Browsing by Subject "tourism"

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  • Malyutin, Kirill (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    The main objective was to identify and analyze the tourism management perspective to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) at the luxury Fairmont Chateau Lake Louise (FCLL) Hotel and Resort in the Banff National Park (NP). It is viable for a company to conduct responsible business operations, especially in protected areas, because of a great influence of Environmental Non-Governmental Organizations (ENGO’s) and high customer awareness of environmental issues. Definitely, large chains of luxury hotels and resorts, such as the Fairmont, are greatly dependent on their reputation and engagement with the communities’ well-being and handling the environmental issues in the area of business operations. The thesis is divided into several parts, i.e. introduction, theoretical background, methodology and previous research, results of the research, and conclusions and discussions. Undoubtedly, all of the above mentioned parts are essential in order to get a complete picture of the thesis topic and its achieved objectives. As a matter of fact, the current Master’s thesis comprises various industries with hospitality, tourism, and forestry. In order to gain the stated objectives, a deep analysis of the literature related to the topic and online sources was conducted, as well as email interviews with some representatives, i.e. certain managers, of the FCLL. Obviously, not all of the respondents were able to answer in time or to answer at all due to various reasons; however, the received replies were enough to make their contribution to the current thesis. The questions were especially designed to fit the respondents and to get a better insight into the FCLL’s business activities in the Banff NP. As the results showed, the FCLL has a good reputation due to its dedication and achievements, regardless of the plans to build a conference center and previous negative impact on the environment in the area. FCLL is trying its best to become a good “citizen” by following its CSR practices and engaging stakeholders. The FCLL’s major focus is to diminish negative impacts from its business operations in the park, i.e. on its various environmental programs, engaging not only personnel of the company, but communities and customers. These results were used as a basis of a SWOT analysis to have a clearer and visible representation of the FCLL’s current position, taking all the issues into consideration. In conclusion, this research shows that the luxury Fairmont Chateau Lake Louise Hotel and Resort in the Banff National Park has a good image and reputation due to its various environmental programs, dedication to its responsible business operations, and engagement of the involved stakeholders; therefore, it is clear the company has a great potential based on its achievements and willingness to make its positive contribution.
  • Tavasti, Jenna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tässä tutkielmassa tarkastellaan japanilaisten animefanien tekemiä matkoja animesarjoihin ja -elokuviin liittyville paikoille. Tällaisia matkoja kutsutaan usein animepyhiinvaelluksiksi, ja niillä katsotaan olevan uskonnollisia konnotaatioita, sillä niistä käytetään japaniksi usein nimitystä “seichi junrei”, joka alun perin tarkoittaa uskonnollisia pyhiinvaelluksia. Tutkimuksen teoreettisena pohjana toimii Grounded Theory ja metodina narratiivinen haastattelu. Tutkimusta varten haastateltiin viittä japanilaista henkilöä, jotka ovat tehneet animepyhiinvaelluksia. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on selvittää, mikä haastateltavia motivoi animepyhiinvaelluksille, ja millaisia vaikutuksia animepyhiinvaelluksilla on sekä henkilöihin itseensä että Japanin yhteiskuntaan. Tulokset analysoidaan narratiivisen analyysin keinoin litteroimalla ja koodaamalla haastattelut. Tutkimuksen pohjana toimivat myös tutkijan omat vierailut useilla animepaikoilla Japanissa. Tuloksia tarkastellaan lopuksi myös Pearcen Travel Career Pattern -teorian näkökulmasta, sekä kolmesta pyhiinvaellusteoreettisesta näkökulmasta. Tutkimuksessa todetaan, että motivaatio animepyhiinvaelluksille voidaan jakaa kolmeen tasoon: 1) “anime”, joka on matkan ensimmäinen ja tärkein motiivi, ja käsittää paikan, joka on kuvattuna animessa, 2) “ympäröivät alueet”, jotka ovat seuraava motiivi, ja käsittävät ympäröivät alueet, jotka eivät kuitenkaan näy itse animessa, sekä alueella asuvat ihmiset, ja 3) “muut syyt/muistot”, esimerkiksi matkakumppanit tai muut matkalla tavatut ihmiset, sekä muut paikat, joissa vierailtiin esimerkiksi matkalla animepaikoille tai niistä pois, toisin sanoen henkilökohtaiset muistot. Tutkimuksessa todetaan myös, että matka vaikuttaa muun muassa animen katselukokemukseen siten, että siinä missä ennen matkaa ja matkan aikana paikkaa katsotaan teoksen näkökulmasta leviten ympäröiviin alueisiin ja muihin paikkoihin (tasosta 1 tasoon 3), matkan jälkeen teosta aletaan usein katsoa henkilökohtaisesta näkökulmasta (tasosta 3 tasoon 1), sillä katsojalle palautuu mieleen paikat, joissa hän on itse käynyt, ja nämä henkilökohtaiset muistot sekoittuvat katselukokemukseen. Yhteiskunnallisesti animepyhiinvaellukset on alettu nähdä yhtenä matkailun muotona, ja useat alueet ovatkin alkaneet yhä enenevissä määrin käyttää animepyhiinvaelluksia matkailun edistämiseksi. Tutkimuksessa todetaan, että tästä johtuen myös animefanien itsensä sisällä on tapahtunut asennemuutos, jonka ansiosta fanien itsensäkin on aiempaa helpompi tehdä tällaisia matkoja ei pelkästään sen vuoksi, että informaatiota on tarjolla aiempaa enemmän, vaan myös sen vuoksi, että he kokevat olevansa tervetulleita.
  • Poikolainen, Janne (2022)
    Young people have rarely been studied in the field of second-home research as active subjects, although they play an influential part in contemporary second-home tourism. Based on semi-structured interviews, this study seeks to address the scholarly gap in the existing literature by analysing the experiences of, and attitudes towards, second-home living among 12- to 17-year-old second-home dwellers vacationing in Mantyharju, Finland. The study focuses on the second-home environment as a hybrid space enabling young cottagers to combine elements of a traditionalist lifestyle, outdoor recreation, and late modern technoscape in pursuit of pleasurable and restorative leisure. The findings suggest that young second-home dwellers see outdoor activities and rich natural surroundings, as well as intense familial communality and selected aspects of simple living, as the basis of an enjoyable second-home experience. At the same time, they complement these elements with the active use of mobile and entertainment technology, seeking a satisfying balance between the exotic and the ordinary. The results show that studying young second-home dwellers offers fresh new perspectives not only on second-home tourism and its ongoing changes but also on the leisure preferences of late modern youth in general.
  • Heikinheimo, Vuokko; Järv, Olle; Tenkanen, Henrikki; Hiippala, Tuomo; Toivonen, Tuuli (2022)
    Identifying users' place of residence is an important step in many social media analysis workflows. Various techniques for detecting home locations from social media data have been proposed, but their reliability has rarely been validated using ground truth data. In this article, we compared commonly used spatial and Spatio-temporal methods to determine social media users' country of residence. We applied diverse methods to a global data set of publicly shared geo-located Instagram posts from visitors to the Kruger National Park in South Africa. We evaluated the performance of each method using both individual-level expert assessment for a sample of users and aggregate-level official visitor statistics. Based on the individual-level assessment, a simple Spatio-temporal approach was the best-performed for detecting the country of residence. Results show why aggregate-level official statistics are not the best indicators for evaluating method performance. We also show how social media usage, such as the number of countries visited and posting activity over time, affect the performance of methods. In addition to a methodological contribution, this work contributes to the discussion about spatial and temporal biases in mobile big data.
  • Meri, Maija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This study addresses the ways in which environmental challenges and power relations are manifested through tourism in the easternmost province of Panama, Darién. Historically, the area of Darién has remained relatively isolated from the rest of the country and tourism in the area is of small-scale. However, the high biodiversity and natural resources have drawn increasing attention, thus resulting in tensions and competing interests between different stakeholders. Local perceptions of tourism bring insight about how people make sense of and engage with touristic activities, and how geopolitical and ecological discourses contribute to environmental inequalities. The theoretical background draws from geopolitical ecology, which states the role and impact of the environment in the shaping of political space and power relations. The research is based on 37 thematic interviews and participant observation carried out during a one-month ethnographic fieldwork in Darién. The findings indicate that tourism has contributed to exposing the environmental challenges in Darién, but also caused controversy over the use of resources for tourism. Tourism brings forward power relations and demonstrates that different players are in an uneven position. The results show that tourism in Darién has been influenced by its remoteness and the nowadays largely misleading assumption of its unstable security situation. Darién faces a broad range of environmental problems, resulting mainly from the State´s weak presence and poor environmental policies. However, tourism has been locally able to enhance environmental awareness and interest towards conservation. Different tourism actors have unequal possibilities in making use of natural resources depending largely on their wealth and social networks. Further geopolitical interests appear through territorial issues and questions concerning land ownership. The findings indicate that by looking at tourism, many underlying tensions related to existing social inequalities, power relations and distribution of ecological benefits can be revealed.
  • Hiippala, Tuomo (University of Helsinki, 2007)
  • Palojärvi, Alli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Turismi ei ole Kiinassa kehittynyt vielä täyteen potentiaalinsa. Vain noin viidellä prosentilla kiinalaisista on passi, mutta jo nyt kiinalaiset käyttävät eniten rahaa turismiin maailmassa. Viimeisen vuosikymmenen aikana myös kiinalaisten turistien määrä Suomessa on kasvanut merkittävästi. Viime aikoina suomalaiset yritykset ovat huomanneet, että Suomessa on tarvetta kiinalaisen kulttuurin ja kiinan kielen osaajille. Suomalainen lehdistö on kiinnittänyt paljon huomiota tilastoihin, joissa kerrotaan kiinalaisten Suomessa viettämistä öistä. Sen sijaan kiinalaisten asiakastyytyväisyyteen hotelleissa ei ole vielä kiinnitetty merkittävästi huomiota. Tästä johtuen tämä tutkimus käsittelee kiinalaisten asiakastyytyväisyyttä suomalaisissa hotelleissa. Tässä tutkimuksessa keskitytään siihen, onko suomalaisissa hotelleissa tarvetta palveluiden parantamiselle kiinalaisten asiakkaiden houkuttelemiseksi ja palvelemiseksi sekä sitä, että jos tarvetta on, millaisia parannuksia hotellien tulisi tehdä palveluilleen. Tämän työn teoreettinen tausta nojaa turismin markkinoinnin teoriaan. Teoria osoittaa, kuinka asiakkaan erikoistarpeiden huomiointi ja asiakastyytyväisyys vaikuttavat asiakkaan uskollisuuteen, asiakkaan todennäköisyyteen suositella palvelua ja asiakassuhteen säilyttämiseen. Tässä tutkielmassa tietoa on kerätty eri lähteistä. Lähteinä on käytetty aikaisempaa tutkimusta sekä suomalaisissa uutisissa julkaistuja artikkeleita. Lisäksi työtä varten on haastateltu viittä kiinalaisten turistien opasta. Tämän vuoksi tutkimus on niin empiirinen kuin teoreettinen, koska työhön on käytetty niin tutkimusta kuin haastatteluita, joissa yksilöt pääsevät ääneen. Tämä työ on kvalitatiivinen etenkin johtuen kiinalaisten oppaiden haastatteluista. Työssä huomattiin, että suomalaisissa hotelleissa on asioita, joita voisi kehittää kiinalaisten turistien asiakastyytyväisyyden parantamiseksi. Kehityskohteet vaihtelivat pienistä, helposti toteutettavista asioista suuriin, merkittävämpiä investointeja vaativiin muutoksiin. Useimmiten toivottuja muutoksia oli kuuman veden tarjoaminen hotelleissa sekä aamupalan muuttaminen enemmän kiinalaista makua vastaavaksi. Lisäksi kirjallisissa lähteissä mainittiin usein asiakkaiden toive saada palvelua sekä informaatiota kohteesta kiinaksi. Tämän tutkimuksen tulokset ovat varsin samanlaisia ulkomailla tehtyjen tutkimusten kanssa. Haasteet ja ratkaisut kiinalaisten ymmärtämisessä ympäri länsimaita näyttävät olevan varsin samanlaisia.
  • Bowman, Richard J. C.; Foster, Allen; Stacey, Andrew; Keren-Froim, Naama; Bascaran, Cova; Kivelä, Tero T.; Munier, Francis; Fabian, Ido Didi (2021)
    Early diagnosis and treatment of retinoblastoma (Rb), the most common intraocular malignancy, can save both the child's life and vision. However, access to services and hence chances for survival and preserving the eye and its vision vary widely across the globe. Some families have to, or make a choice to, leave their home country to seek planned medical treatment abroad. We aimed to investigate how frequently this cross-border travel occurs and the factors associated with it. A total of 278 Rb centres in 153 countries were recruited to participate in a global cross-sectional analysis of newly diagnosed Rb patients in 2017. Number and proportions of children who travelled from their home country for treatment were analysed by country, continent, socioeconomic stratum and clinical and demographic features. The cohort included 4351 new patients of whom 223 [5.1%, 95% confidence interval 4.5-5.8] were taken across country borders for planned medical treatment. Independently significant predictors of travelling across borders included: being from a country with a smaller population, being from a country classified as low socioeconomic status, having bilateral Rb and having intraocular disease without extraocular spread. The factors that determine international travel for Rb treatment are complex and deserve further investigation. We may need to rethink the way services are delivered in the light of the threat of severe curtailment of international travel from pandemics like corona virus disease 2019.
  • Lumperoinen, Maria (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Aim of this thesis is to find out about internationalising service companies and possible new market entry modes. This is a case study for UK based Turquoise Holiday Company, which is a luxury tour operator. Research problem is to find out if the case company has prerequisites for internationalising to Finnish, Swedish, and /or Norwegian markets. Internal, external and strategic factors are taken into consideration. Introduction defines service and clarifies the difference from manufactured product. Theory chapter presents different foreign market entry modes and internationalising strategies for service companies. Also internal, external and strategic factors affecting internationalisation are presented, and they are base for theoretical framework. This study is a qualitative case study. Evaluation is based on publicly available information both externally from the market and internally from the case company. Thesis shows that many things are to be taken into consideration when a service company is thinking about international expansion. Travel industry in general is growing constantly but also going through changes that might change the business significantly. At the moment financial resources and language skills of the personnel of the case company are the internal factors that are limiting internationalising. Scandinavian countries are relatively wealthy though, which is encouraging external factor. Although Finland, Sweden and Norway are doing quite well in economic circumstances in Europe the markets are small in size compared to the UK. The most interesting internationalisation target could be Norway due to its high level of economy. Population of the country is not very big but also competition seems to be low. As this study does not include any practical market research it is suggested to conduct one if the company is willing to deepen its knowledge of consumer attitudes and market potential of the countries. Also the Turquoise Holiday Company should find out its possibilities of financial resources and educating personnel for foreign markets.
  • Protassova, Maria Margarita (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Koronaviruspandemia vaikutti koko yhteiskuntaan vuonna 2020. Myös Suomi sulki valtionrajansa muulta kuin välttämättömältä liikenteeltä. Tästä johtuen kesällä 2020 ulkomaanmatkailijat hävisivät Helsingistä lähes täysin. Matkailijoihin keskittyvät yritykset joutuivat suuntaamaan markkinointinsa uudelleen kotimaisiin asiakkaisiin. Tässä tutkielmassa tarkastellaan, miten markkinoiden uudelleensuuntautuminen on vaikuttanut matkailijoihin keskittyvien yritysten kielenkäyttöön ja kielimaisemaan. Tavoitteena on selvittää paitsi muutokset, myös perustelut niiden takana, samoin kuin syyt sille, että muutosta ei olekaan tapahtunut. Tutkielma keskittyy yritysten kieliasioiden päättäjiin, heidän ratkaisuihinsa sekä heidän tyytyväisyyteensä omiin ratkaisuihinsa. Kielimaisema on sosiolingvistiikan tutkimussuunta, jossa tarkastellaan kielten esillepanoa tietyssä paikassa. Tutkimuksen kohteena ovat usein esimerkiksi katukyltit, mainosjulisteet ja infotaulut, niin julkisten kuin yksityisten tahojen tekemät. Kirjallisuuden mukaan keskeisiä ongelmia alalla on mm. tutkimusmenetelmien kehittymättömyys sekä dynaamisen näkökulman vähäisyys. Tämä tutkielma pyrkii osiltaan korjaamaan näitä puutteita. Aineisto on kerätty kyselylomakkeella sekä jatkohaastattelulla halukkaille. Lomakkeessa kysyttiin muutoksista suomen, ruotsin, englannin ja muiden kielten käytössä yrityksen sosiaalisessa mediassa. kotisivuilla, teksteissä tilojen ulkopuolella, julkisten tilojen sisäpuolella ja henkilöstötiloissa sekä yrityksen sisäisessä viestinnässä. Haastattelussa jokaista ratkaisua pyydettiin perustelemaan. Lisäksi kysyttiin erikseen koronaohjeistusta koskevista teksteistä. Sekä lomakkeessa että haastattelussa käsiteltiin myös vastaajien tyytyväisyyttä omiin kielivalintoihin. Lomakkeeseen vastasi 51 yritystä ja haastatteluihin osallistui näistä kahdeksan. Vastaukset koottiin yhteenvetotaulukoihin, joita analysoitiin pysty- ja vaakasuunnassa eri näkökulmista mahdollisimman kattavien tulosten saamiseksi. Tutkimuksesta selviää, että muutosta kielimaisemassa tapahtui suhteellisen vähän. Muutoksilla oli kuitenkin selkeä suunta: suomen kieltä lisättiin, englannin kieltä vähennettiin ja muut kielet poistettiin lähes kokonaan. Poikkeuksena oli ruotsi, joka selvästi jakoi mielipiteet yritysten kesken. Avaintekijänä yrityksen kielipäätöksiin toimi usein työntekijöiden kielitaito. Päätöksiin vaikuttivat selvästi myös toisaalta ulkomaalaisten turistien puuttuminen, toisaalta maahanmuuttajien ym. suomea osaamattomien asiakkaiden läsnäolo, joka ei ollut muuttunut. 92% vastaajista oli erittäin tai jossain määrin tyytyväisiä kieliratkaisuihinsa pandemian aikana.
  • Irwin, Joshua James (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    This thesis is not an analysis of trekking as an activity; rather it is about a specific form of tourism as a type of relationship in the world, which can affect modes being in the world. That is ethnic tourism in Pai village Mae Hong Son province Thailand. By examining so called “Hill Tribe” trekking tours as a point of inquiry into forms of touristic interaction I hope to expand on the notion that the ability to enact and manipulate various social roles opens up new channels for being in the world. The overall focus on guides who lead such tours is intended to help elaborate on the fluid nature of social roles and relations. Being at once local actors and conduits to the outside world, through their interaction with tourists, guides fill a unique role in the specialized network of relations that is modern tourism. The approach this study has towards tourism as a specialized type of encounter offers us the potential to better understand why people actively seek out encounters with other cultures, in other places This thesis attempts to develop the argument that through interaction with tourists trekking guides operating out of Pai village in Thailand sell experiences of place and people where in guides themselves come to be symbolic representations of place for their clients. As a type of commodity these experiences are the manifestations of idealized states of being which become subjectively real through interaction; when actors create one another. Through the mediation of experience and encounters trekking guides develop and enact their social role; during the physical act of guiding they come to embody a local setting as they guide tourists through space and interactions to create a local picture of reality under a foreign gaze. Tourism is approached here as a behavior or activity about forging relations between discreet groups of actors as they encounter one another in places for tourism. It is in this line of thought that I try to move away from such an analytical sphere wherein all social acts are ultimately acts of destruction, to one where we instead view human action as being about the social production of other human beings in relation to the self. The physical activity of “Hill Tribe” trekking tourism from the perspective of the tourists is seen here as a specialized type of behavior which actively produces persons through movement in space and time, and interaction with and relation to idealized others. More than anything tourism must be what it results in, a type of relationship defined by new encounters. What the tourist seeks to gain from any given encounter is an essential building block in the relational process of being which we call tourism. People acting in relation to other people with the goal of effecting particular outcomes creates shared realities, in which persons come to understand the self through its relation to others. Therefore the experiences gained through entering into the relational state of being we call tourism hold higher potentials for the active social production of relations rather than a destructive potential for social consumption when tourists and local actors become engaged in the mutual act of inter-personal creation of the other.
  • Zhang, Jialei (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    This thesis reports of a case study exploring the linguistic landscapes of four churches in Helsinki and their official websites. The aim of the study was to explore multilingualism and the status of English in the linguistic landscapes of main tourist destinations in Helsinki. In particular, the study aimed to find out how different languages, particularly English, are used in the linguistic landscape of Finnish tourism, as well as the reasons for this. Simultaneously, it explored the differences between on-site and online linguistic landscapes to find out how they affect visitors’ experiences. The data consist of photographs collected on-site in the four churches and the different language versions of the church websites. The thesis analysed the linguistic landscapes (LL) and virtual linguistic landscapes (VLL) by categorizing the collected data as monolingual or multilingual signs, as well as the appearing language order and the materiality of signs as temporary or permanent. The findings revealed that numerous languages were used in the LL and VLL, but Finnish remained the dominant language, with English, Swedish, and Russian coming in next. The number of languages on the websites was fewer than the number of languages on-site. A noteworthy discovery is that English was used more frequently than Swedish, even though Swedish is one of Finland’s national languages. English was also a common language in these churches since it was used in more temporary signs than permanent signs to transmit most of the current and up-to-date information to visitors. Based on the findings, the LL of the churches are mostly accessible to tourists, but that consistency of the signage could be thought out more thoroughly. With the increasing number of foreign tourists, more language versions of LL can be added, particularly English version, which is the world’s lingua franca. Some LL with grammatical and spelling mistakes can also be appropriately updated in order to provide visitors a better travel experience.
  • Särkkä-Tirkkonen, Anne Marjo Kaarina; Mynttinen, Sinikka; Logrén, Johanna; Rautiainen, Teija (Association for Tourism and Leisure Education and Research, 2015)
    Russians are the largest national group among tourists visiting Finland, even after the recent downturn caused by the economic situation/devaluation of the Ruble. Russian tourists in Finland spend money mainly on food, household goods, sweets and children's clothing. Thus, food is a fundamental element of the holiday experience. Finnish food products are highly valued by Russians, and, therefore, Russian tourists are an interesting target group in order to understand the perceptions of authenticity better in relation to local food as a tourism experience. Moreover, the research focused on this topic has been quite scarce so far. Foods and drinks engage all the senses and have strong connections with place, because we have personal, sensory memories of consuming them in a certain setting. It can be argued that food has an ability to recall emotions and that is why tourists often search for authentic experiences via food products. Furthermore, they buy food e.g. as souvenirs in order to relive the holiday events with family and friends at home. Among Russian tourists also cross-border food tourism is common based on perceptions of high-quality foodstuffs and authenticity of the products in their original environment. The process of forming the perception of an authentic food experience is very sensitive. An essential element in this process is trust, which is founded upon past experiences and knowledge and, at the same time, upon expectations for the future. Further, it is proposed that together with pre-contractual trust, trust in individuals and collective entities plays a role in the process of creating predictability. Thus, tourists’ perceptions of authenticity of local food are argued to relate to their trust in the food chain as a whole as well as in its actors: farmers, processors of food, restaurants, retail and the control system. This study applies qualitative methods to reach a more in-depth understanding of Russian tourists’ relations to local food during their visit to Finland, especially, their trust in its authenticity. The results show that there is an interaction between the three forms of trust and perceived authenticity of local food among Russian tourists. The perceived authenticity and trust, accordingly, seem to be based on a positive image of Finnish food throughout the post-soviet period, the institutional performance of the Finnish food system as well as one’s own and other’s experiences.
  • Pitkänen, Kati; Hannonen, Olga; Toso, Stefania; Gallent, Nick; Hamiduddin, Iqbal; Halseth, Greg; Hall, Michael C.; Müller, Dieter K.; Treivish, Andrey; Nefedova, Tatiana (Matkailututkimus, 2020)
    Matkailututkimus 16, 2 (2020)
  • Kiryluk, Halina; Glińska, Ewa; Ryciuk, Urszula; Vierikko, Kati; Rollnik-Sadowska, Ewa (Public Library of Science, 2021)
    PLoS ONE 16: 6, e0253166
    Stakeholder participation is particularly important when dealing with mobility problems in touristic remote areas, in which there is a need to find sustainable solutions to increase transport accessibility. However, the literature lacks research linking the issues of establishing stakeholder groups with the most desirable level of involvement and methods ensuring involvement on the indicated level. The aim of the paper is to fill this gap on example of project dedicated to six Baltic Sea Regions. In the first stage key stakeholder groups were identified, then different methods and tools were proposed depending on levels of engagement of given group of stakeholders on solving the problems of local mobility. Two research methods were implemented–the case study and the content analysis of documents. The results of the research point to the existence of five key groups of stakeholders interested in solving transport problems of touristic remote areas: authorities, business and service operators, residents, visitors and others (like experts and NGOs). Among the five–authorities and business representatives–should be to a higher degree engaged. However, the main conclusion is that engagement local government units, when developing their own, long-term strategies for social participation, should adapt the selection of participation methods and techniques to a specific target group and the desired level of their involvement so as to include stakeholders in the co-decision processes as effectively as possible and achieve effective regional co-management.
  • Hiippala, Tuomo (Palgrave Macmillan, 2012)
  • Todorova, Mariyana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This thesis investigates the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on tourism advertising. The analysis is focused on case-studying Iceland due to the importance of tourism for the country’s economy and due to its successful tourism marketing campaigns. The thesis aims at analyzing the appeals and visual rhetoric techniques utilized by Iceland during the COVID-19 pandemic and further comparing them the ones from 2019. The comparison to pre-COVID-19 advertising, demonstrates what is the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on Iceland’s tourism advertising. What is more the study examines whether the pandemic shapes new values and desired tourism behavior and thus fills a research gap defined by Zenker and Kock (2020). The data consists of 7 official tourism advertisements of Iceland from 2019, 2020, 2021, published on their official YouTube channel, and the website: The joyscroll. The data is presented in the form of screenshots in the appendixes of this thesis. The data is analyzed via mixed methods, incorporating qualitative content analysis (QCA) of the appeals in combination with critical visual analysis (CVA). The CVA is further focused on the three dimensions of landscape, people, and heritage. The analysis shows that there is an evident change in both the preferred advertising appeals and in the visual rhetoric techniques utilized during the COVID-19 pandemic. What is more the analysis highlights the importance of emotional appeals and humor and the formation of a new value to Icelandic tourism – mental health.
  • Lind, Alina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Due to historical and political reasons, a lot of Belarusians face a challenge regarding the understanding of their national identity. This thesis aims at analysing the ways tourism advertisements contribute to the nation’s representation to Belarusians. The study’s objectives concentrate on the formulation of the most recurring cultural representations of Belarusian nation portrayed in the advertisements and evaluation of their contribution to nation-building processes. In the following thesis, I am answering the research questions regarding the markers of cultural representation (e.g., signs, symbols) seen in tourism advertising contributing to Belarusian identity, their cultural connotations, and the differences in the representation of such symbols in governmental and private Belarusian tourist advertisements. Since the thesis is analysing Belarusian national identity features, I also provide a historical and political background of the republic since the thirteenth century. By doing so, the reader gets a comprehensive picture of the events that influenced the problem of national identity and the topicality of this issue nowadays. The data consist of 44 images and snapshots taken from Belarusian online travel resources. As a rule, these images have a direct connection to traditions, myths, and national heritage of the republic. The materials were classified according to their references to geography, leisure practices, cultural heritage, and social relationships. Such references facilitate the classification of the data and allow to identify the national identity markers in a structured way. In this research, I applied the semiology analysis method that analyses denotative and connotative meanings of an image. This method helps to identify “symbols” depicted in the tourist advertisements regarding Belarusian national identity which involves reading between the lines and understanding the historical and cultural “baggage” of the nation in question. This study demonstrated the most representative markers of cultural representation used in the tourist advertisements of Belarus, the way they “speak” to the citizens, and shape Belarusian national identity in the modern context.