Browsing by Subject "tongue cancer"

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  • Al-Samadi, Ahmed; Awad, Shady Adnan; Tuomainen, Katja; Zhao, Yue; Salem, Abdelhakim; Parikka, Mataleena; Salo, Tuula (2017)
    The crosstalk between immune cells, cancer cells, and extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted by cancer cells remains poorly understood. We created three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models using human leiomyoma discs and Myogel to study the effects of immune cells on highly (HSC-3) and less (SCC-25) invasive oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) cell lines. Additionally, we studied the effects of EVs isolated from these cell lines on the cytotoxicity of CD8(+) T and NK cells isolated from three healthy donors. Our analysis included the effects of these EVs on innate immunity in zebrafish larvae. Activated immune cells significantly decreased the proliferation of both OTSCC cell lines and associated with a diminished invasion area of HSC-3 cells. In general, EVs from SCC-25 increased the cytotoxic activity of CD8(+) T and NK cells more than those from HSC-3 cells. However, this effect varied depending on the source and the immune and cancer cell subgroups. In zebrafish, the amount of IL-13 mRNA was decreased by SCC-25 EVs. This study describes promising in vitro and in vivo models to investigate interactions between immune cells, cancer cells, and EVs.
  • Almahmoudi, Rabeia; Salem, Abdelhakim; Murshid, Sakhr; Dourado, Mauricio Rocha; Apu, Ehsanul Hoque; Salo, Tuula; Al-Samadi, Ahmed (2019)
    We recently showed that extracellular interleukin-17F (IL-17F) correlates with better disease-specific survival in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) patients. However, the underlying mechanisms of such effect remain obscure. Here, we used qRT-PCR to assess the expression of IL-17F and its receptors (IL-17RA and IL-17RC) in two OTSCC cell lines (HSC-3 and SCC-25) and in normal human oral keratinocytes (HOKs). IL-17F effects on cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were studied using a live-imaging IncuCyte system, and a Caspase-3/7 reagent was used for testing apoptosis. 3D tumor spheroids were utilized to assess the impact of IL-17F on invasion with or without cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). Tube-formation assays were used to examine the effects of IL-17F on angiogenesis using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). OTSCC cells express low levels of IL-17F, IL-17RA, and IL-17RC mRNA compared with HOKs. IL-17F inhibited cell proliferation and random migration of highly invasive HSC-3 cells. CAFs promoted OTSCC invasion in tumor spheroids, whereas IL-17F eliminated such effect. IL-17F suppressed HUVEC tube formation in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, we suggest that IL-17F counteracts the pro-tumorigenic activity in OTSCC. Due to its downregulation in tumor cells and inhibitory activity in in vitro cancer models, targeting IL-17F or its regulatory pathways could lead to promising immunotherapeutic strategies against OTSCC.
  • Sundquist, Elias; Kauppila, Joonas H.; Veijola, Johanna; Mroueh, Rayan; Lehenkari, Petri; Laitinen, Saara; Risteli, Juha; Soini, Ylermi; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Sawazaki-Calone, Iris; Soares Macedo, Carolina Carneiro; Bloigu, Risto; Coletta, Ricardo D.; Salo, Tuula (2017)
    Background:Oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) metastasises early, especially to regional lymph nodes. There is an ongoing debate on which early stage (T1-T2N0) patients should be treated with elective neck dissection. We need prognosticators for early stage tongue cancer. Methods: Mice immunisation with human mesenchymal stromal cells resulted in production of antibodies against tenascin-C (TNC) and fibronectin (FN), which were used to stain 178 (98 early stage), oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma samples. TenascinC and FN expression in the stroma (negative, moderate or abundant) and tumour cells (negative or positive) were assessed. Similar staining was obtained using corresponding commercial antibodies. Results: Expression of TNC and FN in the stroma, but not in the tumour cells, proved to be excellent prognosticators both in all stages and in early stage cases. Among early stages, when stromal TNC was negative, the 5-year survival rate was 88%. Correspondingly, when FN was negative, no cancer deaths were observed. Five-year survival rates for abundant expression of TNC and FN were 43% and 25%, respectively. Conclusions: Stromal TNC and, especially, FN expressions differentiate patients into low-and high-risk groups. Surgery alone of early stage primary tumours might be adequate when stromal FN is negative. Aggressive treatments should be considered when both TNC and FN are abundant.