Browsing by Subject "toiminnan teoria"

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  • Hiltunen, Riitta (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    Goals. The main focus of my Master's thesis was to discuss knowledge management as a part of activity and learning in the networked and diverged business. The research sites composed of two companies operating in separate (packaging and energy) branches. Thus it was interesting to study what possible influences and consequences diverse branches, products (package and electric component) with their life cycle and production processes might have in knowledge management. The aim was also to comprehend similarities and differences in object of activity, knowledge management and network in order to see the possible impacts on the development of the company's operations and activities as well as learning of the personnel. Theoretical framework. The thesis is based on developmental work research which has its roots in cultural-historical activity theory. The core concept of the framework is object-oriented, culturally mediated activity. It is an approach which combines scientific study, practical development work and learning. Essential is the role of the object that motivates human activity and its development. The key notions, knowledge management and network, have been discussed in the light of economics and educational sciences. The concept of learning in the thesis rests on expansive learning and investigative learning. Methods. The data for my thesis was gathered in dialogical workshops which are based on the socio-technical theory and method called work conference. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used for the analysis of the data. Quantitative analysis was used to become familiar with the structure of the discussion in the workshops. The themes of research questions' - object of activity, knowledge management and network were analysed using qualitative analysis. The comparison of the two companies was carried out also by qualitative method. The thread of my analysis was to connect the findings into the production processes and the common object of the companies' activities. Results and Conclusions. The products of the researched companies proved to be technically demanding and competence-based items. The package is a separate product where as electric component is one part in an energy production entity. The life cycle of these products were different which meant that knowledge management related to them was diverse. The stress of knowledge management was in the phase of product design in both cases. The need of knowledge shrank when the package moved to the production phase. In case of the electric component the knowledge management was essential through the product life cycle since the development of the electric component continued also in the production phase. The customer's role as a knowledge producer is of paramount importance, also in case of knowledge held by the customer's other partners. External networks were stratified including the company's internal net, the external immediate net and the external remote net. Furthermore in the Electric company there was a bipolar internal net around which the knowledge management was intertwined. Expansion and deepening of network collaboration came up clearly as one way to improve knowledge management. Product and activity concepts showed also to be possible methods to develop networks and their knowledge management in order to support collaboration within network partners. The internal networks can be developed in a similar manner. The development of the concepts as co-development with network partners would make it possible to share competencies in order to contribute learning and expertise. The motives of learning would be embedded in the motives and interests of the common activity as the motives gears the learning actions.
  • Tissari, Varpu (Toiminnan, kehityksen ja oppimisen tutkimusyksikkö CRADLE, Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    KONSEPTI - Toimintakonseptin uudistajien verkkolehti, 7 (1-2), 2012
  • Kajamaa, Anu; Hilli, Angelique (Toiminnan, kehityksen ja oppimisen tutkimusyksikkö CRADLE, Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    KONSEPTI - Toimintakonseptin uudistajien verkkolehti, 7 (1-2), 2012
  • Tissari, Varpu; Toiviainen, Hanna (Toiminnan, kehityksen ja oppimisen tutkimusyksikkö CRADLE, Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    KONSEPTI - Toimintakonseptin uudistajien verkkolehti, 7 (1-2), 2012
  • Mäki, Tarja; Paavola, Sami; Kerosuo, Hannele; Miettinen, Reijo (Toiminnan, kehityksen ja oppimisen tutkimusyksikkö CRADLE, Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    KONSEPTI - Toimintakonseptin uudistajien verkkolehti, 7 (1-2), 2012
  • Kajamaa, Anu (Toiminnan, kehityksen ja oppimisen tutkimusyksikkö CRADLE, Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    KONSEPTI - Toimintakonseptin uudistajien verkkolehti, 7 (1-2), 2012
  • Mäki, Tarja (Toiminnan, kehityksen ja oppimisen tutkimusyksikkö CRADLE, Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    KONSEPTI - Toimintakonseptin uudistajien verkkolehti, 7 (1-2), 2012
  • (Toiminnan, kehityksen ja oppimisen tutkimusyksikkö CRADLE, Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    KONSEPTI - Toimintakonseptin uudistajien verkkolehti, 7 (1-2), 2012
  • Humaljoki, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Objectives: The Finnish social and health care system is currently under transformation. The objective of this thesis was to chart the on-going concept change of the development system of Finnish social and health care and Innovillage's role in it within the theoretical framework of the third generation activity theory. Innovillage is a new national open innovation environment for developers in the field of health and welfare developed during the years 2009–2013. The research studies this issue through two research questions: (1) How the development system of Finnish social and health care's object and division of labor are changing?; (2) What does Innovillage tell about the concept change of the development system? The aim is to chart the features of the new emerging activity concept of the development system by depicting the changes in the object and the division of labor as well as to examine the development system's contradictions as manifested in Innovillage. Methods: The research questions have been analyzed through historical analysis and empirical data. The empirical data of this thesis constituted of nine individual interviews which were gathered during the summer and early fall of 2013. Six interviewees were representatives of the funding and developer organizations of Innovillage and three represented grassroots professionals involved with Innovillage. The research method was empirical and qualitative and the research process has been primarily guided by the data. The qualitative results were derived from the empirical data through content analysis. Historical analysis of this thesis was made based on the literature. The findings were interpreted with activity theoretical notions of activity concept, object, division of labor, and contradiction. Results and conclusions: The division of labor in the new emerging activity concept of the development system is, ideally, open and networked and the object of developing takes the customer or the client as well as the implementation phase of the created services or solutions into account. Currently, cross-sectorial co-operation has increased slightly especially between funders of the development system but, simultaneously, co-operation between grassroots professionals has diminished. Innovillage itself as well as its tools have supported co-operation within the development system but, according to the results, still fail to take the customer or the client into account. The current secondary contradictions between the division of labor and other elements of the development system seem to stem from the new tools that have been implemented to the development system by Innovillage.
  • Paavilainen, Tuula (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This study reviews co-production with citizens in the context of working-life projects of higher education. Studies on the topic in question and on the outcomes of co-production with citizens are rare and, the study serves both needs. The object of study is the Until Now project, realised by Metropolia University of Applied Sciences. In it, an art performance was co-produced with the working-life partners and citizens for the Finnish National Opera. The project participated especially the elderly but also children and young people. The research problem covers the interests of the participants and resources brought by them into the project, as well as the challenges and possibilities of the project. The study was realised as qualitative case study. The analysed data, gathered especially for this study, was based on the semi-structured interviews of five individual participants of the project. The method of thematic analysis was deployed in the data analysis. Four separate analyses were carried out, altogether, one for each of the specific research questions. The results of them were reflected against activity theory and the prior research on co-production with citizens. The results showed the multi-layered nature and variety of the interests of the participants. The significance of sufficient and appropriate material resources and of qualities of the immaterial resources were emphasised. Various challenges emerged during the project, the productional and practical ones being stressed. The possibilities and positive effects of the project were multiple and expanded also beyond it. The focal meaning of the community, joint activity and encounter between the generations for the citizen participants also came up. The role of the elderly was of critical importance from the standpoint of the artistic work and meeting the learning objectives. Expansions of the activity caused additional challenges but also allowed positive outcomes to emerge. The activity theoretical angle highlights characteristics of expansions of activity, knot-working and distributed agency in the results. The main conclusion is that co-production with citizens is a relevant form of collaboration in the context of working-life projects of higher education. The results of the study add knowledge on the outcomes of co-production with citizens, which is scarce so far. The results also can be applied in the practical work, especially in the development of higher education and public service production.
  • Kostas, Konstantinos (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Hannah Arendt’s theory of action acts as a conceptual resource to ponder human action and conditionality in the current historical context of automation. With the fourth industrial revolution, it is plausible to automate jobs that require cognitive and affective skills. From an economic perspective this means that production is becoming more techonlogy-centered. Simultaneously work has become the main source for individual’s societal action, which determines individual’s socioeconomic position as well as the space for identity formation. This equation has raised automation anxiety in an individual and societal level. The purpose of this thesis is to outline and analyze Arendt’s conception of work in the context of present technologies, more specifically, when studying the impact of deep learning algorithms to organization of work. I am analyzing the phenomenon of fourth industrial revolution theoretically through Arendt’s political thought through phenomenological analysis of meaning of work. Arendt’s concepts of labor, work and action and her distinctions of private, social and private realms act as a conceptual premise. Arendt’s thought on work has been examined critically. According to the critique, Arendt’s thinking on work and society is not suitable for contemporary social analysis. In this thesis, I claim that Arendt is still a timely thinker regarding the institutional meaning of work. Arendt’s writings act as an empirical basis to analyze the state of human action in the current era. Only by analyzing the most fundamental concepts of our society, work and freedom, it is possible to find emancipatory directions in societal transformations. With the support of Arendt’s anthropological approach, we are able to deeply explore possibilities for human action in the context of today’s automation. The significance of automation in Arendt’s thought has attracted marginal attention despite its relevance in her views on human state of affairs. The spatial analysis in this thesis points that Arendt takes her thinking on work on an institutional level. Thus, Arendt can be interpreted as a theorist of conditions for existence of work. Work’s spatial conditions are materiality, uniqueness and worldliness. These spatial meanings of work are formed through three dimensions, which are work as taking a place, as having a position and as taking a stand. Through spatial analysis of work it is conceivable to evaluate political and communal significance of work. In our current context, the meaning of work is to permit a space for an individual to form a public space through work. In this thesis, relationship between automation and freedom is analyzed through Arendt’s theory of action, which offers resources to study human conditionality and institutional freedom in our current historical context. In this way Arendt is fostered as a thinker of automation. From an arendtian perspective, the purpose of automation is to act as a neutral enabler of institutional freedom. Arendt does not regard new technologies, like service robots, as threats for human action. According to Arendt, only human thinking, as separated from cognition and logical reasoning ability, can function as nurturers of historicity, meaning and human existence. The task of human thinking is to work and support the worldliness and durability of the social system in a world where artificial intelligence and automation operate as the basis of society’s organizational rationality.
  • Ojalainen, Sampsa-Tapio (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Goals. The purpose of this thesis was to examine the implementation of phenomenon-based learning in upper secondary school. The students’ own active learning processes are at the core of phenomenon-based learning as they study phenomena that go beyond the boundaries of the traditional school subjects. The theoretical framework of the study was based on the activity theory and the model of expansive learning. As different activities collide, they cause varying degrees of contradictions and needs for changes. The present study examined, what kind of contradictions, need states, and possible solutions can be identified in theme studies pilot in which the phenomenon-based learning was implemented. Methods. The participants in the study were upper secondary school teachers who conducted phenomenon-based learning during the pilot period. The material was collected by theme interviews and content analysis was used to identify salient themes. The analysis focused on identifying categories of change and contradictions in them based on the expansive learning cycle and the activity theory. Results and Conclusions. Three categories were identified, in which the contradictions emerged. In the category ‘selecting the relevant phenomena’ contradictions between the phenomena and the other goals of upper secondary school appeared. In the category ‘co-operation’ contradictions existed between the shared rules and the autonomy of teachers. The various forms of cooperation were to be continued also in the future. In the category ‘emphasizing the active role of the student’ contradictions emerged especially in guiding students with different skill levels. Consequently, the teachers recognized the need to develop new pedagogical guiding methods. The results show in particular the contradictions between the phenomenon-based learning period and other activities of the upper secondary school.
  • Heikkinen, Tanja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Food waste is a global phenomenon that affects many different areas, such as the economy and the environment. Households cause the most food waste in the whole food chain, and if we want to influence and reduce household’s food waste, it is very necessary to study it. A lot of research on household food waste has been done lately. According to activity theory, action always has a target or a goal that actor wants to achieve and actions are always determined by tools. In this study, I investigate what kind of activity the households are doing when trying to avoid food waste. I utilize activity theory and operating system that based on it. I investigate the causes of household food waste, means of reducing and how the operating system appears in the activities of household food waste planning. This study accomplished as a qualitative research. Target group was the people who are interested in reducing food waste. Material for this study was collected using a questionnaire interview with structured and open questions. The questionnaire was sent to the target group through the Facebook food waste group and 89 responses were collected in a short time. The material was analyzed using content analysis. The results of the causes of food waste and the means of reducing it were corresponding with previous research findings. Also in this study peoples own actions, as well as the influence of others contributed to food waste. Proper tools are important when reducing food waste. Proper tools were felt to be necessary, but those availability was mentioned sometimes difficult to get. Also learning and development was seen important when reducing food waste. Experimentalism and courage to try new were also mentioned as important. Many households had also developed their reduction in food waste beyond on their own households, and as well as to the food garbage.
  • Nurminen, Petra (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    The study analyzed the types and development of transformative agency of teachers in a Change Laboratory intervention in a teacher training school. Theoretical framework is based on activity theoretical research on transformative agency to which the study aims to add new knowledge. Change Laboratory is an activity theoretical method for developing work and organizations. The data for the study consists of three Change Laboratory intervention meetings conducted at the Viikki teacher training school in spring 2015. There were six meetings out of which this study focuses on the first, third and sixth meeting. The transcribed data was analyzed by using qualitative techniques, namely thematic analysis and activity theoretical framework for the identification of the types and development of transformative agency (Haapasaari, Engeström & Kerosuo, 2014). The analysis was enriched by depicting tensions in the development of transformative agency reflecting the dialectics of agency (Rainio & Hilppö, 2016). Quantification was also used to describe the data. Five types of transformative agency depicted by Haapasaari et al. (2014) were found in this data: resisting the change and initiatives, critical analysis of the current activity, explicating new possibilities in the activity, envisioning and developing new models or patterns in the activity, and committing to concrete actions. In the first meeting the most common types were resistance and critical analysis, in the third meeting there were high amount of explicating new possibilities in the activity and envisioning and developing new models or patterns in the activity, and in the sixth meeting the most common type was envisioning and developing new models or patterns in the activity. Based on the data, a new type of transformative agency was also proposed: casting faith in the joint developing. In the speaking turns representing transformative agency, the amount of collectively produced turns increased during the process being highest in the sixth meeting where the participants collectively visualized a new compass model of shared pedagogical leadership. The tensions in the speech reflected the dialectics of agency between the need of belonging and separability and between the need of autonomity and control. The compass model was interpreted to be an attempt to seek for a solution to these tensions.
  • Aaltonen, Helinä (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Aims The purpose of this research was to analyze the evaluation of adults' vocational competence and the possibilities of learning partnership in a triangular evaluation discussion between the student, teacher and representatives of work life. The development of evaluation is important in a vocational skills demonstration system, where mature students are aimed to be trained effectively for working life and for the needs of the job market. The starting point of the research was to investigate how the evaluation discussion appears as a multivoiced interaction situation, and how the student's voice is present and heard in a joint evaluation process. The identification of disturbances breaks and innovations and the hearing of the student's voice in the evaluation discussion are important in order to develop the system. The research questions were: 1. What kind of disturbances, breaks and innovations there occur in the evaluation discussion? 2. How is the student's voice heard in the multivoiced evaluation discussion? Methods The research data consisted of five final examination evaluation discussions of social and health sciences basic degree students. The data was collected through recording the evaluation discussions and interviewing the participants separately after the evaluation. The researcher participated as an observer in the evaluation discussion. The methods of Activity Theory and Developmental Work Research were applied to study the disturbances, breaks and innovations in a multivoiced discussion, as well as to study the multivoicedness. The researcher further developed these methods by means of a network perspective to illuminate the different voices in a triangular discussion. Two objects of discussion were differentiated, the work under evaluation and the evaluation discussion. Results The research produced knowledge about the nature of the evaluation discussions and their multivoicedness. The evaluation discussions turned out to be relatively teacher-driven discussions, where various disturbances and breaks were present. Large amount of the disturbances was focused on the evaluation discussion, whereas the breaks and innovations were evenly focused on the evaluation discussion and the work situation under evaluation. The disturbances were already noticed during the evaluation discussion and the participants considered them as a rather natural part of the situation. Instead, the breaks and innovations were missed and only became evident in the researcher's analysis and in the interviews with the participants. Therefore, the development potential of breaks and innovations cannot be utilised unless they are consciously scrutinised. The most important type of breaks was the ambiguities in evaluation during the evaluation discussion. The most important type of innovations was the cooperation effort between the participants of evaluation. The voice of students was partly overridden by the voices of evaluators particularly when the self-evaluation and grade suggestion by the student were discussed. The students' voice was emphasised when the focus of the discussion was one's own work and even the development of the whole work community. On the basis of the research results it could be concluded that the evaluation discussions are still predominantly oriented towards the evaluation situation and the formal evaluation task, which could be expanded towards addressing the work by strengthening the voice of the student. This would also create better prerequisites for a more genuine learning partnership and its further development.
  • Rantavuori, Juhana (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    Objectives. In this research I analyzed the learning process of teacher students in a planning meeting using the expansive learning cycle and types of interaction approaches. In activity theory framework the expansive learning cycle has been applied widely in analyzing learning processes taking several years. However, few studies exist utilizing expansive cycles in analyzing short single meetings. In the activity theory framework talk and interaction have been analyzed using following types of interaction: coordination, cooperation and communication. In these studies single interaction situations have been analyzed, in which the status and power positions of participants has been very different. Interactions of self-directed teams, in which the participants are equal, have been examined very little. I am not aware of any studies, in which both learning actions of the expansive cycle and types of interaction by analyzing the same data would have been utilized. The aim of my study was to describe the process of collaborative innovative learning in a situation where the student group tries to accomplish a broad and ill-defined learning task. I aim to describe, how this planning process proceeds through different phases of learning actions of the expansive cycle. My goal is to understand and describe the transformations in the quality of interaction and transitions which are related to it. Another goal of this study is to specify the possible similarities and differences between expansive learning and types of interactions. Methods. Data of this study consisted of videotaped meetings, which were part of the study module for class teacher degree. The first meeting of the study module was chosen to be the primary research material. Five students were present in the group meeting. Transcription of the conversation was analyzed by classifying the turns of conversation following phases of the expansive cycle. After that the material was categorized again by using types of interaction. Results and conclusions. As a result of this study I was able to trace all the phases of the expansive cycle except one. Also, I was able to identify all interaction types. When I compared the two modes of analysis side by side I was able to find connecting main phases. Thus I was able to identify the interdependence between the two ways of analysis on a higher level, although I was not able to notice correlation on the level of individual phases. Based on this, I conclude that learning of the group was simultaneously specification and formulation of the object at the different phases of expansive learning and transformation of the quality of the interaction while searching for the common object.
  • Marttinen, Anu Elina (2003)
    Tutkielma on tapaustutkimus digitaalisen tuotantojärjestelmän käyttöönotosta MTV3:n Huomenta Suomi -ohjelman uutisissa. Tavoitteena on tutkia digitalisointiin liittyvää muutosta arkityön tasolla televisiouutisten moniammatillisen työyhteisön, ei perinteiseen tapaan yksittäisten toimittajien tulkintojen näkökulmasta. Muutoksen monitahoisuutta ja ristiriitaisuutta ei ole haluttu häivyttää. Tämän lähtökohdan vuoksi tutkielman teoreettiseksi viitekehykseksi valittiin toiminnan teoria ja sen suomalainen variantti, kehittävä työntutkimus. Toiminnan teoriassa toiminta, esimerkiksi työ, ymmärretään sosiaalisesti ja materiaalisesti välittyneeksi. Tämä välittyneisyys voidaan tiivistää toimintajärjestelmän malliin, jossa toiminnan osatekijöitä ovat toiminnan kohde, välineet, työnjako, säännöt, yhteisö ja toimija. Toiminnan katsotaan muuttuvan ja kehittyvän osatekijöiden välisten ristiriitojen kärjistymisen kautta. Tutkimuksen ongelmaksi asetettiin, minkälaisia ristiriitoja digitaalisen tuotantojärjestelmän käyttöönotto synnyttää tai tekee näkyväksi Huomenta Suomen uutistyössä. Tutkielman empiirinen aineisto muodostuu työtä havainnoimalla kerätystä etnografisesta aineistosta sekä yhdestätoista teemahaastattelusta. Aineistossa ovat edustettuina toimittajien lisäksi myös muut ammattiryhmät, joiden työ on välttämätöntä uutislähetyksen valmiiksi saamisessa. Näitä ryhmiä ovat leikkaajat, ohjaajat ja kuvaussihteerit sekä uutistuottajat. Uutistyön ristiriitoja päädyttiin jäljittämään aineistolähtöisesti välitason käsitteellisten välineiden avulla. Havainnoimalla kerättyä aineistoa analysoidaan siitä näkökulmasta, minkälaisia häiriöitä eli näkyviä poikkeamia työn kulusta digitaalisen tekniikan käyttöön aamuvuoroissa liittyy ja miten työntekijät toimivat häiriötilanteissa. Haastatteluaineistoa lähestytään position ja dilemman käsitteiden avulla. Kiinnostuksen kohteena on, miten työntekijät määrittelevät puheessaan toimintansa mahdollisuuksia ja rajoja ja minkälaista dilemmaattisuutta, ristiriitaisuutta, näihin toimijan positioihin kytkeytyy. Analyysi osoittaa, että Huomenta Suomen uutistyön ristiriidat digitaalisen järjestelmän käyttöönottovaiheessa kumpuavat paitsi teknologiasta, myös työnjaosta, toimijoiden ammatillisista ihanteista sekä kilpailevista toiminnan motiiveista. Työnjako, jossa ymmärrys koko järjestelmän hallinnasta on vain järjestelmäasiantuntijoilla sysää työntekijät toiminnan ulkopuolelle. Digitaalisen tekniikan käyttö osana työtä sotii toimittajien ja ohjaajien ammatillista ihannetta vastaan. Journalistisen motiivin kanssa kilpaileviksi toiminnan motiiveksi tunnistettiin yhtiön johdon pyrkimys taloudelliseen tehokkuuteen sekä tekninen motiivi. Nämä ristiriidat vastustavat työntekijöiden pyrkimystä kantaa yhteistä vastuuta uutislähetysten onnistumisesta ja samalla ne säätelevät sitä, miten tekniikkaa aletaan käyttää työssä ja miten siihen suhtaudutaan. Journalismin tutkimuksen näkökulmasta tutkimustulokset osoittavat, kuinka digitalisoinnin kaltaisella teknisellä muutoksella on vahva sosiaalinen ulottuvuus.
  • Saarinen, Katri (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Aims of the study: This master thesis was part of the Finnish Tax administration's work environment change project carrying out the move from cellular office to multi-space office. The aim was to study the change of work environment and the implementation of new working practices in terms of the change of activity and as a learning opportunity. The hypothesis was that the transformation to a multi-space office may open expansive learning opportunities, if that change implicates and reflects the change of work more widely in the workplace and society. Prerequisite for this is that the change of the work environment is not seen narrowly as a change of physical space. Work environments have been studied for many years from physical, ergonomic, technological and social interactions perspectives, whereas learning opportunities in the move towards multi-space work environment have not been addressed. Theoretical framework of the study was based on the activity theory and a theory of expansive learning. The main questions of the study were 1. What kind of conceptions do employees have on the change of activity in the move to multi-space work environment? 2. What kind of opportunities for expansive learning do these conceptions represent? Method: Qualitative research applied phenomenographic and activity-theoretical methodologies. Research data comprised of eleven interviews with the Tax administration's employees. The employees' conceptions on the change of the subject, object, tools, rules, community and the division of labor were analyzed. By analyzing these conceptions it was possible to investigate the learning opportunities in the transformation. Results and conclusions: The analysis revealed developmentally different employees' conceptions on the change of activity when moving to the multi-space office at the Tax administration. Based on these conceptions three learning visions of varying expansiveness could be identified. The weak learning vision describes the change of the work environment merely as the change of physical space. The enabling learning vision means that the change of the work environment has spontaneously influenced both people's mental images about their work and work community's actions. Employees have recognized the opportunity for change and they have ability to collectively develop their activity. The most interesting finding is the developmental learning vision, which implies seeing the move to multi-space office as a part of an overall change of work. Learning opportunities emerge when employees have understood the object of the work as dynamic and open for change. Learning opportunities may also occur when the change of the instruments is associated with the new virtual environment including digital tools and remote work. About collective learning tells also the fact that the knowledge sharing practices have been developed in work community. To conclude, it was possible to scrutinize the expansiveness of the developmental learning vision as temporal expansion, as spatial expansion when work environment becomes virtual and multi-sited, as expansion of responsibility and morality when the distant work molds division of labor and increases independency, and as developmental expansion in terms of the work community's new knowledge sharing practices. In the history of Tax administration, the multi-space office represents one office model among the previous ones; however, when combined with the digitalization and virtualization of work, it gives the work community the possibility and
  • Knuuttila, Tarja (2001)
    Tutkielma koostuu viidestä eri artikkelista, joista neljä käsittelee Umberto Econ semiotiikkaa ja myös semiotiikkaa yleensä.Viides artikkeli käsittelee sitä, mitä annettavaa semiotiikalla on filosofialle. Analysoin erityisesti Econ ensyklopedian käsitettä, jonka avulla hän on pyrkinyt lähestymään sitä jaettua kulttuurista tietoa, jota merkitysten luominen, välittäminen ja ymmärtäminen edellyttävät. Ensyklopedian teoriassaan Eco väittää, että tietoamme kielestä (eli kielellistä kompetenssiamme) ei voi viimekädessä erottaa maailmaa koskevasta tiedostamme. Tästä huolimatta Eco päätyy esittämään, että ensyklopediaa voidaan ajatella eräänlaisena itseriittoisena semanttisena systeeminä, jossa merkitykset viittaavat toisiinsa. Itseriittoisuudella tarkoitetaan tässä sitä, että merkkien referentiaalinen suhde semanttisen systeemin muodostaman eräänlaisen virtuaalisen hypertekstin ulkopuoliseen maailmaan voidaan sulkeistaa pois semioottisesta analyysistä. Tutkielmassa pohditaan, miksi Eco päätyy tällaiseen johtopäätökseen, joka tuntuu sotivan hänen semioottisen teoriansa lähtökohtia vastaan. Tutkielmassa argumentoidaan, että Econ semioottisessa teoriassa yksilöllisen merkityksenmuodostuksen ja kollektiivisten konventioiden välinen suhde jää hämäräksi, koska Eco ei ota huomioon niitä kollektiivisia toimintoja, joissa merkitykset syntyvät, ja jotka niitä kannattelevat. Näin ollen Eco joutuu postuloimaan edellä mainitun semanttisen systeemin yrittäessään selittää, miten jaettu merkitys on mahdollinen. Eco myöntää, että hänen "virtuaalisen" ensyklopediansa ontologinen status on hämärä. Näin ollen on olennaista kysyä, voidaanko jaettua merkitystä selittää muulla tavalla. Tutkielmassa esitellään toiminnan teoria yrityksenä lähestyä merkityksen ongelmaa jaetuista inhimillisistä toiminnoista käsin, jolloin Econ ensyklopedian kaltaista itseensäviittaavien merkitysten systeemiä ei tarvitse postuloida. Tutkielmassa ei kuitenkaan ehdoteta ensyklopedian käsitteen hylkäämistä, vaan sen materiaalistamista. Tämän tulkinnan mukaisesti "ensyklopedianamme" toimii ihmisyhteisöjen luomien reaalisten kulttuuristen artefaktien varanto.
  • Aaltonen, Aleksi (2005)
    Kaupunkitutkimuksen piirissä rakennetun ympäristön muutosta on tyypillisesti tarkasteltu suunnittelun näkökulmasta olipa kyseessä sitten arkkitehtuurisuunnittelu tai kaupunkisuunnittelu. Suunnitelmat eivät kuitenkaan vielä itsessään muuta kaupunkitilaa vaan tarvitaan myös hankkeita, jotka toteuttavat suunnitelmia. Tutkimusta jäsentää kysymys siitä, mistä ja miten rakennushankkeet syntyvät. Lukuisiin erilaisiin dokumentteihin ja haastatteluihin perustuva tapaustutkimus tarkastelee Ilmatieteen laitoksen ja Merentutkimuslaitoksen uuden toimitilahankkeen syntyä 1990-luvun lopulta aina vuoden 2003 puoliväliin saakka, jolloin osapuolet allekirjoittivat rakennushankkeen sopimukset. Monisäikeisen ja verkostomaisen hankkeen kuvaus ja analyysi perustuvat toimijaverkkoteorian ja kulttuuri-historiallisen toiminnan teorian yhdistelemiseen tapaustutkimuksen puitteissa. Analyysi jäljittää käännekohtia, joissa toimijat sitoutuvat toisiinsa ja rakennukseen, joka muuttuu asteittain todeksi. Tutkimuksen keskeinen havainto on, että hankkeessa ei ole kysymys suoraviivaisesta suunnitelmien muuttamisesta rakennukseksi. Toteutus jäsentää suunnittelua vähintään yhtä paljon kuin suunnittelu toteutusta. Useiden erilaisten intressien yhteenkytkeytymisestä syntyvä hanke leikkaa kymmeniä eri organisaatioita ja teemoja tutkimuslaitosten hajasijoittamisesta ja yhdistämisestä kaupunkisuunnitteluinstituution muutokseen, paikallisesta asukasvastustuksesta Senaatti-kiinteistöjen rooliin valtionhallinnossa. Rakennus on samanaikaisesti materiaalinen, kulttuurinen ja performatiivinen kohde, joka sitoo hetkellisesti yhteen toimijoita, asioita ja tapahtumia, joiden on perinteisesti katsottu kuuluvan yhteiskunnan eri tasoille ja sfääreihin. Työ on englanninkielinen.