear that many students have four sector in regard to the use of time. This sectors are work, study, housework and free time. As a result of study student's temporal resources are scanty, because working is secondary. Due to small incomes and temporal resources young college student's consumption is emphasized to essential consumption as food, housing costs and bills. Young's weak economic situation cause that young use consumption credit or loan to essential consumption or luxurious consumption. This may lead to get into debt if the use of money not control. Students spend money on luxurious consumption, as bars, restaurants and student parties. They also spend their money on hobbies, different events and journeys too. Students draw student loan in order to achieve better standard of living.
  • Erasaari, Matti (2020)
    Taxation always involves an element of value quantification, since to tax is also to implement a measuring scale-a process that is usually taken for granted. But when it becomes necessary to determine the taxational value of abstract time or labor, it is also necessary to outline the principles upon which such value is established. This article discusses the conflicting views of the Finnish Tax Administration and the Helsinki Timebank, a local exchange network, about how to tax 'whiles', the community currency that equates to one-hour stretches of work time. Based on a 2013 ruling by the Finnish tax authority and the Timebank's responses to it, the article asks, to what degree can the choice of a particular 'standard' be taken as a 'moral' choice?
  • Eräsaari, Matti Aleksanteri (2018)
    This article looks into the valuation of time in Fiji with particular emphasis on ‘Fiji time’, an idiom typically employed in reference to unpunctuality or relaxing. The article discusses Fiji time through four exemplars in order to illustrate the degree to which Fiji time is compatible with labour-based valuations of time.
  • Helander, Mika; Holley, Peter; Uuttana, Heidi (2016)
    This article deals with temporary migrant workers experiences of social security in Finland, and the question how temporality influences the motivations of migrant workers to find out about their rights in the welfare system. What kinds of experiences do temporary migrants have? Have they met specific problems related to temporariness? The article shows how motivations to find out about the welfare system are linked to the length of stay of the migrant, sector of work, gender of the temporary worker, country of origin of the worker. Finally motivations are in a high degree influenced by objective possibilities of accessing the welfare benefits of the country, for instance related to problems in receiving work permits, residence permits, and the national insurance institution (KELA) insurance cards. The article shows how many temporary workers, especially within seasonal agricultural work, are in Finland solely in order to work, and are not directed towards other aspects of life while in Finland. Temporary migrants learn about the Finnish Social Security System through their own experience, which makes their knowledge dependent on initiation processes at work places. In many cases a private insurance is required from the temporary worker in order to get the visa and many immigrants are not motivated to contribute to a system, which they don't benefit of. Migrants incorporate possibilities provided by the social system. They thus adjust their subjective expectations to the objective conditions. Sometimes this adjustment is done in frustration as benefits are out of reach despite having to contribute to the system financially by paying taxes.